Skip to main content

Full text of "The Entomologist"

See other formats


THE 

ENTOMOLOGIST 

%n  illustrate   lourual 

OF 

GENERAL    ENTOMOLOGY. 

EDITED    BY    RICHARD    SOUTH,    F.E.S. 

WITH    THE    ASSISTANCE    OF 


ROBERT   ADKIN,   F.E.S.  W.   F.   KIRBY,   F.L.S.,   F.E.S. 

W.   LUCAS   DISTANT,   F.E.S.,   &c.  G.  W.  KIRKALDY,  F.E.S. 

EDWARD  A.  FITCH,  F.L.S.,  F.E.S.  W.   J.   LUCAS,   B.A.,  F.E.S. 

F.   W.   FROHAWK,   F.E.S.  Dr.  D.   SHARP,   F.R.S.,   F.E.S.,  &c. 

MARTIN   JACOBY,   F.E.S.  G.   H.   VERRALL,   F.E.S. 


"By  mutual  confidence  and  mutual  aid 
Great  deeds  are  done  and  great  discoveries  made." 


VOLUME    THE    THIRTY-EIGHTH. 


LONDON: 

WEST,   NEWMAN   &   CO.,   54,   HATTON    GARDEN, 

SIMPKIN,    MARSHALL,    HAMILTON,    KENT   &    CO.,    Limited. 


1905.  ^70^0/ 


% 


LIST    OF    CONTRIBUTORS. 


Adkin,  Robert,  F.E.S.,  311 
Aldekson,  Miss  E.  Maude,  F.E.S.,  136 
Anderson,  Joseph,  313,  314 
Arkle,  J.,  165,  189,  290 
Bankes,  Eustace  R.,  M.A.,  F.E.S.,  162, 

275,  313 
Barrett,  C.  G.,  135 
Barrett,  J.  P.,  214,  215 
Battersby,  Francis  J.,  238 
Baumann,  R.  T.,  215 
Baxter,  T.,  281,  283 
Bell,  S.  J.,  262,  320 
Bentall,  E.  E.,  62 
Blanford,  W.  T.,  110 
Bordu,  Arthur,  260 
Bogus,  W.  A.,  26 
Brooks,  G.,   120 

Burr,  Malcolm,  B.A.,  F.E.S.,  etc.,  185 
Butler,  W.  E.,  F.E.S.,  280,  281 
Cameron,  Peter,  14,  21,  83,   105,  153, 

170,  223,  227,  249,  268 
Campion,  F.  W.,  282 
Campion,  F.  W.  &  H.,  24,  298 
Campion,  H.,  282 
Cansdale,  W.  D.,  F.E.S.,  239 
Capper,  Samuel  James,  F.E.S.,  240 
Chapman,  T.  A.,  M.D.,  F.E.S.,  1,  38,  73, 

90,  213 
Chittenden,  D.,  260 
Clarke,  A.  Lionel,  186 
Claxton,  Rev.  W.,  240 
Clutterbuck,  C.  Granville,  91,  215 
Cockerell,  Prof.  T.  D.  A.,  23,  33,  58, 

104,  111,  145,  217,  236,  237,  258,  270, 

302,  309 
Corbin,  G.  B.,  311 
Croft,  J.  A.,  27,  93 
Dadd,  E.  M.,  F.E.S.,  200,  226 
Dale,  C.  W.,  F.E.S.,  313 
Distant,  W.  L...  F.E.S.,  &c,   121,  169, 

194 

DoNCASTER,    L.,    Ill 

Drabble,  Eric,  D.Sc,  F.L.S.,  310 

Ellis,  Claude  L.,  314 

Fletcher,  T.  Bainbeigoe,  R.N.,  F.E.S., 

18 
Forsythe,  C.  H.,  86,  108,  133,  158,  180, 

185, 186,  199 
Foster,  A.  H.,  280 
Freke,  Percy  E.,  F.E.S.,  149 
Frohawk,  F.  W.,  F.E.S.,  26,  193,  283 
Fryer,  H.  F.,  F.E.S.,  125 
Fryer,  G.  C.  F.,  125 
Gentry,  E.  G.,  311 


Gibbs,  A.  E.,  F.L.S.,  79,  137,  138 
Gilles,  W.  S.,  237 
Goss,  H.,  F.L.S.,  F.E.S.,  &c,  68 
Grellet,  H.  R.,  238 
Hall,  Arthur,  228 
Harrison,  W.  B.,  96,  192 
Harvey-Jellie,  Rev.  B.,  282 
Heath,  Dr.  E.  A.,  F.L.S.,  74,  97 
Hodge,  Harold,  283 
Holland,  C.  B.,  260 
Horrell,  E.  Charles,  92 
Jackson,  R.  A.,  258 
Jeddeke-Fisher,  Cuthbert,  63 
Joy,  E.  C,  185 
Kenyon,  H.  D.,  162 
Kinder,  A.  B.,  22 
Kirby,  W.  F.,  F.L.S.,  F.E.S.,  244 
,    Kirkaldy,  G.  W.,  F.E.S.,  56,  76,  120, 

127,  173,  195,  231,  255,  304 
Knaggs,  Dr.  H.  G.,  240 
Lang,  Henry   Charles,  M.D.,   F.E.S., 

&c,  122 
I    Lathy,  Percy   I.,  F.Z.S.,  F.E.S.,  226, 

254 
Littler,  Frank  M.,  F.E.S.,  &c,  11 
Lock,  George,  161 
i    Lowe,  Rev.  Frank  E.,  M.A.,  61 
i    Lucas,  W.  J.,  B.A.,  F.E.S.,  72,  91,  111, 

178,  266,  281,  282,  283,  296,  313 
j    Lyle,  G.  T.,  25 
I    Mansbridge,     William,     F.E.S.,     116, 

289 
;    Meldola,  Prof.  R.,  F.R.S.,  F.E.S.,  90 
Miller,  J.,  260 
Morgan,  E.  D.,  92 
Morris,  J.  B.,  22 
Mutch,  J.  P.,  161 
Oldaker,  F.  A.,  64 
Page,  W.  T.,  F.Z.S.,  25,  62 
Phillips,  W.  E.,  311 
Plum,  H.  V.,  135,  185 
Prout,  Louis  B.,  F.E.S.,  6,  43 
Raynor,  Rev.  Gilbert,  22,  280 
Richards,  Percy,  25,  239 
Rollason,  W.  A.,  63,  92,  93,  94 
Rose,  Albert  F.,  M.D.,  49 
Rothschild,  Hon.  Walter,  D.Sc,  M.P., 

&c,  125 
Rowland-Brown,  H.,  M.A.,  F.E.S.,  29, 

95,  117,  140,  165,  190,  213,  241,  243, 

273,  285,  309,  318 
Sharp,  Dr.  David,  M.A.,  F.R.S.,  &c, 

161 
Sich,  Alfred,  F.E.S.,  259.  309 


LIST    OF    CONTRIBUTORS. 


SlMMOXDS,    llii;r.tui    \Y.,    F. E.S.|    187 

Smith,  W.,  91 

Sow*,  B.  .'.  B.,  F.E.S.,  Ao.,  81,  69,  96, 

LIS,  L19,  L67,  L92,  288 
Sooth,  Richard,  F.E.S.,  24,  26,  97,  89, 

61,  62,  72,  92,  94,  98,  L12,  120,  i:*7. 

140,  L49,  161,  162,  185,  218,215,  288, 
268,  264,  265,  280,  282,  288,  312 

Sv;  \ku.    K.    R,,  31  I 

Stafford,  1...  L62 

S     n     n      US      F.L.S.,    F.E  s  .   250, 

299 
S     s   1 I .  B  .  (-7.  288,  289 
Theobald,  Fred  V.M.A  .  52,  101,  142, 


Tburnall,  A..  239,  281,  310 

Tomun,  .1.  R.  i.i:  B„  31,  69,  119,  167, 

288 
Turner,  Hy.  J.,  F.E.S.,  31,  68,  96,  119, 

1 10.  166,  191,216,261,  286,  319 
\i\ ui,  Hugh  J.,  61 
Wainwright,  Colbran    J.,    F.E.S.,  70, 

120,  168,  216 
Wadlbr,  Rev.  A.  P.,  215,  283 
Whittle,  F.  G.,  289,  260 
WlGGKLSWORTH,   Robbrt  J..   71,   168 

Wtohtkan,  A.  J..  66,  :>li 
Woodbridob,  Francis  C.  161,  259 
Yoong,  S.  L.  Orford,  316 


FLA  .     - 
Stages 

..    r. 


OTOXS   IN    THE   TEXT. 


:     ■        . 

S 
T  J...".:.-:.:.".-.  J     .  S.  -:"•;.-     i^.;  .'     y.    ...:..-.: 


' 


- 
121 
: 
341 


Mf".:v.v.; 


INDEX. 


GENERAL. 


Aberration  of   Euchelia  (Hipocrita;  ja- 

cobaeae  1 1 
Abundance  of  Pieris  brassies  in  West 

Meath.  238 
A  Butterfly  Hunt  in  the  Pyrenees.  243. 

273 
Academic  Honours  conferred  on  Com. 

J.  J.  Walker,  213 
Acherontia  atropos  in  London,  260;  on 

the  Lancashire  Coast,  2^3 
JEschna  cyanea,  283  ;  mixta  in  Epping 

Fore 
A  Few  Captures  from  North  Cornwall  in 

1903.  92 
A  Guide  to  the  Study  of  British  Water- 
bugs,  173,  231 
A  New  Forest  Holiday,  314 
A   List   of    the   Macro-Lepidoptera    of 

Lancaster  and  District,  86,  108,  133. 

158,  180,  199 
An  Abbreviated  List  of  Butterflies  from 

the  South  of  France  and  Corsica.  49 
An  interesting  Melanic  Form  of  Acro- 

nycta  leporina.  28 
A  New  Genus  and  Species  of  Larridae 

from  Central  America,  21 
A  New  Genus  of  Culieidae,  52 
A  New  Genus  of  Hemitehni  from  Cape 

Colony,  24.' 
A  New  Pest  of  the  Orange,  255 
A  New  Race  of  Morpho  adonis,  Cram., 

226 
A  New  Species  of  Nodaria  from  Japan. 

74 
A  New  Stegomvia  from  the  Transvaal. 

224 
A  Note  on  some  Species  of  Prepona.  254 
Apamea  ophiogramma,  161 
Aporia  crataegi,  215 
A  Preliminary  List  of  the  Lepidoptera 

of  Malta,  18 
A  Baid  by  Nabis  limbatus,  281 

Barrett's  Lepidoptera,  135 

Bibliographical  Notes  on  the  Hemiptera, 
76,  304 

Breeding  Dragonflies  from  the  Egg,  110 

Butterflies  collected  by  Surgeon  Lam- 
bert, R.N.,  at  Valdimar  Bay.  dfcc, 
August,  1897,  122 


Butterflies  of  France. 

Campodea  staphylinus,  250.  313 
Capture-  a:  L:jL:  ::.    Cla]  bam, 

Captures  from  Wvre  Forest   in   1004. 

Catocala  frasini  in  Suffolk.  2  - 
Cerura  bicuspis  in  Lancashire.  18 
;.  theLinnean  Genus.  110.  304 
ednsa  a:  Flee;.  H      ts,  28 
Colias  edusa,  C.  hya'.-  _olke- 

ston-:    - 
Colias  edusa  reared  from  Ova  in  1904, 

22 
Collecting  Diptera  at  Light.  236 
Collecting    in    West    Cornwall    during 

1903, 1904.  93 
Cryptic  Form  and  Colouring  in  Melitaa 

Larvae.  73 
Current  Notes.  5^.  127.  195.  255 
Cymatophora  ocularis  and  Agrotis   ra- 

vida  at  Hitchin.  238 
Cymatophora  octogesima    (ocularis)   in 

Epping  Forest.  215 

Deilephila  livornica  bred  fromth 

313;  in  Cornwall.  162  :  in  Gloucester, 

1905,  186  ;    in  Wales.  162 
Descriptions  of  a  New  Genus  and  some 

New  Species  of  East  Indian  Hyrneno- 

ptera,  14 
Descriptions  of  a  New  Genus  and  Species 

of  Braconidae  from  Cape  Colony, 
Description  of  a  New  Species  of  Aradidaa 

from  Ceylon,  194 
Description  of  a  New  Species  of  Cica- 

didae,  121 
Description  of  a  New  Species  of  Gaster- 

uption  from  Cape  Colony.  227 
Description  of  a  New  Species  of  Lygaeidas 

from  South  Africa,  169 
Description  of  a  New  Species  of  Pseud- 

agenia  from  Natal.  223 
Description  of  Lyeaena  arion  pupa.  J  , 

193 
Descriptions  of  Three  New  Beetles  from 

the  Gold   Coast    and  Angola.    West 

Africa.  74 
Descriptions     of      Three     Undescribed 


VI 


INDKX. 


Genera  of  Ichncumonidac  from  Borneo, 

170 
Descriptions  of  Two  New  Aculeate  Hy- 

menoptera  from  the  Transvaal,  153 
Descriptions  of  Two  New  Beetles  from 

Angola,  97 
Dichorampha   flavidorsana,    Knaggs  = 

quaestionana,  Zell.,  240 
Dragontiy  Season  of  19U4,  178 
Dytiscids  in  the  New  Forest,  161 

Early   hybernation   of  Vanessa  urticse, 

281,  311 
Entomology  at  Barmouth,  290 
Epiblema  (Phheodes)  immundana,  F.  B., 

281,  311 
Errata,  138,  168 
Eupithecia  stevensata,  161 
Exotic  Earwigs  wanted,  185 

Gynandrous  Example  of  Lachneislanes- 
tris,  29 ;  of  Lycnena  regon,  114 ;  of 
Lycuma  icarns,  114  ;  of  Saturnia  pa- 
vonia,  29  ;  of  Smerinthus  populi,  114 

Hornet  and  Butterfly,  309 
Hybrid  Notodont,  94, 261 ;  Saturnid,117 ; 
Smerinthid,  114,  164;  Zygamid,  118 

Larva  of  Thecla  rubi  on  Dogwood,  185 
Late  Appearance  of  Colias  edusa,  25 ; 

of  Pyrameis  atalanta,  25,  62 
Late  Flight  of  Dragontiies,  313 
Lepidoptera  at  Kingston,  Surrey,  25 
Lepidoptera  at   Light   in   Beigate  and 
Dorking,  1904,  64  ;  collected  at  Clap- 
ham,  239, — in  Central  America,  228  ; 
in  Hertfordshire,  137  ;  of  the  Lincoln- 
shire Coast,  79 
Leucania  favicolor,  Barrett,  215 
Leucopheea  surinamensis,  L.,  breeding 

in  Britain,  11 1 
Leucopheea     surinamensis,     Linn.,     in 

Essex,  92 
Lictor  Cane-moth,  11 
Limacodes  testudo  in   Gloucestershire, 

215 
Limenitis  sibylla,  282 ;  in  August  ?  62 
Locusta  viridissima,  283 
London  Lepidoptera,  161 
Lucanus  cervus  at  Chichester,  313 
Lycama  bcetica  in  Cornwall,  91 
Lycffiiia  orbitulus,  Prun.,  L.,  var.  ober- 
thur,  Stgr.,  andL.  pyrenaica,  B.,  241 

Melanic  Aspilates  gilvaria,  61 

Method  of  Oviposition  by  Cordulegaster 

annulatus,  310 
Migration  of  Lepidoptera,  213,  237 
Monk's  Wood  and  Thecla  pruni,  22 
Mutilla  europaa,  283 

Neuroptera  collected  by  Dr.  T.  A.  Chap- 
man in  France  and  Spain.  296 


New  and  Little-known  American  Bees, 
145 

New  Australian  Bees  in  the  Collection 
of  the  British  Museum,  270,  302 

New  Australian  Bees  of  the  Genus  No- 
mia,  217 

New  Culicidffi  from  the  West  Coast  of 
Africa,  101,  154 

New  Species  of  Hymenoptera(Aculeata, 
Ichneumonidas,  and  Braconida')  from 
India,  83,  105 

New  Work  on  British  Butterflies,  312 

Noctua  at  Hartlepool,  282 

Note  on  Second  Emergences,  259 

Note  on  Haworth's  Type-specimen  of 
"Noctua  subfusca,"  161 

Notes  from  Australia,  186  ;  Essex,  260  ; 
the  Chester  District  for  1904,  163, 
187 ;  Surrey,  239 ;  on  Agrotis  puta,135 ; 
on  Coleoptera  in  South-west  Surrey, 
26,  93 ;  on  Larva  of  Nyssia  lappo- 
naria,  and  Orgyia  antiqua,  237 ;  on 
Lepidoptera  in  1904,  125 ;  on  Odo- 
nata,  91 ;  on  Some  Stephensian  types 
of  Tortricina  in  the  National  Collec- 
tion, 98  ;  on  the  Wave  Moths  (Genus 
Acidalia),  6,  48;  on  the  Season  1905, 
258  ;  on  Tortrix  podana,  135 ;  on  Zan- 
clognatha  grisealis,  185 

Notodonta  dromedarius  (Second  Brood) 
at  Beading,  280 

Obituary  : — 

Barrett,  Charles  Golding,  32 

Beaumont,  Alfred,  120 

Packard,  Alpheus  Spring,  143 

Batley,  A.  U.,  144 

Johnson,  W.,  240 

Quail,  Ambrose,  264 

Douglas,  John  William,  264 

Warne,  Norman  Dalziel,  288 
Odonata  in  Herts,  1905,  314 
On  a  Small  Collection  of  Anthophorid 

Bees  from  Colorado,  58 
On  Late  Broods  of  Lepidoptera,  280 
On  the  dark  form  of  Ischnura  elegans 

(female),  298 
Orthoptera  in  1904,  266 
Ova  of  Butterflies  wanted,  1S5 

Papilio  steinbachii,  125 

Pararge  achine  on  the  Mendel,  60;  me- 

gasra,  282 
Partial  Second  Brood  of  Pseudoterpna 

bajularia,  259 ;    of    Spilosoma   men- 

thastri,  311 
Phalonia    (Argyrolepia)    badiana,    Hb., 

213,  275,  309 
Phtheochroa  (Commophila)  rugosana  in 

Surrey,  214,  239 
Plusia  bractaaa  in  Selkirk,  238 
Plusia    moneta     in     Lewisham,    260  ; 

(Second  Brood)  at  Beading,  281 
Preoccupied  Names  in  Coleoptera,  104 


INDEX. 


Vll 


Preponderance  of  Females  in  Autum- 
nal Broods,  280 

Prolonged  Pupal  Stage  of  Emmelesia 
unifasciata,  310 

Pupation  of  Catoclysta  lemnata,  90 ;  of 
Smerinthus  tiliae,  258 

Pygasra  pigra  in  Surrey,  27,  62 

■Recent  Literature: — 

Catalogue  of  Lepidoptera,  by  F.  Lowe, 

31 
New  Dragonfly  Nymphs  in  the  United 

States  National  Museum,  by  J.  G. 

Needham,  71 
The  Labium  of  the  Odonata,  by  Hor- 

tense  Butler,  71 
The  Skewness  of  the  Thorax  in  the 

Odonata,  by  J.    G.   Needham  and 

Maude  H.  Anthony,  71 
The  Phasmida1  or  Walking-sticks  of 

the  United  States,  by  A.  N.  Caudell, 

71 
An  Orthopterous  Leaf-roller,  7 
Oviposition  and  Carnivorous  Habits 

of  the  Meadow  Green  Grasshopper, 

by  J.  L.  Hancock,  72 
The  Leaf-hopper  of  the  Sugar-cane, 

by  R.  C.  L.  Perkins,  72 
Suppression  and  Control  of  the  Plague 

of  Buffalo  Gnats  in   the  Valley  of 

the   Lower    Mississippi   River,    by 

F.  M.  Webster,  72 
The    Common    Mosquitoes    of    New 

Jersey,  by  John  B.  Smith,  72. 
Who's  Who  ?,  72 
Analytische  Uebersicht  der   paluark- 

tischen  Lepidopternfamilien,  by  C. 

V.  Hormuzaki,  72 
Ants  and  some  other  Insects,  by  Dr. 

August  Forel,  72 
A  Treatise  on  the  Acarina  or  Mites,  by 

Nathan  Banks,  72 
Entomologisches  Jahrbuch,  by  Oskar 

Krancher,  72 
The  Mosquitoes  or  Culicida?  of  New 

York  State,  by  G.  P.  Felt,  110 
Report  on  the  Mosquitoes  occurring 

within   the    State   of   New  Jersey, 

their  Habits,  Life-history,  <Src,  by 

John  B.  Smith,  141 
A  Monograph  of  the  Anopheles  Mos- 
quitoes of  India,  by  S.  P.  James, 

141 
Twenty-eighth    Annual    Report    and 

Proceedings  of  the  Lancashire  and 

Cheshire  Entomological  Society,  142 
Entomologen  Adressbuch,  143 
Proceedings  of  the  South  London  En- 
tomological   and    Natural   History 

Society  for  1904-5,  192 
A  Catalogue  of  the  Erycinidre,  by  Levi 

W.  Mengel,  262 
A   Catalogue  of   the  Lepidoptera  of 

Northumberland,      Durham,     and 


Newcastle-upon-Tyne,  by  John  E. 
Robson,  263 

The  Insects  of  Jethou,  the  Insects  of 
Herm,  and  the  Fauna  and  Flora  of 
the  Sarnian  Islands,  263 

Transactions  of  the  Hertfordshire 
Natural  History  Society  and  Field 
Club,  263 

Transactions  of  the  City  of  London 
Entomological  and  Natural  History 
Society  for  the  year  1904,  26:5 

Report  of  the  Work  of   the  Experi- 
ment Station  of  the  Hawaiian  Sugar 
Planters'  Association,  by  R.  C.  L. 
Perkins,  288 
Reports  of  Societies  : — 

Birmingham  Entomological,  69,  168, 
192,  216 

City  of  London  Entomological  and 
Natural  History,  261,  319 

Entomological  Club,  140,  162 

Entomological  of  London,  27,  67,  94, 
116,  138,  165,  189,  284,  316 

Hawaiian  Entomological,  120 

Lancashire  and  Cheshire  Entomo- 
logical, 31,  68,  96,  119,  166,  191, 
286 

Manchester  Entomological,  70,  167 

South    London    Entomological    and 
Natural  History,  29,  68,  95,  117, 
140,  165,  190,  216,  260,  285,  318 
Rhopalocera  at  Barcelona,  Montserrat, 

and  Vernet-les-Bains,  250,  277,  299 
Rhopalocera  pahearctica,  282 

Season  of  1904,  63 

Second  Broods  of  Lepidoptera,  260,  281 

Selenia  lunaria  in  the  Lancaster  Dis- 
trict, 186 

Sirex  gigas  at  Chichester,  314  ;  juvencus 
in  Edinburgh,  283 

Some  Australian  Halictine  Bees  in  the 
British  Museum,  33 

Some  Tasmanian  Case-bearing  Lepido- 
ptera, 11 

Species  of  Plusia  visit  flowers  of  Stachys, 
25 

Sphinx  (Agrius)  convolvuli  in  Hamp- 
shire, 24 ;  convolvuli  at  Bournemouth, 
260  ;  in  South-west  London,  314 

Stray  Notes  on  Aculeates,  149 

Supplementary  List  of  the  Lepidoptera 
of  the  Island  of  Capri,  82 

Synaposematic  Hymenoptera  and  Di- 
ptera,  117 

Teratological  Specimen  of  Hybernia  de- 
foliaria,  22 

The  Day  Collection,  238 

The  Earlier  Stages  of  Cataclysta  lem- 
nata, L.,  1,  38 

The  Entomological  Club,  61,  213 

The  Entomological  Collections  of  the 
Oxford  University  Museum,  23 


Vlll 


INDKX. 


The  Habits  of  A.silidffl,  236 

The  Depidoptera  of  Berlin,  '200,  220 

The  Mason  Collection,  112,  136,  162 

The  Nairn-  Aldriohia,  236 

The  National  Collection  of  British  Lepi 

doptera,  61,  213 
The  Noctuid  Genus  Ala,  23 
The  Hose  Scale,  309 
The   Time    of   Appearance   of   Lepido- 

ptera  in  conjunction  with  Season  and 

Latitude,  90 
Tort  rices  in  the  Liverpool  District,  115 

Unusual  Dates,  92 

Vanessa  antiopa  in  Middlesex,  283 ;  in 

Norfolk,    283;    in   Suffolk,    283;    in 

Surrey,  91 
Varieties  :-— 

Abraxas  grossulariata,  119 

Acidalia  aversata,  163  ;  inornata,  29 

Acronycta  leporina,  289 

Aglais  urtioffl,  285 

Anthrocera  filipendulss,  29 

Apleota  nebulosa,  187 

Iporophyla  australis,  30 

Arctia  caia.  117.  136 

Argynnis  aglaia,  29,  111 ;  euphrosyne, 
ill;  paphia,  111 ;  selene,  114 

Aspilates  gilvaria,  01 

Boarmia  gemmaria,  286  ;  repandata, 
163 ;  rhomboidaria,  163 

Biston  hirtaria,  189 

Callimorpha  dominula,  130 


Calynmia  trape/.ina,  29 
Chrysophanus  phlceas,  114,  320 
Cleora  glabraria,  3D,  286 
Ccenonympha  pamphilus,  319 
Colias  edusa,  2",);  hyale,  29 
Cupido  minima,  286 
Dianthcecia  capsincola,  29 
Epinephele  ianira,  29,  114;  tithonus, 

114 
Euchelia  jacobrea\  185,  216 
Euchloe  cardamines,  114 
Eupithecia  rectangulata,  239 
Euthemonia  russula,  30 
Forfioula  auricularia,  317 
Heleconius  silvana,  317 
Laclineis  lanestris,  29 
Lyciena  corydon,  202 
Melitaea  athalia,  27  ;  cinxia,  30 
Nemeobius  lucina,  114 
Ortholitha  plumbaria,  204 
Polyommatus  corydon.  286 
Pyrameis  atalanta,  29 
Sarrothripus  revayana,  114 
Satnrnia  pavonia,  28 
Satyrus  seniele,  114 
Spilosoma  menthastri,  30,  136,  311 
Syrichthus  malvse,  28 
Zonosoma  pendularia,  29 

Wasps  with  Butterfly,  282 
Western  Smerinthids,  111 

Xylina  semibrunnea  in  Reigate,  314 


INSTRUCTIONS  to  BINDER.— The  SPECIAL  INDEX,  given  with 
the  'Entomologist'  for  January,  1906,  belong' s  to  this  Volume,  and 
should  be  placed  next  to  this  General  Index. 


SPECIAL      INDEX. 


New  Genera,  Sjiecies,  and  Varieties  are  marked  with  an  asterisk. 


COLEOPTERA. 


aedilis  (Acanthocinus),  287 
ffinea  (Triplex),  119 
feruginosus  (Longitarsus),  119 
aethiops  (Pterostichus),  26 
Agathidium,  318 
Alexia,  104 

anale  (Sinoxylon),  167 
Anodon, 104 
anthobia  (Amara),  139 
aquaticus  (Xotiophilus),  26 
armata  (Strangalia),  26 
arvensis  (Spergula),  286 
arietis  (Clytus),  93 
Asenum,  192 
atrata  (Silpha),  93 
atricapillus  (Bolitobius),  93 
aurata  (Cetonia),  26 
barnevillei  (Malachnis),  95,  119 
betulae  (Omophlus),  189 
bicolor  (Triplax),  119 
bifasciatum  (Rhagiurn),  168 
biguttatus  (Notiophilus),  26 
bimaculatus  (Hister),  27 
'biplagiata  (Prosopocera),  75 
bipustulatus  (Agabus),  93 
bipustulatus  (Spha?ridium),  93 
bipunctata  (Coccinella),  27 
bissexstriatus  (Hister),  137 
blandus  (Otiorrhynchus),  287 
brevicollis  (Xebria),  27 
bruchoides  (Rhinoncus),  286 
burchelli  (Haplothorax),  28 
cacicus  (Goliathus),  167 
caligatus  (Paederus),  26 
campestris  (Cicindela),  26 
caraboides  (Melandrya),  69 
cardinalis  (Vedalia),  131 
castaneum  (Tetropium),  28 
castaneus  (Medon),  165 
cerasi  (orsodacna),  287 
cervus  (Lucanus),  26 
chalceus  (Pogonus),  27 
chlorocephala  (Lebia),  165 
chrysostigma  (Chrysobothris),  167 
clypealis  (Hydrovatus),  161 
clypeatus  (Telephorus),  27 
ccerulea  (CEdemera),  27 
coriarius  (Prionus),  26 

Entom.  Vol.  xxxviii.  1905. 


consanguinea  (Homalota),  137 
contractus  (Ceuthorrhynchns),  284 
Coryphus,  104 
crassipes  (Atherix),  27 
cyanocephala  (Lebia;,  165 
cynoglossi  (Dibolia),  287 
discolor  (Donacia),  287 
*distanti  (Ophryodera),  97 
distinguenda  (Melanopthalma),  284 
druryi  (Goliathus),  167 
dytiscoides  (Platydema),  168 
Eriocephalus,  192 

erythrocephalus  (Xeoclytus),  138,  166 
exigua  (Oxypoda),  116 
*exitiosus  (Oxycarenus),  169 
familiaris  (Amara),  27,  139 
femorata  (Oncomera),  93 
ferrea  (Stenostola),  69 
fimetarius  (Aphodius),  26 
flavipes  (Cercyon),  93 
fossor  (Clivina),  27 
foveolatus  (Claviger),  93 
fowleri  (Dacne),  31S 
fraxini  (Hylesinus),  167 
fuliginosus  (Ilybius),  93 
fulgidus  (Xantholinus),  -2fi 
fulva  (Armara),  27 
gentilei  (Anophthalmus),  2S7 
gibbus  (Zabrus),  93 
giganteus  (Goliathus),  167 
giganteus  (Titanus),  30 
gracilipes  (Anchomenus),  119 
granaria  (Oligota  .  '.'4 
grandis  (Anthonomus),  131 
graniceps  (l^hycoctus),  285 
granulatus  (Carabus),  26 
haemorrhoidalis  (Athous),  27 
hagensi  (Dinarda),  287 
hermanni  (Pelobius),  161 
hieroglyphica  (Coccinella',  137 
horticola  (Phyllopertha),  26 
humator  (Necrophorus),  26 
humeralis  (Dacne),  318 
intricatus  (Carabus),  93 
insularis  (Stenus),  284 
*jordani  (Plectrogaster),  76 
lsevigata  (Timarcha).  26 
laavigatum  (Apion),  316 

b 


MIO  M-Q 


INDEX. 


*lanei  (Zographus),  74 
latus  (Deronectes),  161 
linearis  (Cossonus),  27 
longicornis  (Quedius),  287 
lucida  (Amara),  27,  139 
lunatus  (Callistus),  93 
luriclipennis  (Psylliodes).  284,  287 
lutosus  (Bagous),  119 
madidus  (Pterostiehus),  26 
mandibularis  (Acrognathus),  189 
marginata  (Stenellina),  101 
marginalis  (Dytiscus),  93,  166 
marginatus  (Malthodes),  26 
maurus  (Otiorrhynchus),  287 
maxillosus  (Creophilus),  26 
melipoma  (Megalopus),  139 
meridianus  (Toxotus),  93 
niinuta  (Myllama),  137 
monilis  (Carabus),  26 
monilis  (Lcemophilus),  318 
mortuorum  (Necrophorus),  26 
moschata  (Arorniai,  20 
mucronata  (Blaps),  26 
natator  (Gyrinus),  93 
navale  (Lymexylon),  284 
nigriceps  (Cercyon),  137 
nigrina  (Oxypoda),  116 
nigrita  (Pterostiehus),  93 
nigroc»ruleus  (Quedius),  28,  119 
nobilis  (Gnorirnus),  189 
noctiluca  (Lampyris),  27 
obliquus  (Haliplus),  93 
ocellata  (Coccinella).  27 
ocellarus  (Dinoderus),  165 
olens  (Ocypus),  26 
orichaleia  (Chrysomela),  69 
ossiurn  (Stenusi.  284 
ovatus  (Hyphydrus),  93 
palustris  (Hydroporus),  93 
palustris  (Notiophilus),  93 
pallipes  (Ceuthorrhynchus),  284 
paradoxus  (Metoecus),  69 
parallelopipedus  (Dorcus),  26 
parumpunctatus  (Anchomenus),  287 
pectinicornis  (Plectrogaster),  76 
pectoralis  (Anoplognathus),  186 
pertinax  (Anobium),  93 
peruviana  (Dermestes),  119 
piceus  (Hydrophilus),  287 
pini  (Bruchus),  69 
polita  (Chrysomela),  93 
pomonse  (Apion),  93 
potentilla?  (Sibinia),  286 
primita  (Sibinia),  286 
proscarabfeus  (Meloe),93,  166 


pubescens  (Leptura),  167 
purnilio  (Placusa),  137 
pusillus  (Adrastus),  287 
quadripustulatum  (Bembidium),  119 
reppensis  (Hyperaspis),  287 
rostraius  (Cychrus),  26 
"rothschildi  (Prosopocera),  98 
rufifrons  (Dacne),  318 
rufimanus  (Bruchus),  69 
rufocincta  (Amara),  69 
rugosa  (Silpha),  93 
russica  (Triplax),  119 
sabulicola  (Harpalus),  137 
sagax  (Spilonotella),  104 
sagax  (Spilonota),  104 
sanguinolenta  (Chrysomela),  287 
sericea  (Oxypoda),  116 
sepicola  (Tropideres),  68 
septempunctata  (Coccinella),  27 
sericatus  (Catops),  137 
serricornis  (Prionocyphon),  318 
solstitialis(Rhizotrogus),  26 
sparsus  (Orchestes),  27 
Sphondylia,  104 
spinibarbis  (Leistus),  93 
Stenella,  104 

stephensi  (Illaphanus),  285 
stercorarius  (Geotrupes),  26 
strenuus  (Pterostiehus),  93 
striata  (Helops),  116 
striatus  (Helops),  118,  167 
striola  (Pterostiehus),  26 
sulcatum  (Aulonium),  119 
sulcatus  (Acilius),  93 
sulcipennis  (Phycoctus),  2S5 
sutor  (Monohammus),  2S7 
suturalis  (Cordylomera),  284,  320 
suturalis  (Lochma?a),  189 
sycophana  (Calosoma),  IIS 
sylvaticus  (Geotrupes),  93 
tardus  (Pelobius),  93 
tectus  (Ptinus),  287 
tessellatum  (Xestobium),  27 
typhffius  (Geotrupes),  26 
variabilis  (Coccinella).  27 
vernalis  (Geotrupes),  26 
versicolor  (Pterostiehus),  26 
villosus  (Balaninus),  26 
violaceus  (Carabus).  26 
violaceus  (Meloe),  93 
violaceum  (Callidium),  168 
virescens  (CEdemera),  119 
vulgaris  (Melolontha),  26 
vulgaris  (Pterostiehus),  26 


INDEX. 


XI 


DIPTERA. 


abdominalis  (Ospriocerus),  236 
*alboannulatus  (JEdimorphus),  154 
alboannulata  (Anisocheleornyia),  54 
albolineata  (Danielsial,  104 
ampelophila  (Drosophila),  198 
*  Anisocheleornyia,  52 
*austenii  (Pyretophorus),  102 
bellus  (Tanypus),  236 
carnaria  (Sarcophaga),  150 
choreus  (Tanypus).  236 
cornicina  (Lucilia),  152 
creticus  (Culex),  158 
cynipsea  (Sepsis),  152 
devius  (Micrododon),  284 
f alias  (Cynorrhina),  284 
fasciata  (Stegomyia),  225 
fatigans  (Culex),  158 
ferruginea  (Hamrnerschmidtia),  284 
fusca  (Gossina),  288 
Heptaphleboniyia,  156 
hirsutipalpis  (Culex),  156 
inquinatus  (Stenopogon),  236 
latifrons  (Micrododon),  284 


modestus  (Chironomus),  236 
monilis  (Tanypus),  236 
nigripes  (Anopheles),  102 
nigrita  (Ptilops),  168 
*nivipes  (Anisocheleornyia),  52 
palpalis  (Glossinai.  288 
paludosa  (Tipula),  282 
pilipes  (HydrotaBa),  116 
pygrna'a  (Uranotaenia),  54 
rusticus  (Machimus),  95 
scsevoides  (Chamaesyophus),  284 
sexpunctata  (Psychoda),  165 
simplex  (Heptaphleboniyia),  157 
'simpsoni  (Stegomyia).  224 
*smithii  (Anopheles),  101 
splendiia  (Lonchasa),  198 
talpaa  (Hystrichopsylla).  165 
tenuis  (Tany tarsus),  236 
tuberculata  (Hydrotaea),  116 
Uranotaenia,  52 
*wellmanii  (Danielsia),  103 
xanthodes  (Tephrites),  198 


HEMLPTEEA. 


Acanthia,  110 
aeneus  (Eysarcoris),  286 
Aphelocheirus,  173 
auratus  (Ellampus),  120 
australis  (Antonina),  256 
australis  (Hydrometra),  256 
avenaj  (Siphocoryne).  132 
brevipennis  (Nabis),  285 
Callidea,  78 
Calliphora,  78 
campestris  (Liburnia),  130 
canalium  (Gerris),  177 
Cephalocleus,  79 
cerealis  (Macrosiphum),  132 
Cimex,  110,  304 

cimicoides  (Ilyocoris),  173,  177,  178 
cimicoides  (Naucoris),  174,  177 
cimicoides  (Nepa).  174 
Clinocoris,  77,  110 
corticalis  (Phylloxera),  197 
Corythuea,  195 
costs  (Gerris),  177 
crassipes  (Berytus),  318 
Daktulosphaira,  79 
divinator  (Perithous),  120 
divisa  (Dryophanta),  120 
Embolophora,  79 
fecundatrix  (Andricus),  120 
femorata  (Pelocoris),  174 
festuca  (Eriopeltis),  285 
fragariella  (Siphonophora),  309 
fragariellum  (Macrosiphum),  309 
fluminea  (Belostoma),  175 
geoffroyi  (Corixia),  232 


gibbifera  (Gerris),  177 
glauca  (Notonecta),  177 
Gonianotus,  79 
granaria  (Macrosiphum  i,  132 
'greeni  (Aneurus),  194 
hesperideana  (Leucanium).  31 
hieroglyphica  (Arctocorisa),  232 
histrionica  (Murgantia),  130 
indica  (Amorgius),  175 
Klinophilos,  76 

lantaniae  (Cerataphis),  196,  198 
lateralis  (Arctocorisa),  232 
lateralis  (Gerris),  177 
lacustris  (Gerris),  177 
laeustris  (Pygolampis),  174 
Leucaniodiaspis,  78 
Leucanodiaspis,  78 
lectularius  (Cimex),  77,  110 
Legnotus,  79 
lemana  (Sigara),  235 
lenticularis  (Neuroterus),  120 
lethifer  iPemphredon),  120 
limbatus  (Nabis),  281 
lineata  (Hydrometra),  255 
lutea  (-Notonecta).  132 
lutulenta  (Liburnia),  130 
Macrocephalus,  79 
maculata  (Naucoris),  178 
mali  (Aphis),  132 
Macrothyreus,  79 
martini  (Hydrometra),  256 
melanocephalus  (Eysarcoris),  286 
mercenaria  (Arctocorisa),  232,  233 
meridionalis  (Sigara),  235 

h  2 


Xll 


INDEX. 


minuta  (Sigara),  235 
minutissinia  (Micronecta),  235 
montancloni  (Aphelocheirus),  17S 
naias  (Gerris),  177 
Naucorinus   79,  309 
naucoris  (Nepa),  174 
nigrolineata  (Arctocorisa),  232 
odontogaster  (Gerris),  177 
Odontopus,  79 
pe-la  (Ericerus),  128 
perniciosus  (Aspidiotus),  130 
Philia,  78 

Phloeophthiridium,  79 
pilicornis  (Drymus),  318 
poweri  (Sigara),  235 
Probergrothius,  79 
pruni  (Coccus),  78 


pygmaea  (Microvelia),  173 
Khizophthiridium,  79 
rosae  (Aulacaspis),  309 
rufoscutellata  (Gerris),  177 
saccbaricaulis  (Aspidiotus),  7 
salicis  (Cbionaspis),  256 
scbillingii  (Chorosoma),  261 
Scbicedtia,  79 
schoitzii  (Micronecta),  235 
senator  (Schicedtia),  79 
septendecirn  (Tibicen),  130 
striata  (Coriza),  232 
sylvestris  (Drymus),  318 
thoracica  (Gerris),  177 
trifolii  (Macrosiphum),  132 
"vestita  (Ga>ana),  121 
viridis  (Tetigonia),  198 


HYMENOPTERA. 


abdominalis  (Corynura),  34 

*Acantbopryrnnus,  249 

ffinea  (Nomia),  222 

feruginosus  (Agaposteruon),  34 

agilis  (Corynura),  35 

agilis  (Melissodes),  145 

agrorum  (Bombus),  151 

alternata  (Nomada),  152 

*annulicornis  (Spilichnenmon),  85 

*apicate  (Anomalon),  106 

arbanus  (Halictus),  272 

ardens  (Crabro),  16 

argentatus  (Crabro),  15 

argentifrons  (Nomia),  220 

arvensis  (Mellinus),  151,  152 

aspasia  (Augochlora),  37 

aspasia  (Halticus),  37 

assamensis  (Cerceris),  269 

australica  (Nomia),  221 

austrovagans  (Nomia),  218 

barbara  (Atta),  96 

belfragei  (Synhalonia),  147 

bellus  (Crabro),  15 

bicingulatus  (Halictus),  272,  302,  303 

bicolor  (Gonotopus),  130 

bituberculata  (Megaloptera),  35 

bomboides  (Anthophora),  35 

briseis  (Augochlora),  35 

briseis  (Corynura),  35 

calliope  (Megaloptera),  36 

cephalotes  (GEcodoma),  96 

Chartergus,  22 

Chloralictus,  37 

cnici  (Melissodes),  146 

*Co3nostoma,  171 

"coxalis  (Spiliclmeumon),  105 

cuprifrons  (Megaloptera),  36 

*darupieri  (Halictus),  270 

dentiventris,  (Melissodes),  146 

dentiventris  (Nomia),  221 

dilecta  (Synhalonia),  148 

*Dinocryptus,  170 

discolor  (Corynura),  34 


*doddii  (Nomia),  222 

*Echthrus,  171 

edwardsii  (Synhalonia),  147 

elegans  (Nomia),  223 

"elizeus  (Iphiaulax),  107 

elongata  (Coslioxys),  68 

*elvinus  (Crabro),  14 

"erythrozonus  (Cratichneumon),  105 

euops  (Anthophora),  58,  60 

europaea  (Mutilla),  283 

*excavatus  (Cryptus).  84 

familiaris  (Halictus),  304 

fasciatus  (Heriades),  317 

festivaga  (Augochlora),  37 

filicornis  (Ccenostoma),  172 

flava  (Formica),  93 

rlavoplagiata  (Crabro),  16 

flavoviridis  (Nomia),  222 

rlindersi  (Halictus),  271 

rloralis  (Halictus),  271 

floris  (Melissodes),  145 

frater  (Synhalonia^,  147 

furcata  (Schizocera),  216 

fusca  (Formica),  96 

generosa  (Nomia),  217 

germanica  (Vespa),  149 

gibbus  (Pompilus),  151 

*gilesi  (Halictus),  273,  302 

gillettei  (Synhalonia),  148 

globosus  (Halictus),  303,  304 

gohrmana  (Anthophora),  59,  60 

hero  (Pompilus),  17 

himalayensis  (Cerceris),  S4,  269 

hirsutus  (Tachvtes),  153 

'Holcalysia,  268 

Hoplonomia,  218 

*humei  (Halictus),  273,  302,  303 

"hypodonta  (Nomia),  220 

*Icuma,  21 

idalia  (Megaloptera),  36 

inclinans  (Halictus),  272 

incognitus  (Pompilus),  17 

janthina  (Megaloptera),  36 


INDEX. 


XU1 


johnsoni  (Emphoropsis),  58 

jucunda  (Corynura),  34 

kollari  (Cynips),  27 

lsetatorius  (Bassus),  224 

lanuginosus  (Halictus),  273,  302,  304 

lapidarus  (Bombus),  151 

*lauta  (Perdita),  145 

•lepidota  (Nomia),  218 

limatus  (Halictus),  272 

*lissocephalus  (Gasteruption),  227 

livida  (Tenthredo),  216 

*luculentus  (Cryptus),  85 

•lutea  (Phalega),  170 

lysias  (Crabro),  15 

mandarina  (Vespa),  167 

marginalis  (Corynura),  34 

mentzelire  (Perdita),  145 

mentzeliarum  (Perdita),  145 

*menyllus  (Crabro),  15 

metallica  (Nomia),  269 

minutula  (Andrena),  152 

mcerens  (Nomia),  217 

montana  (Antbophora),  58,  60 

moricei  (Panurgus),  317 

murrayi  (Halictus),  272 

mucida  (Emphoropsis),  58,  59 

mysops  (Melissodes),  146 

nana  (Augochlora),  37 

nanus  (Halictus),  37 

nasidens  (Odynerus),  21 

nasutus  (Agapostemon),  34 

*natalensis  (Pseudagenia),  223 

neomexicana  (Anthophora),  58 

*niger  (Dinocryptus),  171 

niger  (Lasius),  96 

nigrofemorata  (Megaloptera),  36 

norvegica  (Vespa),  149 

Nyxeophilus,  171 

odontophorus  (Crabro),  16 

opulenta  (Nomia),  223 

orbatus  (Halictus),  303 

ornata  (Megalopta),  35,  36 

*orodes  (Anoplius),  17 

*oxleyi  (Halictus),  272,  302,  303 

pallidior  (Perdita),  45 

pedestrius  (Pompilus),  17 

*Phalega,  170 

pilosa  (Megaloptera),  36 

Plesiozethus,  269 

portene  (Anthophora),  58,  60 

posticus  (Odynerus),  153 

pseudobaccha  (Corynura),  34 


Psithyrus,  151 

pulchribalteata  (Nomia),  218 

punjabensis  (Iphiaulax),  107 

purpurata  (Megaloptera),  35 

reginse  (Nomia),  221 

reprsesentans  (Halictus),  273,  302,  304 

*reticulatus  (Diodonatus),  83 

rhopalocera  (Agapostemon),  34 

*roseoviridis  (Paracolletes),  270 

rothneyi  (Pompilus),  17 

rubicundus  (Halictus),  152 

*rubroviridis  (Nomia),  223 

rufa  (Formica),  96,  168 

rufa  (Vespa),  149 

rufocornis  (Nomia),  217 

*rufocognata  (Nomia),  219 

ruginodis  (Myrmica),  96 

sanguinea  (Formica),  96,  256 

"semipallida  (Nomia),  220 

*serieea  (Icuma),  21 

sicheli  (Agapostemon),  34 

silvaensis  (Odyneurus),  153 

*simlamsis  (Cerceris),  83 

'smenus  (Iphiaulax),  107 

smithella  (Nomia),  217 

speciosa  (Synhalonia),  148 

striolatus  (Diodonatus),  83 

*subagilis  (Melissodes),  145 

sulphurea  (Crabro),  16 

sylvestris  (Vespa),  149 

tenuihirta  (Nomia),  219 

terrestris  (Bombus),  151 

*territella  (Synhalonia),  146 

*testaceipes  (Holcalysia),  269 

titania  (Auglochlora),  35 

Torbda,  171 

transvaalensis  (Tachytes),  153 

trimmerana  (Andrena),  152 

tristis  (Anasa),  255,  256 

tristis  (Crabro),  16 

trutta  (Synhalonia),  147 

vaalensis  (Odynerus),  153 

*violaceipennis  (Acanthoprymnus),  250 

vischnu  (Pompilus),  17 

vivax  (Megaloptera),  36 

vivax  (Pompilus),  17 

vulgaris  (Vespa),  149,  151 

willeyi  (Nomia),  269 

wilkella  (Andrena),  151 

Zethoides,  269 

zonata  (Anthophora),  223 


LEPIDOPTERA. 


abbreviata  (Eupithecia),  184 
abbreviata  (Tephroclystia),  184 
abietaria  (Boarmia),  216,  318 
abietella  (Dioryctria),  82 
abruptaria  (Hemerophila),  29,<35,  67, 182 
abscondita  (Acronycta),  205,  208 
acacias  (Thecla),  52,  244,  274 
acauda  (Papilio),  140 


Acentropus,  1,  2 

aceriana  (Gypsonoma),  218 

aceriana  (Hedya),  281 

aceris  (Acronycta),  64,  65,  66,  257,  319 

achillie  (Zygsena),  210 

achinoides  (Pararge),  124 

achine  (Pararge),  60,  124,  275 

Acidalia,  6,  8,  9,  47 


XIV 


INDEX. 


acis  (Lycaena),  113 

acroleuca  (Lymnas),  230 

actaaa  (Satyrus),  275 

actaaon  (Adopaa),  209,  275 

actaaon  (Hesperia),  315 

adaaquata  (Larentia),  202 

adelopsis  (Xysiuatodoma),  13 

adippe  (Argynnis),  87,  274,  295 

admetus  (Lycaena),  52 

adonis  (Lycaana),  63 

adonis  (Morpho),  139,  22G 

adrasta  (Pararge),  274,  300 

adusta  (Hadena),  205 

adusta  (Pararge),  279 

adustata  (Ligdia),  94 

advenaria  (Epione),  203,  261,  315 

advena  (Aplecta),  69,  168 

advena  (Mamestra),  205,  208 

aageria  (Pararge),  278 

aegon  (Lycaana),  52,  88,  93,  226,  301,  315 

aarnulana  (Catoptria),  115 

aascularia  (Anisopteryx),  183 

aesculi  (Thecla),  251,  274,  301 

aathiops  (Erebia),  30,  87,  226,  286 

affinis  (Calymnia),  66 

affinis  (Danais),  86 

affinitata  (Emmelesia),  94,  183,  292 

agathina  (Agrotis),  70,  287 

agestis  (Lycaana),  87,  88,  92,  123,  207, 

209,  274,  294,  315 
aglaia  (Argynnis),  29 
agrippina  (Thysania),  231 
Ala,  23 

albicillata  (Melanthia),  184,  204,  292 
albicolon  (Mamestra),  80,  205,  207 
albimacula  (Dianthoecia),  216 
albipuncta  (Leu.),  207,  208,  227,  287,  319 
albitarsella  (Coleophora),  285 
albulata  (Emmelesia),  183 
alchemillata  (Em.),  63,  64,  92,  93,  94,  183 
alcaaaa  (Carcharodus),  274,  301 
alcon  (Lycama),  207,  273.  274 
alciphron  (Chrysoph.),  206,  274,300,  301 
alcyone  (Satyrus),  209,  226,  244,  274,  301 
alcyonipennella  (Coleophora),  285 
alecto  (Erebia),  139,  275 
alexanor  (Papilio),  49,  274 
algaa  (Bryophila),  208 
aliena  (Mamestra),  205,  208 
allionia  (Satyrus),  51,  274 
alniaria  (Ennomos),  65,  181 
alternata  (Conchylis),  127 
alternata  (Macaria),  227 
alternata  (Semiothisa),  204 
althaaaa  (Carcharodus),  245,  274 
alveus  (Hesperia),  207,  245,  274,  301 
amanda  (Lycama),  206,  211 
amandus  (Lycaana),  207,  245,  274,  301 
amata  (Timandra),  8,  204 
ambigua  (Caradrina),  209,  227 
ambrosa  (Chloridea),  258 
americus  (Papilio),  229 
amurensis  (Chrysophanus),  124 
amurensis  (Leptidia),  123 


anachoreta  (Pygaara),  70 

anargyra  (Argynnis),  50 

andreniformis  (Sesia),  114 

andromache  (Acraaa),  186 

angularia  (Ennomos),  67,  181,  227 

angustana  (Eupceciha),  116 

angustea  (Scoparia),  137 

Ania,  8 

anomala  (Stilbia),  163 

antiopa  (Vanessa),  70,  91,  112,  212,  227, 

229,  274,  283 
antiqua  (Orgyia),  108,  237 
apiciaria  (Epione),  93,  181 
apollo  (Parnassius),  246,  248,  274,  300 
aprilina  (Agriopis),  160 
aprilina  (Dichonia),  227 
aquilina  (Agrotis),  80,  134 
arbuti  (Heliodes),  93 
arbuti  (Heliacea),  180 
arcania    (Ccanonympha),    51,  207,    209, 

253,  274,  278,  279,  301 
arcuosa  (Miana),  287 
arete  (Epinephele),  95,  319 
archippus  (Danais),  186 
areola  (Xylocampa),  65,  160 
arethusa  (Satyrus),  274 
argentea  (Cucullia),  201 
argentina  (Spatalia),  207 
argentula  (Bankia),  207 
argiades  (Lycaana),  52,  245,  274,  301 
argillacea  (Aletia),  131 
argiolus  (Cyaniris),  52,  82,  90,  191,  203, 

227,  244,  262,  274,  286,  301 
argiolus  (Lye  ),  63,  90,  185,  251,  259,  315 
argus(Lyc), 52,  93,211, 226,  253, 279, 301 
argyrognomon  (Lycaana),  124,  274,  284 
arion  (Lye),  113,  193,  209,  240,  274 
aristaaus  (Satyrus),  51 
armiyera  (Heliothis),  93,  258 
artemisiaa  (Cucullia),  201 
artemisiella  (Coleophora),  260 
arundinis  (Nonagria),  64,  133,  294 
asellaria  (Acidalia),  18 
asellaria  (Psychopoda),  46 
asclepius  (Papilio),  228 
ashworthii  (Agrotis),  30,  61,  165,  287 
aspersana  (Peronea),  115 
associata  (Cidaria)  199,  212 
asteris  (Cucullia),  260,  291 
Asthena,  6 
astrarche  (Lycaana),   52,  93,    207,   251, 

252,  274,  279, 301 

atalanta  (Pyrameis),  25,  29,  30,  62,  87, 

117,  229,  253,  259,  274,  294,  301, 309 
atalanta  (Vanessa),  163 
atergatis  (Lycorea),  230 
athalia  (Melitaea),  27,  73,  207,  209,  251, 

253,  274,  278,  279,  301 
atlantis  (Ageronia),  229 
atomaria  (Ematurga),  182 
atraria  (Aspilates),  214 
atrata  (Odezia),  212 
atrata  (Tanagra),  199,  292 
atriplicis  (Hadena),  287 


INDEX. 


XV 


atripliois  (Trachea),  206,  208 

atropos  (Acheromia),  88,  113,  260,  283 

atropos  (Manduca),  113 

augur  (Noctua),  134 

aurago  (Xanthia),  65,  66 

aurantiaria  (Hybernia),  25,  183 

auratus  (Ghrysophanus),  12-4 

aureola  (Lithosia),  205 

aurelia  (Melitaa),  207,  209 

auricoma  (Acronycta),  200,  20S,  227 

aurtflua  (Euproctis),  211 

auriflua  (Liparis),  292 

aurirlua  (Porthesia),  259 

aurinia  (Melitsea),  50,  206,  251,  252,  263, 

275,  295,  317 
aurora  (Colias),  123 
auroraria  (Hyria),  199,  315 
ausonia  (Euchloe),  251,  274 
australis  (Aporophila),  30,  93 
australis  (Doleschalia),  187 
autumnaria  (Ennomos),  227 
aversata  (Acidalia),  67, 163,  200,  292,  319 
aversata  (Ptychopoda),  10 
badiaua  (Argyrolepia),  213,  275 
badiaua  (Phalonia;,  213,  275,  309 
badiata  (Anticlea),  184 
badiella  (Depressaria),  127 
badiipennella  (Coleophora),  285 
baja  (Noctua),  93,  134,  208,  227,  292 
bajularia  (I'seudoterpna),  259,  315 
baltica  (Hadena),  205 
bankesiella  (Anerastia),  287 
barbalis  (Pechipogon),  204 
basilinea  (Apamea),  66 
basiliuea  (Hadena),  207 
batis  (Thyatira),  93,  109,  315 
baton  (Lycsena),  274 
belgiaria  (Scodiona),  182 
belia  (Euchloe),  49,  251,  274 
bellargus  (Lye),  253,  274,  279,  301,  319 
bellezina  (Euchloe),  274 
bellidice  (Pieris),  49 
bembeciformis  (Troch.),  126,  167 
bergmanniana  (Dictyopteryx),  115 
berolinensis  (Zygama),  210 
betulae  (Salebria),  293 
betulse  (Zephyrus),  88,  275 
betularia  (Amphidasys),  30,  67, 115,  116, 

181,  187,  188 
bianor  (Papilio),  122 
biarcuana  (Ancylis),  164 
bicolor  (Leucodonta),  136 
bicolorana  (Hylophila),  92,  207 
bicolorata  (Melanthia),  184,  292 
bicoloria  (Miana),  208 
bicostella  (Pleurota),  164 
bicuspis  (Cerura),  136,  186,  201 
bidentata  (Odont.),  65, 181, 188,  261,  287 
bifasciata  (Perizoma),  310 
bifida  (Cerura),  66,  109 
bifida  (Dicranura),  63 
bilineata  (Camptogramma),  IS,  184,  292 
bilineata  (Larentia),  18 
bilunana  (Padisca),  116 


bilunaria  (Selenia),  181 

binaria  (Drepana),  204,  314 

bipunctaria  (Eubolia),  30,  210,  283 

bipunctaria   (Ortholitha),  210 

bipunctidactyla  (Xlirnses.),  164 

bipunctidactyla  (Stenoptilia),  20 

bisetata  (Acidalia),  81,  93,  199,  209,  292 

biundularia  (Tephrosia),  182 

blanda  (Caradrina),  93 

blumei  (Papilio),  118 

Boarmia,  7 

bcetica  (Lycajna),  91,  92 

bosticus  (Lampides),  245,  273,  274 

bombyliformis  (Heruaris),  89,  206 

bombyliformis  (Macroglossa),  295 

boreata  (Cheimatobia),  25,  183 

bractea  (Plusiah  26,  238 

brassicas  (Pieris),  25,  238,  259,  274,  300 

brassies  (Mamestra),  65,  66,  292 

briseis  (Satyrus),  244,  274 

brooksiana  (Prepona),  254 

brumata  (Cheimatobia),  96,  183,  192 

brunnea  (Noctua),  66,  134 

brunneata  (Halia),  202 

bucephala  (Phalera),  65,  109,  204,  259 

buckleyana  (Prepona),  255 

cacalia;  (Hesperia),  275 

caecimacula  (Ammoconia),  227 

cseruleocephala  (Diloba),  25,  40,  65 

Cffisiata  (Larentia),  183,  212 

effisonia  (Meganostoma),  216 

casstrum  (Hypopta),  82 

caia  (Arctia),  29,  64,  89,  117,  164,  212 

c-album  (Grapta),  211,  227 

c-album  (Polygonia),  274,  279,  301 

c-album  (Vanessa),  63 

caiida  (Lycama),  52 

calidella  (Ephestia),  19 

callidice  (Pieris),  249,  274 

callidryas  (Ana;a),  230 

callunre  (Lasiocampa),  69 

cambricaria  (Venusia),  7,  263 

camelina  i  Lophopteryx),  65, 109, 207, 262 

Camilla  (Limenitis),  253,  274,  279,  301 

candalarum  (Agrotis),  205 

candidata  (Asthena),  6,  199 

candidulana  (Catoptria),  260 

canescens  (Polia),  82 

canigulensis  (Melan.),244,  274,  301,  317 

cantenerella  (Bradyrrhoa),  19 

capaneus  (Papilio),  187 

capsincola  (Dianthcecia),  29 

capsophila  (Dianthcecia),  94 

captiuncula  (Phothedes),  134 

carbonariella  (Phycis),  119 

cardamines  (Euchloe),  63,  86,  114,  202, 

274,  279,  295,  300,  319 
cardui  (Pyrameis),  25,  87,  94,  212,  251, 

262,  274,  287,  301 
cardui  (Vanessa),  93,  163,  237,  282 
carniohca  (Zygama),  210 
carnus  (Hepialus),  108,  163 
carpinata  (Lobophorai,  184 
carpinata  (Larentia),  202 


XVI 


INDEX. 


carpini  (Saturnia),  292 

carthami  (Hesperia),  210,  274,  279,  301 

cassiuea  (Asteroscopus),  25 

cassiope  (Erebia),  248,  274 

castigata  (Eupithecia),  93,  183,  292 

castrensis  (Malacosoma),  210 

caudana  (llhacodia),  285 

cecrops  (Protogonius),  230 

celerio  (Chicrocampa),  88, 113 

celsia  (Nsenia),  227 

celtis  (Libythea),  246,  275 

ceinbra?  (Scoparia),  292 

cenea  (Papilio),  28 

centaureata  (Eupithecia),  93 

cerago  (Xanthia),  159,  287 

cerisyi  (Smerinthus),  111 

cerri  (Thecla),  57 

cervinata  (Eubolia),  199 

eespitis  (Luperina),  63,  209,  314 

cespitis  (Epineuronia),  227 

cespitana  (Sericoris),  115 

ckffirophyllata  (Tanagra),  199,  292 

chalcytes  (Plusia),  18 

charaomilla  (Cucullia),  214,  287 

chaonia  (Drymonia),  206 

charitonia  (Heliconius),  229 

chenopodii  (Hadena),  66 

chenopodii  (Mamestra),  259 

chi  (Polia),  30,  160,  292 

chlamitulalis  (Nola),  82 

chlorana  (Earias),  66 
chrysantheana  (Cnephasia),  99 

chrysantbemi  (Zygama),  114 

chryseis  (Chrysophanus),  113 

chrysidiformis  (.Egeria),  261 

chrysidiformis  (Sesia),  261 

chrysitis  (Plusia),  26,  66,  68,  180,  209, 
238,  292,  314 

chrysippus  (Limnas),  139 

chrysorrhoea  (Euproctis),  211 

chrysori'hoDa  (Porthesia),  260 

cinctaria  (Boavmia),  202 

cinerea  (Agrotis),  63,  205 

cinxia  (Melitea),  30,73,206,253,275,301 

circe  (Satyrus),  51,  246 

citrago  (Xanthia),  64,  65,  227 

citraria  (Aspilates),  18 

clara  (Aruea),  230 

clathrata  (Strenia),  8,  182,  202 

cleobis  (Lycama),  124 

cleodippe  (Argynnis),  123 

cleopatra   (Gonepteryx),  190,  246,  251, 
253,  274 

clytie  (Apatura),  207,  275 

c-nigrum  (Agrotis),  208,  227 

c-nigrum  (Noctua),  134 

ccenia  (Junonia),  229 

cceuosa  (Lrelia),  136 

collina  (Agrotis),  212 

comes  (Tripruena),  158 

comitata  (Pelurga),  199,  259 

comma  (Augiades),  203,  207,  274 

comma  (Hesperia),  64 

comma  (Leucania),  110,  208,  292 


comma  (Urbicola),  312 
comma-notata  (Cidaria),  93 
complana  (Lithosia),  80,  208 
complanula  (Lithosia),  292 
contiietella  (Cebysa),  11 
conformis  (Xylina),  160 
conigera  (Leucania),  30,  65,  208,  293 
consonaria  (Tephrosia),  165,  182,  204 
consortaria  (Boarmia),  165,  206 
conspicillaris  (Xylomyges),  82,  287 
constrictella  (Eupithecia),  183 
contaminana  (Teras),  115 
contigua  (Hadena),  261,  291,  293 
contigua  (Mamestra),  206,  208 
contiguaria  (Acidalia),  287 
contiguaria  (Ptychopoda),  48 
conversaria  (Boarmia),  29 
convexella  (Heterographis),  19 
convolvuli  (Agrius),  24,  29 
convolvuli    (Sphinx),    24,   88,  13S,  163, 

168,  214,  260,  293,  314 
cordula  (Satyrus),  275 
coretas  (Lycama),  52,  301 
coridon  (Lycama),  301 

Corsica  (Lycaena),  52 

corticana  (Penthina),  115 

corticea  (Agrotis),  161,  213 

coronata  (Eupithecia),  202 

corydon    (Lycama),  88,    129,   201,   210, 
251,  262,  274,  286 

corydon  (Polyommatus),  30 

corylana  (Tortrix),  115 

corylata  (Cidaria),  185,  204 

coryli  (Deraas),  63,  109,  205,  314 

Cosmorhoe,  8 

cossus  (Cossusj,  19 

cossus  (Trypanus),  19 

costovata  (Melanippe),  320 

crabroniformis  (Trochilium),  89 

Craspedia,  47 

cratregata  (Rumia),  92,  181 

cratiegi  (Aporia),  57,  144,  215,  253,  273, 
274,  278,  279,  300 

crenata  (Glyphisa),  136 

crepuscularia  (Tephrosia),  182,  202 

cribrum  (Coscinia),  211 

cristana  (Peronea),  262 

cruciana  (Hypermecia),  115 

cruciferarum  (Plutella),  20 

cubicularis  (Caradrina),  293 

cucubali  (Dianthcecia),  160,  208,  287 

cucullata  (Anticleai,  46,  64 

cucullatella  (Nola),  89 

culmellus  (Crambus),  292 

cuprealis  (Aglossa),  68,  126 

cursoria  (Agrotis),  134 

curtula  (Pygffira),  109 

cydno  (Heliconius),  30 

cyllarus  (I.ycsna),  52,  209,  275,  301 

cytherea  (Cerigo),  293 

cytisaria  (Pseudoterpna),  200,  292,  318 

cypris  (Morpho),  119,  230 

dahlii  (Noctua),  63 

damon  (Lycrena),  129,  275 


INDEX. 


XV11 


daphne  (Argynnis),  50,  123,  244,  274 

daplidice  (Pieris),  49,  112,  251,  253,  274 

davus  (Coenonympha),  96,  285,  319 

deceptaria  (Erastria),  203 

decolorata  (Emmelesia),  163,  183,  292 

defoliaria  (Hybernia),  22,  25,  94, 117,  183 

degeneraria  (Acidalia),  212,  317 

deione  (Melitrea),  244,  274,  301 

deiphile  (Prepona) ,  254 

demialba  (Adelpha),  230 

dentina  (Hadena),  160,  208 

deplana  (Lithosia),  64,  319 

Depressaria,  20 

derasa  (Habrosyne),  92,  93 

derasa  (Thyatira),  65,  109,  292,  315 

derivalis  (Herminia),  292 

desfontainii  (Melitaa),  317 

designata  (Coremia),  184 

designata  (Larentia),  203 

despecta  (Coenobia),  126 

deversaria  (Acidalia),  209 

dia  (Argynnis),  207 

dictaa  (Notodonta) ,  63,  109 

dicta?a  (Pheosia),  65,  109 

dictffioides  ( Pheosia),  64,  65,  66 

dictynna  (Melitaea),  207,  244,249,  274,301 

didyma  (Aparaea),  65,  161 

didyma  (Mel.),  73,  207,  209,  274,  279,  301 

didymata  (Larentia),  183 

diluta  (Asphalia),  293 

dilutata  (Oporabia),  183 

dilutaria  (Acidalia),  25,  163,  285 

dilutaria  (Ptychopoda),  45 

dimidiata  (Acidalia),  82,  199 

dimidiata  (Ptychopoda),  43,  45 

diniensis  (Leptidia),  123,  274 

dipsacea  (Heliothis),  315 

dispar  (Chrysophanus),  113,  124,  207 

dispar  (Liparis),  70 

dispar  (Lymantria),  211 

dispar  (Ocneria),  285 

dissimilis  (Hadena),  160 

dissimilis  (Mamestra),  206,  207,  208,  227 

ditrapezium  (Noctua),  291 

dolobraria  (Eurymene),  63,  64,  181,  315 

dominula(Callimorpha),  69,136,318,319 

dorilis  (Chrysophanus),  203,  204,  274 

dorus  (Ccenonympha),  51,  275 

dotata  (Cidaria),  199,  292 

dotata  (Lygris),  199 

doubledayaria  (Amphi.),  65,  67,  116, 181 

dromedarius    (Notodonta),  63,  94,  109, 

207,  261,  280 
dromus  (Erebia),  248,  274 
dryas  (Satyrus),  124,  273,  274 
dubitana  (Eupcecilia),  116 
dubitata  (Triphosa),  184,  204 
dumerili  (Luperina),  136 
dumetana  (Tortrix),  115 

duplaris  (Cymatophora),  66,  92,  93, 109, 

208,  315 
duponcheli  (Leptidia),  49 
duponcheliana  (Phtheochroa),  20 
ectypana  (Tortrix),  292 


edusa  (Colias),  22,  25,  29,  50,  86,  90,  92, 

93,  94,  116,  140,  216,  251,  253,  274, 

27'.),  283,  300 
egaajeus  (Papilio),  186 
egea  (Polygonia),  50 
egeria  (Pararge),  25,  29,  63,  87,  251,  253, 

274,  278,  282,  294,  319 
electra  (Colias),  216 
eleus  (Chrysophanus),  31,  52,  274 
elinguaria  (Crocallis),  181,  292 
elisa  (Argynnis),  50 
ellops  (Zaretes),  230 
elpenor  (Chcerocampa),  64,  320 
elutata  (Hypsi.),  30,  67,  92,  163,  184,  292 
elva  (Microtia),  229 
elymi  (Tapinostola),  80,  282 
emargana  (Khacodia),  285 
emarginata  (Acidalia),  8,  207,  209 
emortualis  (Zanclognatha),  209 
emutaria  (Leptomeris),  46 
enagoras  (Papilio),  254 
encelades  (Papilio),  140 
Eois,  7,  9 
Ephyra,  7 

ephialtes  (Zygasna),  210 
epistrophis  (Morpho),  168 
erate  (Colias),  216 
ericetaria  (Selidosema),  182 
erinnys  (Erebia),  247 
eros  (Lycasna),  249,  274 
erosaria  (Ennomos),  65,  66 
erythrocephala  (Orrhodia),  202,  227 
escheri  (Lycaena),  251,  253,  274,  279,  301 
estreyeriana  (Epiblema),  312 
eubule  (Catopsilia),  230 
eumedon  (Lycaena),  207,  275 
eumene  (Mesosemia),  94 
euphemus  (Lycaena),  124 
eupheno  (Euchloe),  246 
euphenoides    (Euchloe),  49,   245,    251, 

253,  274 
euphorbia?  (Deilephila),  69,  113 
euphorbiata  (Minoa) ,  63 
euphrosyne  (Argynnis),  274,  279,  301 
Eupithecia,  69 
euryale  (Erebia),  212,  274 
eurytheme  (Colias),  216 
evajous  (Talmenes),  186 
evias  (Erebia),  28,  31,  51,  245,  274,  301 
exanthemata  (Leptomeris),  6 
exanthemata  (Cabera),  182 
excfficatus  (Calasymbolus),  111 
exiguata  (Eupithecia),  93,  184 
expallidana  (Catoptria),  100,  287 
exoleta  (Calocampa),  160,  202,  227 
extersaria  (Acidalia),  82 
extersaria  (Boarmia),  207 
extranea  (Leucania),  287 
exulans  (Zygama),  114 
fagi  (Stauropus),  64,  66,  259 
falcataria  (Drepana),  108,  204 
falcula  (Platypteryx),  63 
farinalis  (Pyralis),  20 
farinata  (Lithostege),  205 


XV111 


INDEX. 


Easoiana  (Erastria),  207 
Easoiaria  (Ellopia),  L81,  188,  315 
Easoiunoula  (MianaJ,  66,  314 
Eavioolor  (Leucania),  215,  287 
Eeisthamelii  (Papilio),  278,  300 
Eentoni  (Nodaria),  7  i 
Eerrugahs  (Pionea),  20 
Eerrugata  (Ooremia),  l^J.  292 
Eerrugata  (Larentia),  203,  "204 
fervida  (Phragmatobia),  19 
[estiva  (Nootua),  L34,  287,  291 
Eestucre  (Plusia),  80, 180,  209..291 
fidia  (Satyrus),  51,  275 
filicata  (Acidalia),  IS 
filigrammaria  (Oporabia),  183 
filipendulse  (Anthrocera),  29 
filipendubs  (Zygama),  114,  118,  293,319 
fimbria  (Triphsena),  65,  66,  293 
fimbria  (Agrotis),  208 
fimbrialis  (Thaler a),  226 
firmata  (Thera),  lv^ 
flammealis  (Endotricha),  294 
flavago  (£anthia),  159 
flavella  (Depressaria),  127 
flavioinota  (Polia),  93 
fiavicinctata  (Larentia),  183 
flavicornis  (Asphalia),  r>4.  202 
fiavidorsana  (Dichrorampha),  240 
flexula  (Aventia),  64,  209 
lioralis  (Noctuella),  20 
riuctuata  (Larentia 
.fluctuate  (Melanippe),  <;7.  184,  320 
fontis  (Bomolocha),  205 

belia),  20 
fbrmiciformis  (Sesia),  126 

.  ta  (Tortrix),  115,  135,  292 
Eraxini  227    28 

Erequentella  (Scoparia),  292 
fritillum  (Hesperia),  274 
Euciformis  (Hema    -     B 
foliginosa  19,  64,  89 

fuliginosa  (Spilosoma),  64,  89 

.    rapmostola),  133.  208,  227.  287 
- 
fulvago  (Xanthiah  65,  159 
fulvata  (Cidaria 
fuinata  (Acidalia).  8.  200.  203 
faniata  (Leptomeris),  18 
funerella  (Anesychia),  127 
:a  (Xylina),  202,  227 
fureula  (Dicranurai.  63,  109 

.  10','.  209.  2i32.  320 

furuneula  (Miana     134,  299 
-        .  133,  208 

:  iscata    B  LIS 

108 
roseola 

137 
irgia      ' '.       2,  21       274 

301.     U 

.  210 


galiata  (Melanippe),  93,  137,  184,  210 

galii  (Deilephila),  88,  113 

gamma  (Plusia),  18,  20,  163,  ISO 

garleppiana  (Prepona),  254 

gaudialis  (Chlosyne),  229 

gelon  (Papilio),  140 

gemmaria  (Boarmia),  182,  286 

gemina  (Apamea),  65 

gemina  (Hadena),  208 

geniinipuncta  (Nonagria),  201 

genista?  (Hadena),  65,  203,  214 

genista  (Mamestra),  207 

gilvago  (Xanthia),  66 

gilvaria  (Aspilates),  18,  61 

glabra  (Orrhodia),  227 

glabraria  (Cleora),  30,  94,  286,  315 

glacialis  (Erebia),  139,  247,  275,  316 

glareosa  (Noctua),  63.  134,  160 

glaucata  (Colix),  64,  109 

glaucicolella  (Coleophora),  285 

glyphica  (Euchlidia),  ISO.  190 

gouostigrna  (Orgyia),  63,  70 

goossensiata  (Eupithecia),  227 

gordius  (Chrysophanus),  300 

gorge  (Erebia),  247,  274,  316 

gorgone  (Erebia),  247,  274,  316 

gothicina  (Tseniocampa),  159 

gracilis  (Tamiocanipa),  202,  286 

grammica  (Coscinia),  19 

grarnmica  (Emydia),  136 

graminis  (Char.Eis),  81,  133,  227 

granella  (Tinea),  137 

grisealis  (Zanclognatha),  180,  185 

griseola  (Lithosia),  207 

grossulariata  (Abraxas),  30,  64,  182,  188, 

262,  2-7 
grossulariata  (Spilote),  262 
gryphipennella  (Coleophora ).  261 
gueneei  (Lnperina),  136 
halirnede  (Melanargia),  124 
harpagula  (Drepana).  136 
hastiana  (Acalla),  164 
hastiana  (Peroneal.  30,  2>7 
hastata  (Larentia),  203 
hastata  (Melanippe),  184 
haworthii  (Cela&nai.  134,  227 
bectus  (Hepialus),  64.  315 
helice  (Colias),  29,  112.  116,  140 
hellmanni  (Tapinostola).  208 
helvola  (Orthosia),  159,  227 
helvola  (Anehoeelisi.  203 
heparata  i  i  203 

herbariata  (Acidalia),  ^2 
herbida  (Agrotis).  315 
hermione    -  j74 

hessii  (Nonagria),  319 
.  117 
-.  95 

-     . 
hippoeastanaria  (Pachycnemiai.  315 
hippocrepidis  (ZygsBna),  118 
hippopl  a  .  113 

hippothoe  i Chrysophanus ),  124.  274 
hirtaria  (Bisl  S7    Lfi      . 


INDEX. 


XIX 


hispidus  (Heliophobus),  318 

hispulla  (Epinephele),  51,  '2-57,  271,  278, 

279,  301 
hospiton  (Papilio),  19 
humiliata  (Acidalia),  216 
humiliata  (Ptychopoda).  16 
huniuli  (Hepialus),  61, 108 
hyale  (Colias),  25,  29.  50,  123.  216,  226, 

274,  300 
hybridus  (Smeriuthus).  127 
hyemana  (Tortricodes),  HG 
hyerana  (Hastula),  118,  190 
hygiasa  (Vanessa),  70 
hylas  (Lycama),  211.  215 
hyperanthus  (Aphautopus).  87.  95.  121. 

259,  301 
hyperanthus  (Epinep.).  95,  271.  279,  319 
hyperia  (Chlosyne),  229 
hypericana  (Catoptera),  81 
ianira  (Epinephele),  25,  29,  61,  316 
ianthina  (Triphana).  61,  65,  66,  158,208 
ianthina  (Agrotis).  208 
iberica  (MelitsEa),  251,  252,  317 
icarus  (Lycsena),25, 210. 251,  252.261,301 
ichueumoniforniis  (Sesia),  210 
ichnusa  (Vanessa),  50 
ictericana  (Cnephasia),  20 
ictericana  (Sphaleroptera)  81,  116 
ida  (Epinephele),  51.  211,  251,  275 
ide  (Sideronei.  230 
ignobilis  (CEceticus),  11,  13 

ilia  (Apatura),  206 

ilicifolia  (Epinaptera),  136 

ilicifolia  (Gastropacha).  136 

ilicis  (Thecla),  51.  211.  251,  253.  271.275. 
301 

illuruinatella  (Argyresthia),  281.  286 

iliunaria  (Selenia),  166.  181 

imbutata  (Anaitisl,  120.  199 

imitaria  (Acidalia),  80.  2-7.  2:<2.  315 

imitaria  (Leptomeris),  In 

immaculata  (Argynnis),  50 

immanata  (Cidaria),  30,  199 

immorata  (Acidalia),  8,  201 

immorata  (Leptomeris) ,  16 

immundana  (Epiblema),  281,  311 

imniutata  (Acidalia),  8,  199,  201,  212 

inipudens  (Leucania),  20S 

impura  (Leucania),  65.  80,  110,  208 

inachis  (Kallima),  190 

incarnatus  (Spilonota),  115 

incanana  (Cnephasia),  98 

incanaria  (Acidalia).  285 

incanata  (Leptomeris  i.  10 

iocerta  (Tasniocampa),  207 

indigenata  (Eucrostes),  18 

innotata  (Eupithecia),  201 

ino  (Argynnis),  207 

inopiana  (Ephippiphora).  127 

inornata  (Ptychopoda),  13,  11 

insignis  (Clothilda),  229 

instabilis  ( 1  seniocampa),  65 

interjectaria  (Ptychopoda).  8,  10,  ii 

interjecta  (Tri.),  66,  80,  92,  93,  110,  158 


intermedia  (Erebia),  271.  316 

intermedia  (Erebia),  215,  316 

interrogationis  (Plusia).  26,  180 

io  (Vanessai.31.  -7. 163. 168, 203,  227.  301 

iota  (Plusia).  26,     '    30,11   !,  180,  238 

iphigenia  (Hypena),  230 

iphis  (Ccenonympha),  275 

iphis  (Ccenonympha),  207.  2 

iris  (Apatura),  70,  110.  207,  216,  285,  316 

irroreila  (Setina),  63,  21" 

isabellse  (Graellsia\  216 

jacobffiffi   (Eucheliai.  S9,   185,  211.  216, 

237.  265 
jacobaeae  (Eupocrita<.  89,  265,  267 
jasius  (Charaxes),  50 
jasoniata  (Eupithecia).  210 
jaspidea  (Xamia),  227 
juniperata  (Theral,  181 
jurtina    (Epinephele),   29,    30,  51.  209, 

251.  271.  278,  301 
karwinskii  i  Smyrna),  230 
kershawii  (Vanessa).  186 
lacertinaria  (Drepana).  108,  2  6 
lachesis  (Mel.),  51,  211.  271.  278,  301,  317 
lactearia  (Thalera),  65,  200 
lactearia  (Iodis),  200,  315 
lacteella  (Endrosis).  161 
lavis  (Orthosia).  227 
1-album  (Leucania),  208 
lancealis  (Perinephele),  291 
lanceolana  (Bactrai,  100 
lanestris  (Eriogaster),  108.  120.  2-7 
lanestris  (Lachneis),  29 
laodice  (Argynnis),  121 
lappona  (Erebiaj,  215.  248,  271 
lapponaria  Nyssia),  69.  168,  216,  237 
lariciata  ( Eupithecia  ),  I  I 
laripennella  (Coleophora).  285 
latefasciata  (Limenitis),  123 
latenai  (Mamestrai.  2  6 
lateritia  (Hadena>.  '.   - 
lathona   Argynnis 

lathonia,  207,  209,  227.  274.  279,  301 
latonia  (Argynnis),  112,  226 
lathyrus  (Leptidia),  19 
latreillellus  (Nemotois),  2  i 
lavatera?  (Carcharodus),  21^.  274 
*leechi  (Nodaria),  71 
lefebvrei   (Erebia),   245,  217,  248,   271, 

301,  316 
lemnata  (Cataclysta).  1.  38,  42,  90 
leosthenes  (Papilio).  187 
leporina  (Acronvcta),  96.  Iu9,  206,  208, 

2-7.  289 
Leptomeris,  6.  8,  17 
leucophaa  (Mamestra),  2  5 
leucophsa  (Pachetra).  2-7 
leucophaaria  (Hybernia),  183,  202 
levana  (Araschma).  2>j7 
lewinii  (Clania),  11,  13 
libatrix  (Gonoptera).  65.  180 
lichenaria  (Boarmiai,  209 
lichenaria  (Cleora),  SO,  287,  315 
lidderdalii  (Bhutanitis),  31 


XX 


INDEX. 


lienigianus  (Leioptilus),  191 

ligea  (Erebia),  212 

ligniperda  (Cossus),  19,  61,  66,  208,  315 

ligula  (Orrhodia),  125,  159 

ligustri  (Acronycta),  110,  291,  315 

ligustri  (Craniophora),  110 

ligustri  (Sphinx),  64 

limitata  (Eubolia),  199 

limitata  (Ortholitha),  210 

limoniella  (Goniodoma),  285 

lirnosipennella  (Coleophora),  285 

linariata  (Eupithecia),  183 

linariata  (Tephroclystis),  183 

linea  (Adopaea),  120 

liuea  (Hesperia),  92 

lineago  (Xanthia),  227 

lineola  (Adopaea),  120,  207,  271 

lineola  (Hesperia),  226 

1-nigrum  (Laria),  206 

linogrisea  (Agrotis),  205,  208 

liria  (Ectima),  230 

literbsa  (Miana),  80,  93,  131 

liturata(Mac),  182, 188, 262, 285, 287, 315 

liturata  (Semiothisa),  209 

litura  (Orthosia),  159,  227 

liturella  (Depressaria),  161 

lithargyria  (Leucania),  61,  65,  110 

lithoxylea  (Xylophasia),  65,  160 

lividalis  (Hypena),  18 

livormca  (Deilephila),  137  162,  186,  313 

lixella  (Coleophora),  285 

lobulata  (Lobophora)  181 

longana  (Cnephasia),  20 

lonicerae  (Zygasna),  209 

lota  (Orthosia),  94,  159 

lubricipeda  (Spilosoma),  64,  90 

luciua  (Nemeobius),  63,  88,  275,  295 

leucostigma  (Hydroecia),  208 

luctuosa  (Acontia),  63,  65,  136,  210,  214 

lucernea  (Agrotis),  210,  320 

lunaria  (Selenia),  181,  186 

lunaris  (Ophiodes),  191,  207 

lunigera  (Agrotis),  70,  94,  136 

lunosa  (Orthosia),  65 

lunula  (Calophasia),  82 

lupulinus  (Hepialus),  108 

luridata  (Boarmia),  204 

luridata  (Tephrosia),  205 

lurideolata  (Lithosia),  89 

lutea  (Xanthia),  227 

lutealis  (Scopula),  292 

luteata  (Asthena),  6,  64,  199,  203,  204 

luteolata  (Bumia),  181 

lutescens  (Phytometra),  213 

lutosa  (Nonagria),  282 

lutulenta  (Epunda),  65 

lutulenta  (Aporophyla),  227 

lycaon  (Epinephele),  211,  226 

lychnitis  (Cucullia),  191 

lycidas  (Lycaena),  248,  275 

lyllus  (Coenonympha),  51 

lyside  (Kricogonia),  229 

machoeralis  (Pyrausta),  198 


machaon   (Papilio),  122,  251,  274,  278, 

282,  300,  320 
macilenta  (Orthosia),  65,  159 
macleayana  (Papilio),  139 
macularia  (Mesene),  230 
rnacularia  (Venilia),  181 
maculata  (Venilia),  231 
maculipennis  (Plutella),  20 
maera  (Pararge),  211,  212,  253,  274,  301 
magnella  (Lepidoscia),  12,  14 
major  (Morpha),  226 
malvffi  (Hesperia),  203,  254,  301 
malva;  (Syrichthus),  29,  63,  261,  275 
manto  (Erebia),  275 
margaritaria  (Metrocampa),  181 
marginata  (Lomaspilis),  183 
marginaria  (Hybernia),  29,  96,  118,  183 
rnarginepunctata  (Acidalia),  209,  214 
marginepunctata  (Leptomeris),  10,  43 
maritima  (Senta),  126,  201 
matura  (Cerigo),  65,  80 
maura  (Mania),  65,  66,  70,  158,  286,  291 
medesieaste  (Thais),  244,  274,  278,  300 
medon  (Lycaena),  93 
rnegrera  (Pararge),  51,  87,  211,  251,  252, 

274,  282,  295,  301 
rnegacephala  (Acronycta),  65,  109,  208 
melanocephala  (Acronycta),  289 
melanocephalum  (Trochilium),  206 
melanops  (Lycaena),  52,  94,  226,  275 
meleager  (Lycaena),  52 
melas  (Erebia),  205,  280,  301 
melete  (Pieris),  123 
meliloti  (Zygaena),  207 
memnon  (Caligo),  230 
mendica  (Spilosoma),  89 
mensurana  (Eubolia),  199 
menthastri  (Spilosoma),  64,  90,  259,  311 
menyanthidis  (Aero.),  110,  206,  226,  227 
meridionalis  (Melanargia),  124 
mesomella  (Cybosia),  89,  210 
mesomella  (Lithosia),  315 
meticulosa  (Brotolomia),  227 
metirius  (Hypocysta),  139,  187 
metis  (Apatura),  275 
mexicana  (Eurema),  229 
mi  (Euclidia),  180 
miata  (Cidaria),  183 
micacea  (Hydroecia),  65,  133,  211,  314 
milleri  (Caradrina),  205.  209 
milhauseri  (Hoplitis),  82,  200,  209 
miniata  (Calligenia),  287,  315 
minima  (Lye),  63,  88, 117,  201,  211,  286 
minimus  (Lycaena),  274 
ministrana  (Tortrix),  115 
minorata  (Larentia),  212 
minutata  (Eupithecia),  184 
minutata  (Tephroclystia),  184 
misippus  (IJypolimnas),  117 
mnemosyne  (Parnassius),  274,  280 
modesta  (Pachysphinx),  111 
molothina  (Agrotis),  205 
monacha  (Lymantria),  211 


INDEX. 


XXI 


monacha  (Psilura),  315 
moneta  (Plusia),  64, 65, 138, 260,  280,  281 
monodactylus  (Pterophorus),  20,  96,292 
monoglypha  (Hadena),  280,  227 
monoglypha  (Xylophasia),  65 
monogramma  (Metoptria),  18,  190 
montanata  (Melanippe),  184 
morpheus  (Caradrina),  134,  207 
morpheus  (Heteroptus),  273,  274 
multistrigaria  (Larentia),  183,  319 
mundana  (Nudaria),  89,  292 
muricata  (Hyria),  7,  199 
murinata  (Minoa),  202 
muscerda  (Lithosia),  207,  208 
musculosa  (Synia),  136,  162,  287 
mylotes  (Papilio),  229 
myopffiformis  (Sesia),  63 
myrtillana  (Phoxopteryx),  115 
myrtilli  (Anarta),  63,  96,  180,  227,  285 
nanata  (Eupithecia),  184 
nanata  (Tephroclvstia),  184 
napi  (Pieris),  25,  29,  94,  197,  198,  202, 

259,  274,  300,  319 
nebulosa  (Aplecta),  29,  30,  160, 187,  205, 

287,  291 
neglecta  (Noctua),  63 
nemesis  (Dismorphia),  119 
nemoralis  (Agrotera),  261 
neornyris  (Satyrus),  51 
neoridas  (Erebia),  275 
neoterpe  (Prepona),  254 
nerii  (Daphnis),  113 
nerii  (Deilephila),  198 
nerii  (Sphinx),  197 
neurica  (Nonagria),  319 
neustria  (Malacosoma),  64,  292 
nicholli  (Erebia),  139,316 
nictitans   (Hydroecia),  30,   65,   66,  126, 

133,  208,  227 
nigricans  (Agrotis),  66,  227 
nigrofasciata  (Anticlea),  184,  188 
nigrofulvata  (Macaria),  188,  262,  285 
niobe  (Argynnis),  112,  207,  209,  274 
nitida  (Orthosia),  227 
nitidella  (Epichnopteryx),  206 
niveus  (Acentropus),  1,  126 
noctuella  (Nomophila),  20,  81 
nornion  (Parnassius),  122 
notata  (Macaria),  182,  315 
notata  (Semiothisia),  165 
nubeculosa  (Asteroscopus),  202 
nudalis  (Phlyctrenodes),  20 
numata  (Heliconius),  165,  317 
nupta  (Catocala),  209,  227,  259,  285 
nymphaeata  (Hydrocampa),  42 
obeliscata  (Larentia),  227 
obelisca  (Agrotis),  93 
oberthuri  (Lycarna),  241,  316 
obliterata  (Eupisteria),  7,  204 
obscura  (Agrotis),  206,  208 
obscuraria  (Gnophos)  182,  209,  292,  315, 

319 
obsitalis  (Hypena),  18 
obsoleta  (Chloridea),  258 


obsoleta  (Leucania),  126,  201 

obtusella  (Coleophora),  285 

occulta  (Agrotis),  205,  208 

ocellaris  (Xanthia),  227 

ocellata  (Melanthia),  184 

ocellata  (Larentia),  204 

ocellatus  (Smerin.)  29,  63,  64,  66,  89,  237 

ocellatus  (Aphantopus).  124 

ocellea  (Eromene),  240 

ochracea  (Gortyna),  65,  123,  256 

ochracea  (Ochria),  261 

ochrata  (Acidalia),  9,  317 

ochrata  (Sterrha),  45 

ochrearia  (Aspilates),  18,  214 

ochroleucata  (Acidalia),  82 

ootavia  (Morpho1,  230 

octogesima  (Cymatophora),  215,  23S,  287 

octomaculata  (Ennychia),  292 

ocularis  (Cymatophora),  63,  215,  238 

oculea  (Apamea),  161 

occultana  (Predisca),  116 

oedippus  (Ccenonympha),  124,  273,  274 

cenie  (Erebia),  275 

oleracea  (Hadena),  64,  66 

oleracea  (Mamestra),  227 
olivata  (Larentia),  183 

oo  (Dicycla),  2S6,  287 

opacella  (Acanthopysche),  206 

ophiogramma  (Apamea),  161,  208 

opima  (Tffiniocampa),  70,  192,  202 

or  (Cymatophora),  63,  203,  208,  287,  315 

orbicularia  (Ephyra),  315 

orbitulus  (Lye),  241,  246,  247,  248,  316 

orbona  (Triphama),  66,  140,  158 

orbona  (Agrotis),  205 

orientalis  (Pieris),  122 

orion  (Lycrena),  301 

orion  (Moma),  206,  315 

ornata  (Acidalia),  206 

ornitopus  (Xylina)  227 

osseana  (Aphelia),  164 

osseana  (Cnephasia),  293 

oxyacanthae  (Miselia),  160 

pabulatricula  (Hadena),  208 _ 

palsemon  (Carterocephalus),  '22,  275 

palffino  (Colias).  226,  275 

palarica  (Erebia),  28,  30 

paleacea  (Cosmia).  159,  209 

pales  (Argynnis),  245,  248,  274 

pallens  (Leucania),  65,  110 

pallescens  (Argynnis),  123 

palpina  (Pterostoma),  64,  109,  259,  262 

paludata  (Anaitis),  120,  199 

paludis  (Hydroecia),  30 

palustris  (Hydrilla),  136 

palustris  (Zygama)  293 

pamphilus  (Ccenonympha),  25,  51,  209, 
259,  274,  285,  316,  319 

pandora  (Argynnis),  50,  275 

paphia  (Argynnis),  50,  87,  294,  315 

paphia  (Dryas),  207,  209 

Papilio,  30 

papilionaria  (Geometra),  207,  209 

parthenias  (Brephos),  181,  202 


XX11 


INDEX. 


parthenie  (Melittea),  50,  248,  274 

paralekta  (Kallima),  190 

parva  (Micra),  287 

parva  (Thalpoohares),  18,  287 

parvipuncta  (Cyaniris),  52 

pasiphae  (Epinephele),51,  244,  251,  275 

pasithoe  (Heliconius),  117 

pastinum  (Toxocampa),  208,  2S7 

pavonia  (Satumia),  29,  108,  292 

pectinitaria  (Larentia),  183,  239 

pedaria  (Phigalia),  65,  96,  181,  202 

pendularia  (Ephyra),  207 

pendularia  (Zono.),  29,  64,  1S9,  216,262 

pennaria  (Himera),  65,  LSI 

pentadactyla  (Aciptilia),  292 

peranthus  (Papilio),  140 

perla  (Bryophila),  65,  109 

perlellus  (Grambas),  294 

permutaria  (Peronea),  115,  287 

perochraria  (Acidalia),  212 

perochraria  (Ptychopoda),  11 

persicarise  (Mamestra),  63,  65,  133,  291 

petasitis  (Hydroecia),  133 

petiverella  (Dichrorampha),  116 

petraria  (Panagra),  182 

pnugiana  (Ephippiphora),  116 

pharnaces  (Papilio),  228 

pheretes  (Lycsena),  316 

phicomene  (Colias),  210.  24S.  274 

philodice  (Colias),  216 

phloeas  (Chrysophanus),  31.  52,  203,  226, 

251,  274.  301,  320 
phcebe  (Melitaea),  274,  278 
picteti  (Ala),  23 
picteti  (Trichanarta),  23 
pigra  (Pygsera),  27 

;alia),  181 
pilosellse  (Zygsena),  287 
pinastri  (Sphinx),  113,  206 
pinguinalis  (Aglossa),  20 
pini  (Dendrolinius),  211.  227 
piniaria  (Bupalus),  182,  188,  209,  315 
piniariella  (Ocnerostoma),  28 
pinicolana  (Retinia),  116 
piniperda  (Panolis),  65,  131,  159 
pinivorana  (Retinia),  116 
pisi  (Hadena),  80,  160 
pistacina  (Orthos        LS      159 
pitheas  tmma),  229 

-  .  18.  199 
.    Stenoptilia),  20 
plantaginis  (Parasemia     8 

.  jinis  (Nemeophila  I,  89,  168 
plectr.  -27 

6,  134.  320 
plev  sia),  112 

plexippus  (Danais  .  112 

.  123 
plunia:   .    S         sema),  182 
pluniigera  (Ptilophora),  314 
plumbaria  199 

plumbaria  (Ortholitna),  204 
plumbeolata  (Eupithecia),  93 
Plusia.  25 


podalirius  ((Papilio).  245,  274,  300 
podana  (Tortrix),  115,  135 
poggei  (Pseudacrrea).  139 
poliographus  (Colias),  123 
polychloros  (Eugonia),  2G1,  274,  316 
polychloros  (Vanessa),  25,  87.  210,  253, 

261,  274.  301 
polycommata  (Lobophora),  1S4 
p  ilygramma  (Thalpochares),  82 
polygrammata  (Phibalapteryx),  209 
polyodon  (Cloantha),  208 
polyodon  (Xylophasia),  30 
polyphemus  (Morpho),  230 
pomonelhi  (Carpocapsa),  19S 
populana  (Ephippiphora),  287 
popularis  (Epineuronia),  133.  211,  227 
popularis  (Heliophobus),  63 
popularis  (Neuroma),  05,  93 
populata  (Cidaria),  199 
populella  (Gelechia),  IIS 
populeti  (Tseniocampa),  159 
populi  (Amorpha),  212 
populi  (Limenitis),  2  16 
populi  (Pcecilocampa),  30,  63,  64,  108 
populi  (Smerinthus),  63,  04.  06,  287 
poreellus  (Cheer. I.  04.  138,  263.  291,  319 
porcellus  (Metopsilus),  88.  207 
poreellus  (Pergesa),  196,  19S 
porphyrea  (Agrotis),  315 
porphyrea  (Hadena),  227 
potatoria  (Cosmotricha),  108 
potatoria  (Odonestisi,  80.  108,  287 
praeformata  (Anaitis),  212 
prasina  (Agrotis),  205,  208 
prasinana  (Halias),  63 
prasinana  (Hylophila),  89,  207 
pretiosa  (Ala),  23 
primula-  (Agrotis),  206 
proboscidalis  (Hypena),  65,  180,  259 
procida  (Melanargia),  51 
procellata  (Melanippe),  64 
procellata  (Melanthia),  2-7 
prodromaria  (Amphidasys),  181 
progemmaria  (Hybernia),  118 
promissa  (Catocala),  226 
promutata  (Acidalia),  94,  214,  293 
pronoe  (Erebia),  275 
pronuba  (Triphaena),  168 
pronuba  (Agrotis).  227 
pronubana  (Tortrix),  20 
propuguata  (Coremia),  319 
prosapiaria  (Ellopia),  65,  181,  188,  209. 

315 
protea  (Pryobota).  227.  319 
proto  (Hesperia),  275 
provineialis  (Melitaea),  50 
prunaria  (Angerona),  216,  287.  315 
prunal  i  .  199,  209 

prunata  (Lygris),  199 
pruni  (Odonestisi.  211 
pruni  (Thecla),  113,  262    271    2£ 
pruinata  (Pseudoterpna),  30. 65.  200,  318 
psi  (Acronycta),  65,  109,  -  - ' 
,:a  (Cidaria 


INDEX. 


XXlll 


Psyche,  19 

pylorita  (Lycaana),  198 

Ptvchopoda,  8 

pudibunda  (Dasychira),  64,  108,  205,  207 

pudica  (Euprepia),  19 

pudica  (Cymbalophora).  19 

pudorina  (Leucania).  208 

puera  (Hyblaea).  l'-1^ 

pulchella  (Utetheisa).  19 

pulchella  (Deiopeia),  19,  130 

pulchellata  (Eupithecia),  183 

pulchellata  (Tephroclystia),  183 

pulchrma  (Plusia),  26,  180,  238 

pulla  (ICpichnopteryx),  206,  260 

pulveraria  (Numeria),  182 

punctaria  (Ephvra).  204 

punctularia  (Tephrosia),  94, 165,  202. 204 

pumilata  (Eupithecia),  202 

pumilata  (Tephroclystia),  18 

purpuralis  (Zygama),  209 

purpurata  (Rhyparia).  211 

pusaria  (Cabera),  182 

pusaria  (Deilinia),  204 

puta  (Agrotis),  65,  134,  135,  214 

putata  (Thalera),  203 

putris  (Axylia),  65,  66,  80,  93,  293 

Pylarge,  8,'  48 

pyraliata  (Cidaria),  199 

pyramidea  (Amphipyra),  63,  209,  226 

pyranthe  (Catopsilia),  255 

pyrenaica  (Erebia),  245,  280,  301 

pvrenaica  (Lycaena),  241,  246,  247.  248, 

"274,  316 
pyrensa  (Erebia),  245,  274.  316 
pyrina  (Zeuzera),  64,  66,  168 
quadra  (Gnophria),  89 
quadra  ((Enistis),  89,  211 
quadratus  (Papilio).  125 
quadrifasciaria  (Larentia),  207 
quadripunctata  (Caradrina),  65,  208 
quaestionana  (Dichrorampha),  240 
quercana  (Hylophila),  92 
quercifolia  ( Lasiocarnpa) ,  64, 198,262, 292 
quercifolia  (Gastropacha),  64,  198,  262 
quercifoliella  (Lithocolletis),  216 
quercinaria  (Ennornos).  65,  181,  211 
quercus  (Borubyx),  90,  108 
quercus  (Lasiocarnpa),  69,  90,  94,  108, 

144.  203 
quercus  (Thecla).  294 
quercus  (Zephyrus),  88,  206,  211.  275 
quinquemaculata  (Phlegeth.),  113 
ramella  (Grapholitha),  115 
ramulanus  (Sarrothripus),  114 
rapse(Pieris),  25, 122,137,251,253,259,300 
rectangulata  (Chloroelystis),  184 
rectangulata  (ISupithecia),  84,  184,  239 
rectilinea  (Hyppa),  207 
rernutaria  (Acidalia),  S 
repandata  (Boar.),  29, 30, 69, 163, 182, 188 
reticulata  (Neuria),  80,  206,  214 
reticulata  (Lygris),  212 
revayana  (Sarrothripus),  214 
rhamni  (Gonepteryx).  87,  251,  300 


rhomboidana  (Boarmia),  67.  163.  182 

rhizolitha  (Xylina),  94 

ribeana  (Tortrix),  115 

ribesiaria  (Cidaria),  292 

richmondii  (Ornithoptera),  187 

ripaa  (Agrotis),  291 

ripartii  (Lycaena),  52 

rivata  (Melanippe),  94.  287 

roboraria  (Boarmia).  1*2.  207,  209 

roboris  (La?osopis).  51. 244.  246,  274,  278, 

301 
robsoni  (Aplecta).  29.  30,  187,  292 
rosana  (Tortrix).  115 
rubi  (Bombvx).  1    - 

rubi  (Callophrys),  88,  204.  211,  275.  301 
rubi  (Macrothylacia),  108.  204,  227 
rubi  (Noctua),  134 
rubi  (Thecla),  70,  185.  191,  260 
rubidata  (Anticlea).  93,  94 
rubiginata  (Acidalia),  287 
rubiginata  (Melanthia),  184 
rubiginea  (Dasycampa).  202 
rubiginea  (Orrhodia),  227 
rubricollis  (Gnophria).  315 
rubricosa  (Pachnobia).  68,  70,  159,  202, 

314 
rufa  (Coenobia),  261 
rufana  (Catoptria),  100 
rufina  (Orthosia),  159 
rugosana  (Phtheochroa),  214.  239 
rumina  (Thais),  274,  27S,  300 
rumicis(Acronycta),  80,110,206,208,227 
rupicapraria  (Hybernia),  96,  117,  183 
rurea  (XyTopnasia),  66 
russata  (Cidaria),  30,  185,  320 
russula  (Euthemonia),  30 
russula  (Diacrisia),  89 
russula  (Xemeophila),  89,  166,  286,  314 
rusticata  (Acidalia),  8,  43,  261 
rusticata  (Ptvchopoda ).  43.  44 
rutilus  (Chrysophanusi.  207 
sacraria  (Rhodometra).  18 
sacraria  (Sterrha),  18.  119 
salicata  (Larentia),  IS,  183 
salicis  (Liparis),  96 
salicis  (Stilpnota),  64.  66.  Ill 
salinellus  (Crambus),  126 
sallei  (Pythomdes),  231 
salmacis  (Hypolirunas),  119 
salmacis  (Lycaena),  18 
sanibucaria  (Uropteryx).  65,  66,  181 
saponaria;  (Neuria),  214 
sanguinalis  (Pyrausta),  82 
sanio  (Nerneophila),  227 
sap  (Hesperia  .  245.  301 
sarpedon  (Papilio i.  186 
satellitia  (Scopelosoma).  159 
saturatella  (Coleophora).  165 
satyrata  (Tephroclystia).  204 
satyrata  (Eupithecia),  63 
saucia  (Agrotis j,  134,  317 
scabiosata  (Eupithecia),  64 
scabriuscula  (Dipterygia),  203 
scipio  (Erebia),  285 


XXIV 


INDEX. 


scolfeformis  (Sesia),  203,  207 

scoliiformis  (Sesia),  113,  163 

scolopacina  (Hadena),  208,  227 

scolopacina  (Xylophasia),  294 

scutulata  (Acidalia),  199,  292 

sebrus  (Lycsna),  52 

secalis  (Hadena),  208 

segetum  (Agrotis),  22,  77 

selene  (Argynnis),  87,  123,  203,  274,  287 

seleni  (Caradrina),  82,  205 

semele  (Satyrus),  25,  51,  87,  210,  226, 

274,  282,  301 
semiargus  (Lycsena),  113   203,  211 
seruibrunnea  (Xylina),  137,  314,  320 
semicanaria  (Thamnonoma),  82 
semifuscana  (Pa?disca),  116 
sempronius  (Charaxes),  186,  187 
senex  (Nudaria),  81 
septodactylus  (Leioptilus),  191 
sepiuru  (Bacotia),  206 
serena  (Hecatera),  66 
sericea  (Lithosia),  SI 
sericealis  (Rivula),  180,292 
serratula?  (Hesperia),  275 
Sibylla  (Lirnenitis),  62,  90,  207,  275,  282, 

316 
siculata  (Heliconius),  30 
siderata  (Cidaria),  92,  137,  185 
signum  (Agrotis),  208 
silaceata  (Cidaria),  199 
silago  (Xanthia),  159,  287 
silvana  (Heliconius),  317 
siruilana  (Ephippiphora),  116 
similana  (Epiblema),  164 
similis  (Porthesia),  64.  108,  259,  262 
simplonia  (Euchloe),  274 
simulans  (Agrotis),  206 
simulata  (Thera),  184 
sinapis  (Leucophasia),  29,  86,  '207,  274 
sinapis  (Leptidia),  49,  123,  251,  253,  279, 

300 
sinuana  (Cnephasia),  98 
sinuata  (Anticlea),  94,  137,  320 
smaragdaria  (Pseudoterpna),  260,2S5,320 
smilax  (Terias),  186 
sobrina  (Xoctua),  286 
sobrinata  (Eupithecia),  64,  161,  1S4,  227 
sobrinata  (Tephroclystia),  184 
socia  (Xylina),  227 
sociata  (Melanippe),  184 
sociella  (Aphomia),  292 
solandriana  (Pasdisca),  30,  116 
solidaginis  (Calocampa),  120,  160,  227 
sordida  (Hadena),  206,  262 
sordidata  (Hypsipetes),  30,  81,  184 
sororcula  (Lithosia),  63 
sororculaua  (Penthina),  115 
spadieea  (Orrhodia),  125,  159,  164 
sparganii  (Xonagria),  136 
sparsata  (Collix),  204 
spartiata  (Chesias),  25,  90 
sphegiformis  (Sesia),  113 
sphinx  (Asteroscopus),  25,  65 
spilodactyla  (Aciptilia),  191 


spini  (Thecla),  52,  275 

splendens  (Mamestra),  208 

sponsa  (Catocala),  206,  226 

sponsana  (Peronea),  115 

stabilis  (Ta?niocampa),  82 

stahli  (Ceratopterus),  139 

stagnata  (Hydrocampa),  1 

statices  (Ino),  64,  89,  205,  292 

statilinus  (Satyrus),  51,  275 

*steinbachi  (L'apilio),  125 

stellatarum  (Macroglossa),  S4,  90,  94 

Sterrha,  8,  9 

stevensata  (Eupithecia),  161 

sthennyo  (Erebia),  248,  274 

sthenelus  (Papilio),  186 

stonanus  (Sarrothripus),  114 

straminata  (Acidalia),  212 

straminea  (Leucania),  126 

strataria  (Amphidasys),  63,  65,  181 

Strenia,  8 

striata  (Euprepia),  19,  211 

striata  (Coscina),  19,  211 

strigaria  (Leptorneris),  46 

strigata  (Hemithea),  200,  207 

strigilaria  (Leptorneris),  46 

strigilis  (Miana),29,  65,  66 

strigillaria  (Aspilates),  182 

strigillaria  (Perconia),  182,  209 

strigosa  (Acronycta),  126 

strigula  (Agrotis),  65,  205,  211 

stygne  (Erebia),  28,  31,  245,  274,  300, 

301,  317 
stiasa  (Hadena),  160 
suava  (Eublemma),  82 
subalpina  (Ch'rysophanus) ,  274 
subfusca  (Noctua),  161,  213 
subgothica  (Noctua),  136 
sublustris  (Hadena),  208 
sublustris  (Xylophasia),  65,  80,  133 
subrosea  (Noctua),  136 
subroseata  (Zonosoma),  29 
subsericeata  (Acidalia),  93,  199,  240 
subsericeata  (Ptychopoda),  43 
subsequa  (Agrotis),  2  '5 
subtristata  (Melanippe),  184 
suffumata  (Cidaria  ,  199 
suffusa  (Agrotis),  63,  65 
sulphuralis  (Eumelia),  18 
suspecta  (Dyschorista),  159,  209,  227 
suspecta  (Orthosia),  159 
sydi  (Limenitis),  123 
syllius  (Melanargia),  51,  251,  253,  275 
sylphis  (Bulboneura),  229 
sylvata  (Abraxas),  182.  261,  292 
sylvana  (Heliconius),  165 
sylvanus  (Augiades),  301 
sylvanus  (Hepialus),  108 
sylvanus  (Pamphilus),  257,  259 
sylvius  (Carterocephalus),  203 
syringaria  (Hygrochroa),  1S1 
syringaria  (Pericallia),  65,  163,  181,  2S7 
tabaniformis  (iEgeria),  318 
tajniata  (Emmelesia),  183 
tages  (Thanaos),  82,  251,  254,  274 


INDEX. 


XXV 


tages  (Nisoniacles),  261,  295 

taminata  (Bapta),  64,  203 

taraxaci  (Caradrina),  209 

tarsipennalis(Zanclognatha),  93, 180, 209 

tau  (Aglia),  202 

taygetus  (Danais),  187 

telemonius  (Caligo),  49 

telicanus  (Lanipides),  52,  251,  275 

temerata  (Bapta),  93,  94,  182,  239 

temerata  (Corycia),  93,  94 

tempestivata  (Tephroclystia),  18 

templi  (Dasypolia),  282 

tenebrata  (Heliaca),  180 

tenebraria  (Dasydia),  139 

tenebrosa  (liusina),  93,  163,  206 

tentacularia  (Herminia),  207 

tenuiata  (Eupithecia),  93 

tereas  (Archonius),  229 

testacea  (Luperina),  30,  65,  133,  211 

testata  (Cidaria),  199 

testudo  (Lirnacodes),  215 

tetradactyla  (Aciptilia),  164 

tetradactyla  (Alucita),  20 

tetralunaria  (Selenia),  65 

tetraquetrana  (Phloeodes),  116 

Thais,  95 

thaidina  (Armandia),  30 

thalassina  (Hadena),  160 

thalassina  (Mamestra),  207 

thapsiella  (Depressaria),  191 

thaumas  (Adopaea),  120,  207,  209,  251, 

254,  301 
thaumas  (Hesperia),  226 
thompsoni  (Aplecta),  30,  187,  292 
thymiaria  (Hemithea),  200 
tigelius  (Pararge),  51 
tincta  (Aplecta),  160,  292 
tincta  (Mamestra),  208 
tihae  (Smerinthus),  64,  66,  164,  258 
tiliaria  (Ennomos),  181 
Timandra,  7 

tithonus  (Epiuephele),  87 
typhon  (Ccenonympha),  207 
trabealis  (Agrophila),  211 
trabealis  (Erotyla),  18 
tragoponis  (Amphipyra),  65,  158 
transversella  (Oxybia),  19 
trapezina  (Calymnia),  29,  160,  262 
triangulum  (Noctua),  66,  166 
trepida  (Notodonta),  63,  64,  66 
Trichanarta,  23 
tridens  (Acronycta),  208,  285 
trifasciata  (Hypsipetes),  204 
trifasciata  (Larentia),  207 
trifolii  (Mamestra),  206,  208,  227,  259 
trifolii  (Zygama),  118.  207,  209,  293 
trigeminata  (Ptychopoda),  43,  46 
tvigrammica  (Grammesia),  65,  134 
trilineata  (Ephyra),  205 
trilinea  (Grammesia),  134 
trilophus  (Notodonta),  136 
triplasia  (Abrostola),  26,  66,  180,  292 
tripartita  (Abrostola),  65,  180 
tripunctana  (Pardia),  115 


triopes  (Erebia),  247 

trisignaria  (Eupithecia),  164 

tristata  (Larentia),  202,  204 

tristata  (Melanippe),  184 

tritici  (Agrotis),  134,  208,  227 

tritophus  (Notodonta),  162 

trophonius  (Papilio),  28 

truncata  (Cidaria),  93,  185 

turca  (Leucania),  136,  208 

turfosalis  (Tholomiges),  180 

tyndarus  (Erebia),  24S,  274 

typhae  (Nonagria),  133 

typhon  (Ccenonympha),  87,  285 

typica  (Mania),  65,  60 

typica  (Namia),  227 

uddmanniana  (Aspis),  115 

uddmanniana  (Notocelia),  82 

ulceratalis  (Cornifrons),  20 

ulicetana  (Caloptria),  116 

ulmata  (Abraxas),  182,  239,  261 

ulvffi  (Senta),  126 

umbra  (Pyrrhia),  209 

umbraria  (Boarmia),  82 

umbratica  (Cucullia),  65,  180 

umbrosa  (Noctua),  134 

unangulata  (Melanippe),  94,  204 

unanimis  (Apamea),  291 

unanimis  (Hadena),  208 

uncula  (Hydrelia),  207,  287 

undulata  (Eucosmia),  185,  204,  315 

unicolor  (Canephora),  206 

unicolor  (Cirrhcedia),  159 

unidentaria  (Coremia),  44,  184,  285 

unidentaria  (Larentia),  212 

unifasciana  (Tortrix),  115 

unifasciata  (Emmelesia),  286,  310 

unifasciata  (Larentia),  212 

unipuncta  (Lycama),  226 

urticae  (Abrostola),  26,  180,  238 

urtica?  (Aglais),  259,  285 

urtica?  (Spilosoma),  30,  90 

urticas  (Vanessa),  25,  50,  117,  259,  163, 

210,  260,  262,  280,  281,  311 
urticana  (Sericoris),  115 
urticata  (Eurrhypara),  30 
vaccinii  (Orrhodia),  192 
valesina  (Argynnis),  50 
valligera  (Agrotis),  134 
varia  (Melitaea),  248 
variata  (Larentia),  205 
variata  (Thera),  184 
variegana  (Peronea),  115 
variegata  (Gnophos),  18 
varleyata  (Abraxas),  262 
vauaria  (Halia),  182 
vaupunctatum  (Orrhodia),  227 
veleda  (Junonia),  186 
velleda  (Hepialus),  108,  163 
venosata  (Eupithecia).  94,  183,  287 
venosata  (Tephroclystia),  183 
venustula  (Erastria),  207 
verbasci  (Cucullia),  82 
verberata  (Larentia),  212 
vernaria  (Geometra),  65,  68 

c 


XXVI 


INDEX. 


vernetensis  (Melitasa),  244,  301 

versicolor  (Endroniis),  202 

vespiformis  (Sesia),  113 

vestigialis  (Agrotis),  80,  134,  211,  227 

vetulata  (Scotosia),  209 

vetusta  (Calocampa),  160,  202,  227 

vetustus  (Heliconius),  317 

v-flavum  ((Enophila),  262,  320 

viardi  (Perrhybris),  229 

vibicaria  (Rhodostrophia),  209,  226 

viciella  (Psyche),  206 

villica  (Arctia),  19,  82,  89,  216 

vinctuncula  (Miana),  292 

vinula  (Dicranura),  64,  109.  287 

virgaureae  (Chrysoph.),  31,  209,  226,  246 

virgaureata  (Eupithecia),  183 

virescens  (Hepialus),  318 

virgularia  (Acidalia),  18 

virgularia  (Ptychopoda),  43,  46,  47 

viridana  (Tortrix),  115 

viridata  (Nemoria),  200 

viridaria  (Larentia),  80,  183 

viridaria  (Phytometra),  63,  180, '210 


virens  (Luceria),  227 
virgularia  (Acidalia),  285 
vitalbata  (Phibalapteryx),  184 
vitelina  (Leucania),  136,  287 
vittata  (Larentia),  209 
vulgata  (Eupithecia),  67,  184 
w-album  (Thecla),  22,  216,  294 
wavaria  (Halia),  182 
wavaria  (Thamnonoma),  212 
westwoodii  (Eurerna),  229 
wheeleri  (Lycama),  94 
wockearia  (Dasydia),  139 
xanthodippe  (Argynnis),  123 
xanthographa  (Noctua),  126,  227 
xerampelina  (Cirrhcedia),   65,   66,   159, 

163,  262,  314 
xuthus  (Papilio),  122 
yamamai  (Antheraea),  129 
ypsilon  (Agrotis),  30,  237 
zephyrus  (Lycaena),  248,  275 
ziczac  (Notodpnta),  65,  94,  261,  262,  2S0 
zoegana  (Xanthosetia),  127 
Zonosorna,  7 


NEUROPTERA. 


aenea  (Cordulia),  179 
albicorne  (Odontoeerum),  297 
annnlatus    (Cordulegaster),     179,    296, 

297,  310 
armatum  (Agrion),  162,  179,  189 
aspersa  (Chrysopa),  297 
azurea  (Mystacides),  297 
barbara  (Lestes),  298 
braueri  (Leptocerus),  298 
caerulescens  (Orthetrum),  296,  297 
cancellaturn  (Orthetrum),  179 
centralis  (Limnophilns),  298 
coceajus  (Ascalaphus),  297 
cognata  (Panorpa),  95 
communis  (Panorpa),  95 
cyanea  (.Eschna),  91,  179,  283,  313,  314 
cyathigerum  (Enallag.),  91, 178, 179,314 
depressa  (Libellula),  178,  179,  296,  297, 

310,  314 
dryas  (Lestes),  314 
elegans   (Ischnura),   91,   110,  179,  296, 

297,  298,  314 
elegans  (Limnophilus),  288 
flaveolum  (Sympetrum),  310 
formicarius  (Myrmeleon),  298 
fuliginosa  (Sialis),  298 
fusca  (Sympycna),  297,  298 
galleatum  (Sericostoma),  297 
germanica  (Panorpa),  95 
grandis  (iEschna),  91,  179,  189,  314 
hoemeroidalis  (Calopteryx),  297 
hirtus  (Megalomus),  298 
imperator  (Anax),  30,  179,  298 
inconspicuus  (Hemerobius),  298 
infuscans  (Ischnura),  299 


isosceles  (iEschna),  179 
juncea  (.Eschna),  179,  296,  310 
latipes  (Platycnemis),  298 
longicornis  (Ascalaphus),  298 
lutescens  (Hemerobius),  297 
mercuriale  (Agrion),  30,  310 
meridionalis  (Dilar),  298 
meridionalis  (Panorpa),  297 
meridionalis  (Sympetrum),  298 
minium  (Agrion),  296 
mixta  (.Eschna),  24,  30,  91,  313 
naias  (Erythromma),  91,  179,  314 
nymphula  (Pyrrhosoma),  91,  178,  296, 

297,  314 

pennipes  (Platycnemis),  30,  179,  298 

pra tense  (Brachvtron),  297 

puella  (Agrion),  91,  178,  314 

pulchellum  (Agrion),  91,  179 

pumilio  (Ischnura),  30,  288 

pyrenaicum  (Sericostoma),  298 

quadrimaculata  (Libellula),  178,  179,  310 

rufescens  (Ischnura),  299 

scoticum  (Sympetrum),  179,  310,  313 

selysi  (Sericostoma),  298 

simillimus  (Gomphus),  297 

splendens  (Calopteryx),  179 

sponsa  (Lestes),  91 

striolatum   (Sympetrum),  91,  179,   296, 

298,  313,  314 

tenellum  (Pyrrhosoma),  178,  179 
ventralis  (Chrysopa),  95 
virgo  (Calopteryx),  179,  296,  298 
vulgaris  (Rhyacophila),  297 
vulgata  (Libellula),  296 
vulgatissimus  (Gomphus),  30 


INDEX. 


XXV11 


ORTHOPTERA. 


.Edipoda,  261 

regyptiutn  (Acridium),  69,  95 
albipennis  (Apterygida),  266 
americana  (Blatta),  267 
annulipes  (Anisolabis),  266 
arachidis  (Apterygida),  189 
arachidis  (Chelidura),  266 
aurieularia  (Forricula),  266,  318 
australasi.-e  (Blatta),  267 
bicolor  (Stenobothrus),  139,  268 
cinereus  (Thamnotrizon),  268 
elegans  (Stenobothrus),  268 
germanica  (Phyllodromia),  267 
grisea  (Platycleis),  268 
grossus  (Mecostethus),  268 
holosericea  (Nyctibora),  69 
lesnei  (Forficula),  267,  288 
lineatus  (Gomphocerus),  268 


maculatus  (Gomphocerus),  268 
media  (Apterygida),  266 
orientalis  (Blatta),  267 
panzeri  (Ectobia),  288 
parallelus  (Stenobothrus),  268 
peregrina  (Sehistocerca),  69 
pubescens  (Forricula),  288 
quadripunctata  (Phaneroptera),  317 
riparia  (Labidura),  267 
rutipes  (Stenobothrus),  268,  284 
rufus  (Gomphocerus),  268 
surinamensis  (Leucophffia),  92,  111,  119, 

267 
sylvestris  (Nemobius),  268 
varium  (Meconema),  268 
viridissima  (Locusca),  261,  283 
viridulus  (Stenobothrus),  268 


SUBSCRIPTIONS    FOR    1905    ARE    NOW    Dt" 

lubscription  6s.,  post  free,  including  double  numbers,  should 


West,  Newman  &  Co, 

Vol.   XXXVIII.] 

JANUARY,    1905. 

No.   500. 

the 


ENTOMOLOGIST 


Jllustratcb  Journal 


GENERAL    ENTOM 


EDITED     BY     RICHARD     SOUTH,     F.E.S. 

WITH    THE    ASSISTANCE-    OF 

ROBERT   ADKIN,  F.E.S.  W.  F.  K1RBY,  F.L.S.,  F.E.S. 

W.  L.  DISTANT,  F.E.S.,  &c.  G.  W.  KIRKALDY,  F.E.S. 

EDWARDA. FITCH, F.L.S., F.E.S.  W.  J.  LUCAS,  B.A.,  F.E.S. 

F.  W.FROHAWK,  F.E.S. .M.B.O.U.  Dk.  D.  SHARP,  F.R.S.,  F.E.S.,  &c. 

MARTIN  JACOBY,  F.E.S.  G.  H.  VERRALL,  F.E.S. 

"By  mutual  confidence  and  mutual  aid 
Great  deeds  are  done  and  great  discoveries  made." 


LONDON : 

WEST,    NEWMAN    &    CO.,    54,    HATTON    GARDEN; 
SIMPK1X,    MARSHALL,   HAMILTON,    KENT   &   CO.,    Limited 


DOUBLE  NUMBER— Price  One  Shilling. 


W     DAVIS  (naturaL!STS  *\ 

vv  .      x^rjn.  v  xvj     V  taxidermists,/ 
.,JFACTURERS     OF     ENTOMOLOGICAL    APPARATUS    AND 
.:  .  /  NATURALISTS'   REQUISITES,  &c, 

31  &  33,  Hythe  Street,  DARTFORD,  Kent. 

Telegrams:    "  DAVIS,  NATURALISTS,  DARTFORD."  National  Telephone  :     "  108  DARTFORD." 

LOCALITY       LABELS. 

2'6  per  1,000.     4  to  10  sorts,  equal  numbers,  anv  wording,  see  specimens  below:— 

Smith.  Smith.  Smith,  Smith, 

Darenth  Wood.  New  Forest.  Kent.  Kannoch. 

1!K>  1W  190      .  ,  n 

Kc-atly  printed  similar  to  the  above.      We  have  supplied  these  Labels  to  Entomologists  m  all  parts  of  Greai 

Britain. 

"Data"   Blanks  for  Plants,  Birds'  Eggs,  Nests,  and  Skins,  from  8d.  per  100 

"Data"  Labels,   with  Collector's  Name  and   Locality  printed  in,  from  1/6  per  100 

50  British  Butterflies,  all  different,  named,  5s.     Setting-house,  good  condition,  6s.  6d 

Larvae  Collector's  Guide  and  Calendar,  Illustrated,  Is.    Birdstuffing  and  Mounting 

Illustrated,  is.     Animal,  Fish,  and  Reptile  Stuffing,  Illustrated,  Is.  6d.     Label  List 

British  Macro- Lepidoptera,  6d. 
Naturalists'  Diary  and  Year  Book,  Is.    Our  Country's  Butterflies  and  Moths,  100( 

Coloured  Specimens,  6s. 
HEALTHY  LARV/E  (Young).— Caja,  6d.     Quercifolia,  Is.    Hera,  2s.  per  doz 
j.ris,  Purple  Emperor,  8d  each. 

HEALTHY  PUP>E.—  Each.— Ligustri,  Populi,  3d.  Ocellatus,  Tilise,  Carpini,  4d 
Versicolor,  Chaonia,  Cucullina,  5d.     Lvchnitis,  Helveticaria,  6d. 

CLEAR  A  MCE  SALE  OF  SURPLUS  STOCK.—  Prior  to  removal  from  Bridgi 
House  and  Westgate  Road  Works  to  our  new  Central  Works,  Hythe  Street,  we  shall  issu< 
a  Sale  Catalogue  of  Surplus  Stock,  at  prices  which  will  ensure  a  speedy  clearance 
Catalogues  now  ready,  and  will  be  sent  free  on  application.  WF 

BRITISH  LEPIDOPTERA.- One  hundred  named  Specimens,  all  differer 
post  free.     See  our  New  List  and  discounts.  |^ 

EXOTIC   BUTTERFLIES.— We  have  some  thousands  of   these  as  n 
papers,  assorted  dozens,  Cd.,  Is.,  and  Is.  6d. 

2=6=Drawer  Cabinets.  Frames  to  Glasses,  Camphor  Cells,  15s.  each. 
Several  Good  Insect  Cabinets,  Secondhand,  Cheap.    List  free. 
Secondhand  Store=boxes.— IS  by  11,  4s.;  16  by  11,  3s.  Gd. ;  14  by  10, 
New  ,,  ,,  ,,         >,    6s.;    ,,         ,,   5s.;  ,,         ,, 

Eggs  in  Clutches,  Skins  and  Stuffed  Birds.     Bargain  List  free. 
Coloured   Pictorial  Postcards  of  handsome  Exotic  Butterflies,  6  for  7d.,  post  free 

MICROSCOPE,    &c,   WANTED. 

■\T17ANTED,  a  Microscope  suitable  for  general  work ;  also  Lamp,  one  01 
*  *  two  Objectives,  Microtome,  Cabinet  to  hold  about  500  to  1000  slides. 
Am  open  to  buy  a  Collection  of  Slides,  or  exchange  or  sell  Duplicates, 
Binocular  Microscope  for  Sale,  mechanical  stage,  four  eyepieces,  one 
objective,  &c.     Price  £4  10s.     Apply  to — 

Mr.  HERBERT   CLARKE,  104,  Leadenhall   Street,  London,  E.C. 

OVA,    LARWE,    and    PUP/E. 

Large  and  Varied  Stock  all  the  year  round,  including  many 
Rare  Genuine  British  Species. 

Price  List  on  application  to  L.  W.  Newman,  Bexley,  Kent. 

N.B. — Lepidoptera  reared  from  the  Ova  to  the  Pup^:,  on  Commission. 

OVA,     LARV/E,     AND     PUP/E. 

A  Large  Assortment  always  on  hand.     Send  for  Price  List  to 

H.   W.    HEAD,    Entomologist,    SCARBOROUGH, 

The  Largest  Breeder  of  LEPIDOPTERA  in  the  British  Isles. 
Full   List  of  LEPIDOPTERA,  Apparatus,  Cabinets,  &c,  sent  on  application 


Entomologist,  January,   1905. 


Plate  I. 


uu 


^!R.,^«.fPuc)*MM«t- ^uttt.   i? J;-    jr'a//?,    y?jf.   jmu,-/^.J  &-<.      «*«tf    <w/U- 


Q       Qa     P 


IE- 

Utl. 

EC 


L"3 


TTuAui-  otiCViit    &.«. 


THE    ENTOMOLOGIST 


Vol.  XXXVIII.]  JANUARY,     1905.  [No.  500. 

THE     EARLIER     STAGES     OF     CATACLYSTA 
LEMNATA,   L. 

By  T.  A.  Chapman,  M.D. 

(Plate  I.) 

On  June  4th,  1904,  being  at  Bookham  with  the  South  London 
Entomological  Society,  I  observed  C.  lemnata  in  some  abund- 
ance, and  remembering  that  it  was  the  only  one  of  the  Hydro- 
campas  (except  Acentropus)  with  whose  early  stages  I  had  no 
acquaintance,  I  took  home  a  supply  of  moths,  with  a  view  to 
obtaining  eggs. 

Curiously  enough,  I  found,  on  looking  into  the  matter,  that 
all  the  other  species  had  been  well  reported  on  by  various 
authors,  but  I  could  find  nothing  better  about  lemnata  than  that 
by  Buckler,  who  tells  us  nothing  of  its  history  earlier  than  Nov. 
10th,  when  it  is  beginning  to  think  of  hybernation. 

The  way  in  which  lemnata  lays  her  eggs  interested  me  perhaps 
as  much  as  anything  in  its  history.  It  lays  them  under  water, 
and  that  surface  of  the  egg  which  in  the  case  of  nearly  all  Lepi- 
doptera  is  exposed  to  the  air,  is  in  that  of  C.  lemnata  bathed  in 
water.  This  fact  has  never  been  recorded  of  C.  lemnata,  but  it 
has  been,  I  think,  of  all  the  other  Hydrocampas ;  A.  niveus 
(female)  appears  to  go  under  water  to  do  so,  but  the  others 
apparently  only  submerge  their  ovipositors.  The  curious  fact 
that  all  these  eggs  are  truly  aquatic  is  one  that  I  had  never 
clearly  understood,  probably  because  attention  has  not  been 
called  to  it  in  records;  for  example,  Buckler  (E.M.M.  xiv.  p.  97) 
records  how  Mr.  W.  E.  Jeffrey  got  H.  stagnata,  Don.,  to  lay  eggs, 
which  he  found  placed  in  little  batches  on  the  under  side  of 
floating  pieces  of  Sparganium.  Not  being  pointedly  told  that 
the  eggs  are  in  the  water  and  wetted  by  it,  one  reads  the  fact 
along  with  the  accounts,  which  are  much  more  abundant,  of  how 

ENTOM. — JANUARY,    1905.  B 


2  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

the  larva,  though  under  water,  keep  themselves  surrounded  by 
air,  and  supposes  the  eggs  are  afforded  some  similar  method  of 
aeration. 

Bitsema,  in  stating  how  Acentropus  lays  her  eggs,  says  they 
are  under  water,  but  does  not  say  they  are  wet,  which  never- 
theless they  doubtless  are. 

My  notes  say  that  the  moths,  taken  June  4th  at  Bookham, 
were  kept  in  a  glass,  with  various  leaves  and  some  Lemna,  with 
water  at  the  bottom.  Eggs  are  found  June  6th,  laid  in  two 
different  manners.  In  the  one  case  they  are  laid  on  leaves  of 
Lemna  triadea,  and  are  wholly  submerged — one  surface  of  the 
egg  attached  to  the  leaf,  the  other  free  in  the  water.  These  eggs 
are  laid  close  together,  but  not  overlapping — generally  several 
together,  and  in  one  case  covering  the  whole  surface  of  a  leaf — 
reaching  the  number  of  twenty-three.  The  other  method  of 
laying  affected  about  a  score  of  eggs,  and  the  eggs  were  in 
batches  of  about  three,  and  in  one  case  six,  together.  These 
floated  freely  on  the  surface  of  the  water,  the  lower  surface  being 
in  the  water  and  wet,  the  upper  above  water  and  dry.  This 
upper  surface  was  coated  with  a  pavement  of  the  scales  of  the 
moth,  laid  over  the  whole  of  each  batch  in  one  uniform  direction, 
the  stalks  of  attachment  in  one  direction,  the  serrated  margins 
in,  of  course,  the  opposite  ;  but  all  parallel,  and  apparently 
close  together  or  overlapping.  When  the  eggs  did  not  seem 
quite  in  the  same  direction,  the  scales  were  nevertheless  so,  and 
seemed  to  be  what  held  the  eggs  of  each  group  together,  and 
also  what  kept  the  upper  surface  dry,  the  scales  not  apparently 
being  capable  of  getting  wet. 

The  eggs  are  very  flat,  almost  scale-like,  of  oval  outline, 
about  0*75  mm.  long  and  0'56  across.  The  contents  yellowish, 
and  in  some  cases  already  showing  structure,  there  being  a 
notch  at  one  side  in  the  yellow  mass,  from  which  a  groove 
appeared  to  nearly  cut  off  a  central  circular  portion. 

June  15th. — Larvae  very  nearly  fully  developed ;  a  tortuous 
tube  is  visible,  no  doubt  the  tracheal  trunk  of  side  nearest 
observer. 

16th,  11  a.m.  —  The  larvae  (and  eggs)  are  now  very  con- 
spicuous, owing  to  the  head  and  prothoracic  plate,  which  occupy 
so  large  a  part  of  the  top  of  the  egg,  being  black  ;  the  clypeus 
is  paler,  and  the  jaws,  which  stand  forward  prominently,  are 
brown.  The  eggs  look  thicker  and  more  rounded,  as  if  by 
imbibition  of  water,  but  this  may  be  merely  a  perspective  effect 
of  the  change  of  colour.     No  measurement  seems  available. 

June  16th,  5  p.m. — Some  larvae  found  hatching,  and  some 
have  already  done  a  good  deal  in  the  way  of  clothing  themselves. 
Their  heads,  including  the  clypeus,  are  now  very  black.  They 
creep  out  of  the  eggs  in  the  ordinary  way,  and  walk  off  along 
the  leaf  on  which  the  egg  is  laid ;  in  doing  so  they  are  in  the 


EARLIER    STAGES    OF    CATACLYSTA    LEMNATA.  3 

water,  are  quite  wet,  and  seem  quite  at  home.  They  cut  out 
irregular  portions  of  leaf  of  L.  trisulea,  and  get  between  the 
loose  bit  of  leaf  and  the  remaining  portion.  So  far  there  is 
nothing  that  can  be  called  a  case,  i.e.  a  movable  case,  and  no 
larva  is  yet  in  a  tube,  or  anything  of  that  sort,  but  is  between 
two  flat  surfaces,  or  sometimes  three.  One  larva  under  L.  minor 
had  cut  up  the  short  radicle  into  three  or  four  pieces  rather  more 
than  his  own  length,  and  had  fastened  them  together  irregularly. 
All  the  larvae  that  had  done  anything,  and  some  that  had  not, 
had  already  green  matter  in  the  alimentary  canal,  and  it  seems 
certain  that  portions  of  plant  are  cut  off  by  eating  the  material 
along  the  dividing  line. 

9  p.m. — One  of  the  floating  eggs  has  hatched,  and  the  larva 
has  reached  a  bit  of  duckweed  ;  his  procedure  was  not  observed, 
but  he  did  not  come  out  on  top  ;  so  that  the  clothed  face  of  the 
egg  is  the  face  of  attachment,  not  the  free  one,  as  in  such  ova  as 
caruleocephala,  lanestris,  &c. 

There  can  be  little  doubt  that  the  eggs  are  attached  to  the 
duckweed  by  the  same  face  as  that  covered  by  the  scales  in  the 
floating  ones.  One  face  of  the  egg  is  in  the  water,  the  other 
attached  to  something.  The  eggs  on  the  duckweed  could  no 
doubt  obtain  a  supply  of  oxygen  from  the  green  plant,  the 
floating  eggs  from  the  air,  but  I  incline  to  think  that  in  both 
cases  breathing  takes  place  by  the  wet  surface,  which  is  the 
exposed  active  surface  in  all  other  similar  eggs ;  and  were  it  not 
so,  eggs  laid,  as  must  frequently  occur,  on  bits  of  floating  dead 
vegetation,  whether  bits  of  wood  or  dead  Lemna,  would  be  unable 
to  respire.  I  wondered  a  good  deal  about  the  floating  eggs. 
How  were  they  laid,  and  how  were  they  coated  with  scales  ?  I 
came  to  the  conclusion  that  they  must  be  laid  by  the  moth  on 
her  own  body,  and  in  some  way  detached,  as  she  has  no  appa- 
ratus for  coating  eggs  with  scales.  No  doubt  laying  the  eggs 
under  water  on  leaves  of  Lemna  is  the  usual  and  proper  way  of 
laying  the  eggs.  Were  the  floating  eggs  the  result  of  some 
accident  by  which  the  moth  laid  the  eggs  on  herself,  or  on 
another  moth  (there  were  several  in  the  jar)  ?  Against  this 
supposition  is  the  fact  that  the  eggs  got  detached  from  the 
surface  of  the  moth,  suggesting  that  it  was  a  normal  process, 
and  still  more  especially  that  the  eggs  thus  laid,  under  a  layer 
of  scales  floating  on  the  water,  got  on  in  every  respect  as  well  as 
those  on  the  Lemna. 

June  17th,  8  a.m. — All  the  floating  eggs  have  hatched,  and 
the  young  larvae  are  on  the  bits  of  duckweed,  against  which  they 
floated.  Two  have  eaten  so  far  into  leaves  of  L.  minor,  that 
they  can  be  distinguished  from  the  upper  side  through  the 
thinned  centre  of  the  leaf. 

The  larvae  in  their  shelters  are  still  in  the  water  ;  they  have 

r>  2 


4  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

not  surrounded  themselves  by  an  air-cavity  in  a  case,  or  any 
such  arrangement.  Two  larvae  are  found  mining  in  the  middle 
of  the  thick  parenchyma  of  leaves  of  L.  polyrhiza,  without 
any  indication  that  they  are  not  completely  wetted  by  water 
and  sap. 

June  16th. — In  handling  the  newly-hatched  larvae,  to  place 
them  separately,  and  in  positions  in  which  their  proceedings 
may  be  observed,  it  is  seen  that  the  larvae  are  completely  wet, 
but  when  brought  out  of  the  water  they  become  largely  dry,  but 
immediately  get  wet  on  being  placed  in  the  water  again.  The 
amount  of  protection  and  the  manner  of  it  seems  not  very 
different  from  that  of  the  upper  surfaces  of  the  leaves  of  Lemna 
(except  trisnlca).  When  submerged  these  became  quite  wet,  but, 
reaching  the  surface,  the  water  leaves  them,  as  though  they  were 
slightly  greasy,  and  in  a  way  to  force  the  leaves  to  the  surface  in 
a  proper  position,  as  soon  as  one  bit  reaches  the  surface.  The 
under  side,  on  the  other  hand,  is  always  wet,  and  carries  a  layer 
of  water  with  it  when  taken  out.  Neither  the  Lemna  nor  the 
larva  carries  with  it  a  coating  or  layer  of  air,  as  is  the  device  of 
many  surfaces  that  repel  water.  At  the  same  time  a  floating 
larva  creeps  away  under  a  leaf  without  any  obvious  effort, 
whilst  some  force  is  necessary  to  submerge  an  upper  surface 
of  Lemna  leaf ;  so  that,  though  the  water-repulsion  of  both 
seems  of  much  the  same  character,  it  is  weaker  in  the  case 
of  the  larva. 

June  18th.— Larvae  all  in  cases,  of  all  sorts  of  sizes  and 
shapes  ;  sometimes  all  the  pieces  are  cut  off,  and  the  cases  are 
portable ;  sometimes  one  side  is  the  under  surface  of  a  large  leaf 
of  Lemna,  and  the  case  is  a  fixture.  The  pieces  are  of  irregular 
shape,  roughly  triangular,  &c,  often  as  broad  as  long,  so  that 
no  sort  of  larva-shaped  case  results.  These  irregular  shaped 
pieces  are  also  of  various  sizes,  down  to  small  corners  of  leaves, 
often  sections  of  rootlets,  &c.  It  is  in  fact  somewhat  erroneous 
to  call  them  cases ;  they  are  really  shelters,  manufactured  as 
rapidly  as  possible  from  the  available  materials.  The  little 
larvae  also  appear  to  eat  freely. 

19th. — Examined  several  cases,  and  found  that  they  con- 
tained no  air — that  the  larva  lived  bathed  in  the  surrounding 
fluid  ;  the  simplest  way  to  verify  this  was  found  to  be  to  open 
the  case  under  water,  when  no  air  at  all  was  found. 

22nd. — Several  cases  examined  ;  the  larvae  were  found  to  be 
in  their  second  stages,  and  the  cases  now  contained  air.  The 
head  is  pale,  with  a  faint  dusky  tinting ;  the  prothoracic  plate  is 
large  and  very  black,  anal  plate  not  tinted,  and  looks  as  if  of 
same  texture  as  rest  of  larva.  The  larva  is  full  2  mm.  long, 
rather  thick,  large  head,  of  fairly  uniform  thickness  throughout 
(0'3  mm.).  The  hairs  are  now  (comparatively)  much  shorter 
(II=0'08  mm.)  ;  they  are  one  to  each  tubercle,  which  are  now 


EARLIER    STAGES    OF    CATACLYSTA    LEMNATA.  5 

large  oval  convex  scuta,  with  the  hair  central  (about  0*04  mm.  in 
diameter) ;  I  is  about  half  the  length  of  II ;  IV,  V  have  a  com- 
mon scutum,  posterior  hair  higher  ;  VI,  single  hair,  and  3  at 
base  of  proleg.  On  thorax  1  and  2,  I,  II,  III  and  IV  (?)  have 
each  two  hairs. 

In  preparing  a  skin,  the  silk  gland  was  broken  against  the 
glass,  and  the  contents  almost  immediately  afterwards  were 
found  to  have  glued  the  specimen  to  the  glass,  although  under 
water. 

June  27th. — Opened  two  cases;  found  the  larvae  of  two  dif- 
ferent ages,  one  (in  second  skin  ?)  pale  and  distended,  and  nearly 
as  large  as  the  other  (in  third  skin),  with  larger  head,  looking 
collapsed  and  nearly  black  ;  when  stretched  out  it  was  very 
much  paler  ;  length  about  3  mm. 

July  2nd. — Two  larvae  have  gone  much  ahead  of  the  others, 
and  are  very  large,  possibly  in  last  skin,  certainly  in  penul- 
timate. 

Left  a  number  of  larvae  in  a  multitude  of  glasses  on  July  4th. 
They  were  soon  reported  to  be  very  voracious.  Just  before 
July  12th  and  13t1i  had  fastened  themselves  to  sides  of  glasses, 
and  were  supposed  to  be  pupating,  but  they  cut  themselves  free, 
and  were  therefore  supposed  to  have  been  moulting ;  they  were 
now  in  need  of  much  fresh  duckweed,  as  they  were  very 
voracious.  They  then  pupated  without  calling  any  special 
attention  to  the  procedure,  and  on  July  22nd  two  moths  emerged. 
On  the  25th  seven  came  out,  and  many  had  emerged  since  22nd. 
On  27th  all  appeared  to  have  emerged.  On  Aug.  10th,  however, 
another  appeared,  and  on  12th  there  were  found  to  be  still  three 
larvae  feeding.  Whether  these  were  laggards,  or  intruders  intro- 
duced small  with  the  relays  of  duckweed,  must  remain  in  doubt ; 
one  was  preserved,  one  emerged  (a  male)  Sept.  1st,  and  one  was 
then  still  feeding.  This  one  was  still  alive  in  November,  and 
apparently  hybernating. 

The  cocoon  is  of  much  denser  (very  white)  silk  than  the 
larva- case,  though  made  within  it  (or  of  it),  and  on  the  emerg- 
ence of  the  moth  seems  almost  at  once  to  lose  its  water-resisting 
property. 

My  larvae  were  clearly  double-brooded,  but,  as  they  were  kept 
indoors,  and  in  (comparatively)  small  glass  vessels  exposed  to 
the  sun  whenever  it  shone  through  the  window,  this  part  of  my 
experience  cannot  safely  be  extended  as  applying  to  the  insect  in 
its  native  ponds. 

(To  be  continued.) 


(i 


THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 


NOTES   ON  THE    WAVE   MOTHS  (GENUS   ACIDALIA, 

Auct.)* 
By  Louis  B.  Prout,  F.E.S. 

In  the  above  title  I  have  retained  the  name  "  A  cidalia"  to 
which  the  moths  of  which  I  want  to  speak  have  been  so  generally 
referred  ;  but  there  are  two  objections  to  it,  and  I  am  only  using 
it  as  a  recognizable  appellation,  not  as  a  tenable  genus.  In  the 
first  place,  most  modern  authors  consider  it  "  preoccupied  "  by 
Acidalia,  Hb.  Verz.,  p.  31,  and  it  is  just  possible  that  was  really 
published  before  Acidalia,  Tr.  And  in  the  second  place,  even  if 
the  Geometrid  genus  (Acidalia,  Tr.)  has  really  the  prior  claim  to 
the  name,  its  true  type  should  evidently  be  brumata,  Linn., 
according  to  the  diagnoses  of  Schiffermiiller  (Fam.  K.)  and 
Treitschke. 

The  so-called  genus  "  Acidalia"  is  somewhat  nearly  related 
to  the  subfamily  which  is  generally  considered  typical  of  the 
entire  superfamily  Geometrides,  namely  the  subfamily  Geome- 
trinse,  or  "  emerald  moths."  The  name  of  "  wave  moths,"  given 
by  our  old  English  writers,  is  due  to  the  pattern  of  the  wings, 
which  is  of  a  tolerably  uniform  type  almost  throughout  them, 
consisting  of  a  succession  of  waved  dark  lines  traversing  both 
pairs  of  wings,  though  a  few  species  modify  the  pattern,  e.g., 
by  blotches,  especially  behind  the  outer  line.  Unfortunately, 
however,  this  is  a  rather  general — probably  primitive — type  of 
marking  in  the  Geometrides,  and  the  terribly  superficial  classifi- 
cations of  our  entomological  forefathers,  being  based  upon  mere 
wing- markings,  suffered  in  consequence.  Thus  Hubner  (Verz. 
bek.  Schmett.  pp.  308-12,  circ.  1825),  the  first  to  attempt  any 
elaborate  subdivisions,  created  one  stirps  for  practically  the 
whole  of  the  wave-marked  species,  giving  the  stirps,  for  no  very 
obvious  reason,  the  name  of  Sphecodes — "  wasp-like  "  ;  he  dia- 
gnoses it  thus  :  "  Body  very  slender,  wings  ample,  that  without 
markings,  these  marked  with  waved  lines  " — a  fair  sample  of 
the  classificatory  characters  which  satisfied  the  old  lepido- 
pterists.  As  may  be  imagined,  the  genera  in  this  stirps  or  family 
were  sometimes  decidedly  mixed  as  to  their  contents ;  thus, 
Lcptomeris  comprised  exanthemata  and  some  true  Acidaliids, 
Asthena,  candidata,  luteata,  and  some  true  Acidaliids,  and  so  on. 
This  is  neither  better  nor  worse  than  our  vernacular,  in  which 
exanthemata  is  the  "  dingy  white  wave,"  candidata  the  "small 
white  wave,"  and  so  on.  Even  so  recently  as  1857  the  French 
systematist,  Guenee,  retained  the  genus  Asthena  (candidata,  &c.) 
in  his  Acidalidse,  and  considered  that  his  Caberidse  (exanthemata, 
&c.)  also  had  considerable   affinity  with  them.     But  his  views 

*  Bead  before  the  North  London  Natural  History  Society,  November 
22nd, 1904. 


NOTES  ON  THE  WAVE  MOTHS.  ( 

were  already  a  little  "  behind  the  times  "  even  when  he  wrote; 
for  his  German  contemporaries,  Speyer,  Herrich-Schaeffer,  and 
Lederer,  had  for  some  years  been  investigating  classification 
upon  more  of  an  anatomical  basis — leg- structure  and  neuration 
in  particular — and  had  published  much  which  showed  that  the 
genera  in  question  belonged  to  three  very  distinct  groups,  and 
this  seems  fully  borne  out  by  studies  of  the  early  stages.  Asthena 
belongs  to  the  Larentiidre  (commonly  called  "  carpet  moths  ") 
rather  than  to  the  "  waves,"  while  Cabera  has  the  essential 
characteristics  of  the  great  family  Boarmiidse,  including  true 
Boarmia  (the  "oak  beauties,"  &c),  the  Fidoniinse  ("heath"  moths, 
&o.)i  and  many  others.  These,  therefore,  lie  quite  outside  the 
range  of  the  Acidaliae,  and  I  shall  dismiss  them  from  consideration. 

I  have  just  said  that  Guenee — whose  work  has  constantly  to 
be  referred  to  because  it  is  the  basis  of  Doubleday's  and  South's 
arrangements,  so  largely  used  by  British  workers — that  Guenee 
wrongly  includes  candidata,  &c.  (Astheninas)  in  his  family  Acida- 
liidae,  and  a  glance  at  South's  List  will  show  you  that  the  elimi- 
nation of  these  reduces  the  family  by  sis — four  species  of 
Asthena,  Eupisteria  obliterate/,,  and  Venusia  cambrica.  But  it  so 
happens  that,  by  way  of  compensation,  six  species  which 
Guenee  placed  in  a  different  family  immediately  before  Acidaliidse, 
namely,  his  Ephyriclas,  have  certainly  to  be  incorporated  therein. 
No  one  can  have  noticed  the  ova  or,  the  imaginal  characters  of 
Zonosoma  {Ephyra),  without  seeing  how  near  they  come  to  the 
"  Waves,"  and  even  the  highly  specialized,  butterfly-like  pupa 
has  clear  affinities  with  the  pupa  of  "  Acidalia."  Probably, 
however,  that  compact  little  group  can  still  stand  as  a  subfamily, 
Ephyrinae,  leaving  us  to  deal  with  the  typical  subfamily  Acida- 
liinse  (Sterrhinge)  or  "Waves"  proper.  By  an  absurdly  antiquated 
arrangement,  all  of  these  which  are  represented  in  Britain,  with 
the  single  exceptions  of  the  "  blood-vein  moth"  (Timandra)  and 
— in  some  authors — the  beautiful  little  muricata  (Hyria),  are  still 
allowed  to  stand  as  one  genus  (Acidalia),  not  only  in  our  British 
lists,  but  also  in  Staudinger  and  Bebel's  recent  '  Catalog'  of  the 
Palaaarctic  Lepidoptera.  There  is  no  doubt  still  much  work  to 
be  done  in  investigating  the  closer  affinities  of  one  species  with 
another,  but  the  fact  that  they  represent  at  least  three  distinct 
biological  groups  has  been  recognized  by  the  best  workers  for 
fully  half  a  century,  and  the  genera  which  Herrich-Schaeffer 
formed  from  the  anatomy  of  the  imago  are  supported,  so  far  as 
research  has  yet  proceeded,  by  marked  larval  distinctions,  and  I 
believe  by  those  of  the  egg  also.  Probably,  however,  even  the 
three  genera  will  prove  inadequate  when  the  larva?  have  been 
more  thoroughly  worked  through. 

The  only  English  text-book  which  has  yet  shown  us  these 
three  main  "genera"  is  Meyrick's  'Handbook  of  British  Lepi- 
doptera '  (London,  1895).    He  calls  the  genera  in  question  Eois, 


O  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Sterrha,  and  Leptomeris,*  only  ochrdta  going  to  sterrha.  I  shall 
speak  more  particularly  of  the  two  larger  genera  presently  ;  of 
the  early  stages  of  his  Sterrha  I  know  practically  nothing,  ex- 
cepting that  the  larvae  seem  somewhat  intermediate  in  form 
between  those  of  the  other  groups,  and  that  Mr.  Tutt  notes  dis- 
tinctive egg  characters.  In  Buckler's  '  Larvae  of  British  Butter- 
flies and  Moths'  (vii.  p.  82)  is  the  astonishing  italicized  statement 
that  "  its  (the  larva  of  S.  ochrata)  ventral  pair  of  legs  is  on  the 
eleventh  segment,"  which,  in  modern  nomenclature,  would  be 
the  seventh  abdominal ;  if  there  is  not  some  error  of  observation, 
this  distinction  would  be  of  far  more  than  generic  value,  but  I 
confess  that  I  can  hardly  credit  the  statement.  I  ought  to 
mention  here  that  Herrich-Schaeffer  founded  yet  a  fourth  genus 
upon  imaginal  leg-structure  for  A.  fumata,  naming  it  Pylarge, 
and  that  Meyrick  has  accepted  this  in  his  '  Handbook ' ;  but  the 
larva  seems,  from  all  accounts,  so  near  those  of  imrnutata  and 
remutata,  that  I  doubt  whether  it  could  not  better  have  been 
allowed  to  rest  in  Leptomeris,  as  in  Meyrick's  1892  '  Classifica- 
tion'  (Trans.  Ent.  Soc.  Lond.). 

A  few  other  attempts  to  isolate  aberrant  species  of  "Acidalia" 
may  be  very  briefly  mentioned.  Immorata,  with  its  warmer  and 
rougher  scaling,  tesselated  fringes,  and  less  characteristically 
"waved"  pattern,  was  placed  by  Guenee  in  Strenia,  along  with 
clathrata ;  but  this  was  entirely  erroneous.  Emarginata]  on 
account  of  its  peculiar  shape,  had  a  special  genus,  Ania,  erected 
for  it  by  Stephens  long  ago,  and  this  is  followed  by  Barrett  in  his 
new  book,  and  will  probably  prove  worth  adopting.  Barrett  also 
('  Lep.  Brit.'  viii.  p.  72)  uses  Timandra  (wrongly,  of  course,  as  the 
name  belongs  to  amata)  for  the  species  which  have  the  hind  wing 
angulated  ;  they  can  probably  for  the  present  remain  as  a  section 
of  Meyrick's  Leptomeris.  Rusticata,  being  our  only  British  wave 
with  a  "carpet  band"  (i.e.,  darkened  central  band)  originally 
got  placed  among  the  Carpets,  and  Stephens  in  his  1850  Cata- 
logue maintained  it  as  a  separate  genus  under  the  name  of  Cos- 
morhoe,  Hb.;  Hiibner  himself  (' Verzeichniss,'  p.  326),  had  some- 
what mixed  contents  for  his  Cosmorhoe,  namely,  galiata,  ocellata, 
rusticata.  The  question  of  the  exact  position  of  this  charming 
little  species  (rusticata)  is  a  somewhat  difficult  one ;  but  it  has 
long  been  recognized,  and  is  beyond  the  possibility  of  cavil  that 
it  is  a  true  "  Acidalia' "  in  the  broad  sense  in  which  I  have  used 
the  term  in  the  title  of  my  paper  this  evening.  Its  larva  is  one 
of  the  stout  and  rugose  ones  with  stiff,  clubbed  bristles,  and 
would  belong  very  well  with  interjectaria,  &c,  in  Ptychopoda  (= 

*  Eois,  as  Moore  and  Warren  have  pointed  out,  rightly  belongs  to 
russearia,  Hb.,  and  this  genus  should  be  called  Ptychopoda,  Steph.  Mey- 
rick's other  names  seem  historically  correct.  Warren  and  Swinhoe  have 
recently  substituted  Emmiltis,  Hb.,  for  Leptomeris,  but  Herrich-Schaeffer's 
prior  restriction  makes  pygmcearia,  Hb.,  the  type  of  Emmiltis,  which  is 
hence  a  quite  distinct  genus. 


NOTES  ON  THE  WAVE  MOTHS.  9 

Eois,  Meyr.),  in  which  genus,  indeed,  Meyrick  places  it.  But 
his  genus  rests  on  imaginal  characters  alone,  amongst  the  chief 
of  which  is,  "  posterior  tibiae  in  male  ....  without  spurs  "  ; 
whereas  those  of  rusticata  most  emphatically  have  the  terminal 
spurs,  and  well  developed.  This  circumstance  has  led  Herrich- 
Schaeffer  to  place  it  in  the  genus  which  Meyrick  calls  Sterrha, 
along  with  ochrata,  &c. 

I  am  afraid  I  shall  have  wearied  you  already  with  these 
intricacies  of  the  imaginal  classification,  but  I  thought  it  almost 
necessary  to  state  how  matters  stood  in  that  regard,  in  order  to 
be  able  to  compare  one  or  two  of  the  results  arrived  at  with  those 
obtainable  from  the  earlier  stages,  which  have  been,  in  this 
group,  too  much  neglected  from  the  systematist's  point  of  view, 
but  which  I  am  hoping  to  take  in  hand  as  opportunity  offers ; 
and  concerning  which  I  want  to  show  that  I  have  already 
made  a  commencement.  To  be  sure,  I  cannot  claim  to  have 
yet  discovered  anything  novel,  and  the  peculiar  hair- structures 
of  certain  of  the  larvae  have  been  mentioned  in  a  haphazard 
way  by  different  writers,  as  have  also  the  extreme  differences  in 
the  relative  length  and  thickness  in  various  members  of  the 
group  ;  but,  so  far  as  I  am  aware,  no  attempt  at  all  has  been 
made  to  correlate  the  imaginal  genera  with  the  larval.  This,  no 
doubt,  arises  from  the  fact  that  our  genus-makers  are  chiefly 
museum-workers,  who  know  nothing,  and  care  less,  about  the 
earlier  stages ;  for  instance,  the  celebrated  Dutch  entomologist, 
Heer  P.  C.  T.  Snellen,  who  not  so  long  ago  remarked,  very 
inaptly,  that  it  seemed  to  him  that  the  classifying  of  insects  by 
any  other  than  the  perfect  state  was  very  much  like  classifying 
men  and  women  by  the  shape  of  the  cap  which  their  grand- 
mothers wore  !  Surely  the  nearest  approach  which  can  be  made 
to  a  perfect  classificatory  system  will  be  made  by  those  who — 
like  Mr.  Tutt  and  his  collaborators  in  his  great  work,  '  British 
Lepidoptera  ' — endeavour  to  take  due  account  of  all  stages,  and 
all  characters,  of  course  with  an  adequate  recognition  of  their 
probable  relative  antiquity  and  stability,  and  so  forth,  under 
the  stress  of  the  manifold  operations  of  natural  selection. 

In  speaking  of  the  larvae  of  "  Acidalia,"  let  me  first  mention 
some  peculiarities  of  habit,  &c,  which  are  more  or  less  distinc- 
tive of  them,  and  which  may  readily  attract  the  attention  of  even 
the  casual  observer.  I  do  not  quite  know  how  best  to  arrange 
these  scattered  observations ;  but  perhaps  the  following  will 
satisfactorily  cover  the  ground,  viz.  :  when  they  are  found  ;  where 
they  are  found;  how  they  feed;  hoiv  they  are  protected.  In  one 
sense,  at  least  so  far  as  my  own  experience  is  concerned,  the  first 
two  might  almost  be  disposed  of  in  single  words — "nowhen" 
and  "  nowhere."  During  a  period  of  some  eighteen  years  as  a 
more  or  less  active  field-lepidopterist,  I  have  only  on  four  occa- 
sions, to  my  recollection,  found  an  "  Acidalia"  larva,  and  in  each 


10  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

instance  by  the  purest  "fluke."  Many  years  ago  I  remember 
meeting  with  a  full-grown  caterpillar  of  the  common  "  riband 
wave  "  {Ptychopoda  aversata)  crawling  on  a  tree-trunk  in  Epping 
Forest,  probably  searching  for  a  place  in  which  to  pupate.  And 
thrice  more  recently,  when  prying  about  amongst  a  mixture  of 
low-growing  plants  on  rough  broken  ground,  such  as  that  around 
the  "  Limpet  Kun  "  at  Sandown,  I  have  happened  upon  a  larva 
which  has  been  successfully  bred,  the  three  species  being  P.  in- 
terjectaria,  Leptomeris  imitaria,  and  L.  marginepunctata.  Yet  all 
these  four  species,  and  several  others  in  the  genus,  are  really 
quite  common — either  everywhere,  as  in  the  case  of  P.  aversata, 
or  locally,  as  in  that  of  the  other  three.  Hence  it  is  pretty  clear 
that  their  small  size  and  retiring  habits— the  latter  including  the 
fact  that  they  all,  or  nearly  all,  feed  upon  insignificant  growths 
close  to  the  ground,  shield  them  sufficiently  from  human  obser- 
vation ;  and  were  it  not  that  the  eggs  are  easy  to  obtain  from  a 
captured  female,  and  the  larvae  not  hard  to  rear,  we  should  probably 
know  comparatively  very  little  about  their  early  stages.  It  is 
only  right  to  add,  however,  that  a  few  entomologists,  such  as 
Dr.'  Rossler,  of  Wiesbaden,  seem  to  have  been  exceptionally 
gifted  at  finding  obscure  larvae  in  their  native  haunts,  and  have 
given  us  records  of  the  habits  and  habitat  of  quite  a  respectable 
number  of  the  species. 

If,  however,  I  cannot  say  much  about  when  the  larvae  are 
"  found,"  I  can  tell  you  definitely  when  they  are,  or  theoretically 
should  be,  finddble.  And  this  is  throughout  ten  or  eleven  months 
of  the  year — almost  any  time,  excepting,  say,  June  or  July  (when 
practically  all  the  imagines  are  out).  For  this  is  a  genus,  or 
group,  of  clearly-defined  habit  as  regards  the  general  course  of 
its  life-cycle.  1  remember  hearing  my  friend  Mr.  Bacot  tenta- 
tively suggest  a  fixed  hybernating  stage  as  a  possible  generic 
character — i.e.,  mark  of  close  phylogenetic  relationship  —  in 
certain  cases  amongst  the  Lepidoptera.  Of  course  neither  he 
nor  I  would  overpress  it ;  for  it  is  well  known  that  sometimes  the 
very  closest  allies  differ  in  this  respect,  so  that  it  would  even 
seem  as  though  the  physiological  isolation  which  formed  them 
into  species  were  actually  due  to  an  initial  divergence  in  the 
hybernating  habit ;  e.g.,  Cidaria  immanata  passes  the  winter  as 
an  egg,  its  twin  brother  C.  truncata  as  a  larva.  But  it  is  none 
the  less  true  that  several  thoroughly  natural  groups  have  main- 
tained complete  uniformity,  so  that  we  find  all  the  Acronyctae, 
all  the  Dianthoeciae,  &c,  hybernating  as  pupae,  all  the  great 
genus  Agrotis  as  larvae,  and  so  on.  Now  our  '  Acidalia '  seem  ab- 
solutely incapable  of  hybernating  in  any  other  state  than  that  of 
caterpillar,  and  the  apparent  inflexibility  of  this  rule  in  so  large 
a  group  seems  at  least  worthy  of  mention.  I  noticed  that  the 
Rev.  G.  H.  Raynor  commented  on  the  fact  in  a  recent  number  of 
the  '  Entomologist's  Record  '  (vol.  xvi.  p.  108)  ;  but,  misled  by 


SOME    TASMANIAN    CASE-BEARING    LEPIDOPTERA.  11 

defective  information  in  some  of  the  books,  be  thought  that  P. 
perochraria  afforded  a  possible  exception.  I  find  that  Bossier, 
from  whom  the  suggestion  was  supposed  to  emanate,  gives  no 
hint  of  anything  exceptional  in  its  hybernating  period. 

(To  be  continued.) 


SOME    TASMANIAN    CASE-BEARING  LEPIDOPTERA. 
By  Frank  M.  Littler,  F.E.S.,  M.A.O.U. 

(Concluded  from  vol.  xxxvii.  p.  315.) 

Oeceticus  ignobilis,  Walk. 

3  .  40  mm.  Head,  thorax,  and  abdomen  brownish  ochreous,  face 
whitish,  antenna?  ochreous,  legs  fuscous.  Fore  wings  elongate,  mode- 
rate; costa  nearly  straight;  termen  oblique,  semihyaline,  minutely  irro- 
rated  with  fuscous  scales,  thicker  towards  base  and  along  costa.  Hind 
wings  with  termen  rounded,  slightly  uneven  ;  colour  as  in  fore  wings  ; 
some  dull  ochreous  fuscous  hairs  towards  base  and  along  dorsum. 

$  .  15-20  mm.  Apterous.  Cream-coloured,  except  for  the  head 
and  thoracic  segments,  which  are  brownish ;  surface  naked,  except 
for  slight  pilose  fringe  of  short  yellowish  hairs  on  the  posterior 
segments. 

What  I  have  remarked  about  the  female  of  Clania  lewinii 
applies  with  equal  force  to  this  species.  Therefore  there  is  no 
necessity  to  repeat  myself.  This  species  is  not  so  plentiful  as 
the  previous  one  ;  its  case  is  formed  in  the  same  manner,  but  is 
longer  and  stouter.  Personally,  I  have  found  it  feeding  on 
eucalyptus  only.  The  habits  of  the  male  and  female  moths  are 
precisely  the  same  as  those  of  C.  lewinii. 

On  the  mainland  this  species  is  commonly  known  as  the 
"Lictor  Case-Moth,"  because  its  case  bears  some  resemblance  to 
the  fasces  or  bundles  of  rods  borne  by  the  lictors  of  old  before 
the  Ptoman  magistrates. 

Cebysa  conflictella. 

3  .  14-19  mm.  Fore  wings  very  deep  brown,  black  in  some 
lights,  powdered  with  minute  golden  scales  ;  along  the  costa  are  five 
orange-yellow  spots  at  practically  equal  distances  apart  ;  the  first  spot 
is  just  inside  the  apical  angle,  and  the  fifth  at  the  base  of  the  wing ;  the 
fringes  are  likewise  orange-yellow.  Hind  wings  same  colour  as  fore, 
but  with  more  orange-yellow  markings  ;  discoidal  cell  orange-yellow, 
also  apical  angle,  but  this  yellow  spot  is  absent  in  some  specimens  ; 
the  inner  margin  has  four  orange-yellow  spots  ;  fringes  orange-yellow. 
Under  side  same  as  upper.  Body  very  dark  brown,  tufts  on  side  of 
thorax  pale  yellow  ;  under  side  of  abdomen  orange-yellow. 

$  .  11-15  mm.  Semi-apterous.  Fore  wings  a  beautiful  shade  of 
peacock-green ;  apical  area  orange-yellow,  extending  one-fourth  ;  two 


12  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

orange-yellow  spots  on  costa  ;  fringes  yellow.  Hind  wings :  apical 
half  orange-yellow,  basal  half  peacock-green,  with  a  small  orange- 
yellow  spot  on  inner  margin  ;  fringes  yellow.  Body  :  upper  and  under 
sides  peacock-green.  Legs  same  colour.  Body  often  projects  6  mm. 
beyond  the  hind  wings. 

This  species  is  fairly  common  in  parts.  The  males  during 
February  and  March  may  often  be  seen  hovering  about  fences, 
especially  on  any  very  warm  day.  They  are  very  rapid  and  erratic 
flyers,  somewhat  difficult  to  capture.  This  last  summer  they 
were  more  numerous  than  usual.  The  females,  on  emerging, 
crawl  on  to  a  post  or  a  bough,  and  are  there  impregnated  by  the 
males.  They  cannot  fly  in  the  least,  but  can  run  very  fast,  with 
a  curious  ant-like  motion.  When  approached  they  immediately 
run  round  the  post  or  bough,  and  hide  in  some  crevice.  Very 
few  females  are  seen  in  proportion  to  the  number  of  males  ;  this 
is  perhaps  owing  to  their  shyness.  The  posterior  extremity  is 
elongate,  and  the  ovipositor  is  sheathed  in  long  fuscous  hairs. 
Eggs  dull  milky  white,  no  sign  of  any  markings  even  under  high 
magnification,  inclined  to  oval  in  shape.  They  are  laid  singly 
on  or  in  close  proximity  to  their  food-plants,  which  consist  of 
grasses  and  many  species  of  garden-plants  ;  also  members  of  the 
acacia  family.  The  larvae  are,  as  is  usual  with  many  species  of 
case-moths,  pale  yellowish  white,  with  the  head  and  thoracic 
segments  chitinous,  and  marked  with  black.  The  cases  are 
15  mm.  long  by  5  mm.  broad,  and  are  composed  of  silk  incrusted 
on  the  outside  with  minute  fragments  of  bark ;  no  twigs  are 
employed  in  their  structure.  They  are  flattened,  being  not  more 
than  3-4  mm.  deep.  The  under  sides  of  fence-rails  is  a  favourite 
locality  for  them,  as  are  also  the  crevices  in  the  bark  of  old 
acacia-trees.  The  larvae  reverse  in  the  usual  manner  before 
emerging  from  the  lower  end. 

Lepidoscia  magnella,  Walk. 

$  .  25  mm.  Head  yellow,  face  fuscous  ;  thorax,  antennae,  legs, 
and  abdomen  dark  fuscous  ;  thorax  yellow  anteriorly.  Fore  wings 
elongate,  moderate,  dark  fuscous,  markings  yellow  ;  a  diffused  spot  on 
inner  margin  ;  a  moderate  straight  fascia  from  before  middle  of  costa  to 
before  middle  of  inner  margin  ;  a  triangular  spot  on  costa  at  four- 
fifths  ;  a  smaller  spot  on  inner  margin  before  anal  angle  ;  a  spot  on 
termen  below  middle.  Hind  wings  dark  fuscous  ;  basal  third  ochreous 
yellow. 

?  .  12  mm.  Apterous.  Ochreous  brown.  Round  the  ovipositor 
is  a  dense  tuft  of  hair,  yellowish  brown  on  surface,  pale  yellow  at  tips, 
1'5  mm.  long. 

The  cases  of  this  species  are  often  very  plentiful  in  gardens, 
especially  on  apple-trees.  They  are  both  curious  and  interesting, 
being  composed  of  seven,  sometimes  eight,  segments,  each  formed 
by  regular  narrow  strips  of  wood,  5  mm.  long,  laid  on  in  a  slight 
spiral.      The  cases  are   cylindrical,    or  rather   cannon-shaped, 


SOME    TASMANIAN    CASE-BEAKING    LEPIDOPTERA.  l3 

somewhat  narrow,  broadest  at  base,  and  gradually  tapering  to 
apex  ;  up  to  40  mm.  in  length,  and  4  mm.  at  greatest  breadth. 

I  have  caught  but  one  male  moth  ;  it  was  very  weak  on  the 
wing.  The  others  I  have  bred.  The  female  is  quite  destitute  of 
wings,  and  is  a  very  sluggish  crawler.  She  never  strays  far 
from  her  case,  but  remains  an  inconspicuous  object  on  a  bough 
of  its  food-plant  until  impregnated.  Then  an  occurrence  takes 
place  which  I  am  at  present  at  a  loss  to  thoroughly  understand. 
On  cutting  open  a  number  of  cases,  I  have  found  eggs  sprinkled 
in  them  from  top  to  bottom.  These  eggs,  on  hatching,  have 
proved  to  be  those  of  this  species.  Does  the  moth,  after  impreg- 
nation, thrust  the  projecting  pupa-case  out  of  the  way  at  the 
posterior  aperture,  crawl  inside,  lay  her  eggs  among  the  silk 
lining  of  the  case,  crawl  out  again,  and  then  die  ?  Taking  into 
consideration  the  behaviour  of  the  female  of  Clania  lewinii,  such 
a  thing  is  quite  possible.  On  no  occasion  did  I  find  the  remains 
of  a  female  in  any  of  the  cases. 

At  present  I  see  no  other  explanation  possible  to  account  for 
the  eggs  getting  inside  the  cases.  They  are  round  in  shape,  and 
of  a  yellow  colour.  The  larvae  on  first  emerging  are  1  mm.  long, 
thorax  and  abdomen  yellowish,  and  the  head  black.  From  actual 
observations  I  found  that  the  first  case  is  made  exactly  in  the 
same  manner  as  that  of  C.  lewinii  or  0.  ignobilis.  The  full- 
grown  larvae  are  15  mm.  long  and  1*5  mm.  broad  ;  head  and 
thoracic  segments  striped  with  reddish  brown,  abdomen  yellowish 
white,  legs  dark  brown.  Their  food -plants  consist  of  a  number 
of  species  of  native  trees,  including  the  acacia  and  Casuarinese. 
Sometimes  they  become  very  destructive  in  fruit -gardens  by 
nibbling  through  the  young  shoots  on  apple-trees.  The  moths 
are  to  be  found  during  February  and  March. 

Xysmatodoma  adelopsis,  Meyr. 

$  .  25  mm.  Fore  wings  blackish  brown,  dusted  with  fine  silvery 
scales ;  running  from  costa  to  inner  margin  are  fine  interrupted  lines 
of  black.  Hind  wings  black,  almost  purple  in  some  lights ;  fringes 
same  colour.  Head  and  thorax  covered  with  moderately  long  silvery 
hair  ;  abdomen  brownish  black. 

$  .  35  mm.  Fore  wings  blackish  brown,  well  dusted  with  fine 
silvery  scales  ;  wavy  black  markings  not  so  pronounced  as  in  male. 
Hind  wings  dull  blackish  brown  ;  fringes  tinged  with  purple.  Head 
grey  and  thorax  black  ;  abdomen  blackish  brown. 

In  some  districts  the  cases  of  this  species  are  rather  plentiful 
on  their  favourite  food-plant,  acacia,  especially  A.  dealbata,  the 
silver-wattle. 

Both  male  and  female  moths  are  heavy  flyers,  especially  the 
latter.  The  cases  are  24  mm.  long  and  5  mm.  at  the  widest 
part,  tapering  off  slightly  towards  the  posterior  extremity.  They 
are  composed  of  very  fine  grains  of  bark,  tightly  fastened  to  a 


14  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

strong  silken  envelope.  But  rarely  is  a  fragment  of  twig  used. 
When  about  to  emerge  the  pupa-case  is  thrust  well  out  of  the 
posterior  aperture.     The  moths  emerge  in  February  and  March. 

Other  interesting  species  I  hope  to  deal  with  at  some  later 
date.  My  best  thanks  are  due  to  Mr.  Oswald  Lower,  F.E.S.,  of 
New  South  Wales,  for  very  kindly  running  me  out,  from  material 
supplied,  the  descriptions  of  Clania  leivinii  (male),  and  Lepidoscia 
magnella  (male). 

Launceston,  Tasmania  :  August,  1904. 


DESCBIPTIONS   OF  A    NEW  GENUS    AND   SOME    NEW 
SPECIES     OF    EAST     INDIAN     HYMENOPTERA. 

By  P.  Cameron. 

(Concluded  from  vol.  xxxvii.  p.  310.) 

CKABRONIDiE. 

Crabro  elvinus,  sp.  nov. 
Black  ;  the  scape  of  the  antenna,  two-thirds  of  the  pronotum,  a 
small,  transverse  pyriform  mark  on  the  sides  near  the  tegulae,  the 
greater  part  of  the  scutellum,  its  keels,  a  line  on  the  post-scutellum,  a 
line  down  the  base  of  the  mesopleuras,  an  interrupted  line  on  the  base 
of  the  third  abdominal  segment,  the  front  femora,  tibiae,  and  tarsi,  the 
apical  two-thirds  of  the  middle  femora,  the  apex  of  the  hinder  broadly 
— more  broadly  below  than  above — and  the  four  hinder  tibias,  yellow. 
Wings  fuscous,  the  stigma  fulvous,  the  nervures  darker.  $  .  Length, 
9  mm. 

Hab.     Himalayas. 

Head  with  the  front  and  vertex  closely  and  distinctly  punctured, 
the  former  more  strongly  than  the  latter ;  the  lower  part  of  the  front 
in  the  centre  smooth,  shining,  furrowed  and  covered  with  silvery 
pubescence  and  sparsely  with  long  fuscous  hairs.  Face  and  clypeus 
densely  covered  with  silvery  pubescence.  Mesonotum  opaque,  closely 
punctured  and  covered  with  long  fuscous  hair,  as  are  also  the  scutel- 
lums.  The  metanotal  area  bears  some  curved  strife,  and  is  bounded 
by  a  curved  keel  on  the  sides  ;  the  apical  slope  is  deeply  furrowed  in 
the  middle,  and  bears  some  curved  transverse  striae.  The  furrow  on 
the  base  of  the  mesopleuras  is  wide  and  deep,  and  bears  eight  transverse 
keels  ;  in  front  of  the  yellow  line  is  a  curved  keel.  Above  the  middle 
coxae  are  four  curved  keels  ;  there  is  an  oblique  keel  above  the  hinder 
coxas,  and  the  metapleura  is  bounded  at  the  apex  by  a  curved  keel. 
The  basal  segment  of  the  abdomen  becomes  gradually  wider  towards 
the  apex  where  its  width  is  about  two-thirds  of  the  total  length ;  the 
pygidium  is  bare,  closely  and  distinctly  punctured,  and  is  hollowed  in 
the  middle;  the  epipygium  is  thickly  covered  with  fuscous  pubescence. 
The  apex  of  the  radius  is  rounded. 


EAST    INDIAN    HYMENOPTERA.  15 

Crabeo  lysias,  sp.  nov. 

Black ;  the  scape  of  the  antennas,  an  interrupted  line  on  the  pro- 
notum,  and  two  large  transverse  marks  on  the  second  and  fourth 
abdominal  segments,  yellow ;  the  greater  part  of  the  front  tibia?,  the 
middle  at  the  base  and  apex,  tbe  hinder,  except  in  the  centre  behind, 
and  tbe  basal  joint  of  tbe  hinder  tarsi,  yellow.  Wings  hyaline,  the 
stigma  fulvous,  the  nervures  darker.      5  .     Length,  9-10  mm. 

Hah.     Himalayas. 

Clypeus  thickly  covered  with  dark  silvery  pubescence,  and  distinctly 
keeled  in  the  centre.  Mandibles  punctured  strongly,  but  not  closely 
at  the  base  ;  the  apical  teeth  equal  in  size,  large.  Front  and  vertex 
closely,  rugosely  punctured,  opaque,  more  shining  along  the  lower 
inner  orbits.  Ocelli  in  a  curve.  Mesonotum  opaque,  closely  rugose, 
a  narrow  furrow  in  the  centre  of  the  basal  half;  the  punctures  on  the 
scutellum  run  into  strife  at  the  apex.  Metanotal  area  irregularly, 
closely  longitudinally  striated  ;  a  deep  furrow  in  its  centre  ;  the  furrow 
becomes  wider  towards  tbe  apex,  and  is  united  to  tbe  furrow  on  the 
apical  slope,  which  is  obscurely  transversely  striated.  Tbe  upper  part 
of  the  propleurae  obliquely  striated  ;  below,  at  the  apex,  are  three  stout, 
oblique  keels.  Tbe  upper  part  of  the  mesopleuras  is  stoutly  striated, 
the  strife  curved  ;  the  lower  part  punctured,  tbe  punctures  running 
into  strife ;  tbe  basal  furrow  is  wide.  Metapleurae  obscurely  striated. 
Tibiaa  stoutly  irregularly  spined.  The  basal  half  of  the  pygidium  bears 
large  punctures  ;  the  apical  is  smooth,  hollowed,  narrowed,  and  keeled 
laterally ;  it  is  fringed  with  long  golden  hair. 

Comes  near  C.  argentatus  and  C.  bellus  in  Bingham's  ar- 
rangement. 

Crabro  menyllus,  sp.  nov. 

Black ;  the  scape  of  the  antennfe,  except  for  a  brownish  line  above, 
an  interrupted  line  on  tbe  pronotum  and  two  transverse  large  marks 
on  the  base  of  tbe  second  abdominal  segment,  yellow.  Wings  hyaline, 
the  nervures  and  stigma  dark  fuscous.      J  .     Length,  7  mm. 

Hab.     Himalayas. 

Front  and  vertex  closely  and  distinctly  punctured,  the  former  more 
strongly  than  the  latter,  which  is  not  furrowed,  and  is  covered  below 
with  silvery  pubescence.  Ocelli  in  a  curve.  Clypeus  not  keeled  or 
furrowed  in  the  centre ;  tbickly  covered  with  silvery  pubescence. 
Mandibles  black,  piceous  towards  the  apex.  Mesonotum  closely  and 
strongly  punctured,  and  thickly  covered  with  longish  pale  pubescence. 
Scutellum  closely  punctured,  less  strongly  and  obscurely  striated  at 
tbe  apex ;  the  extreme  apex  shining.  Post-scutelluin  closely  punc- 
tured, with  a  smooth  space  in  tbe  centre.  Metanotum  aciculated,  the 
base  closely  striated,  the  strife  stronger  and  oblique  on  the  sides  ;  the 
apical  slope  aciculated  and  closely,  but  not  strongly,  obliquely  striated. 
Mesopleurfe  distinctly,  but  not  very  closely,  punctured ;  the  meta- 
closely,  finely  obliquely  striated.  Petiole  as  long  as  the  second  and 
third  segments  united  ;  it  becomes  gradually  wider  towards  the  apex  ; 
the  third  and  following  segments  are  thickly  covered  with  fulvous 


16  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

pubescence,     Legs  normal ;  the  fore  tibia?  with  a  broad  yellow  band 
on  the  apical  half. 

This  species,  from  the  form  of  the  petiole,  is  allied  to 
C.  ardens  and  C.  odontophorus.  The  area  on  the  metanotum  is 
not  bounded  by  a  furrow;  the  furrow  on  its  apical  slope  is  wide 
and  deep  on  the  upper  half. 

Cerceris  flavoplagiata,  sp.  nov. 
Black  ;  the  upper  part  of  the  head,  the  mesonotum  and  scutellum 
red ;  the  head  and  thorax  largely  marked  with  yellow,  the  vertex  with 
four  yellow  marks  in  a  transverse  row  ;  the  abdomen  black,  the  sides 
of  the  first  segment,  the  base  of  the  second  broadly,  its  apex  and  that 
of  the  third,  fourth,  and  fifth  narrowly,  the  lines  becoming  gradually 
narrower,  two  marks,  wider  than  long,  on  the  base  of  the  third 
segment,  the  edge  of  the  pronotum  behind,  the  middle  of  the  propleura?, 
a  mark  behind  the  tubercles,  projecting  narrowly  upwards  at  the  base,. 
an  irregular  mark  on  the  lower  part  of  the  mesopleura?,  the  yellow 
turning  into  rufous  below  and  two  large  oval  marks  on  the  apex  of  the 
metanotum,  extending  on  to  the  metapleurae,  a  mark  on  the  sides  of 
the  scutellum  and  the  post-scutellum,  yellow.  Wings  hyaline.  ?  . 
Length,  12  mm. 

Hob.     Himalayas. 

Antennae  rufous,  darker  above,  the  scape  lined  with  yellow  below. 
Head :  the  lower  half  of  the  outer  orbits,  the  inner  broadly  from 
shortly  above  the  middle,  a  line  extending  from  the  ocelli  to  the  base 
of  the  antenna?,  dilated  below  and  to  a  less  extent  above,  the  face, 
clypeus,  aud  the  mandibles,  except  at  the  apex,  lemon-yellow ;  there 
is  a  black  line  commencing  shortly  behind  the  ocelli,  where  it  is 
obliquely  narrowed,  extending  down  the  sides  of  the  central  yellow  line 
to  the  base  of  the  clypeus.  Occiput  black  below.  Clypeus  roundly 
convex,  its  apex  almost  transverse,  rufous.  The  outer  marks  on  the 
vertex  are  irregularly  oval,  the  two  central  narrower,  longer,  and 
oblique.  The  whole  head  is  closely  and  strongly  punctured  ;  the 
clypeus  is  less  strongly  and  closely.  Thorax  punctured,  but  not 
strongly,  the  base  of  the  pronotum  shagreened.  Metanotal  area  closely 
but  not  very  strongly  punctured,  and  more  closely  on  the  sides  than 
in  the  centre.  The  rnetapleura?  at  the  base  above  with  some  stout, 
clearly  separated  stria,  the  lower  part  and  the  centre  finely,  indistinctly 
striated.  Four  front  legs  rufous,  mixed  with  yellow,  the  coxa?  and  the 
femora  for  the  greater  part  above,  black,  the  middle  tarsi  black  above ; 
the  hinder  coxa?  black,  with  a  yellow  line  in  the  centre  above,  the 
trochanters  for  the  greater  part  yellow,  the  femora  for  the  greater  part 
black,  their  tibia?  broadly  black,  as  are  also  the  tarsi.  Petiole  stout, 
of  nearly  equal  width  throughout,  fully  one-third  longer  than  wide. 
Pygidium  longitudinally  rugose,  of  almost  equal  width  throughout ; 
the  epipygium  with  the  apical  two-thirds  incised ;  the  incision  becoming 
gradually,  but  not  much,  widened  towards  the  apex.  The  basal  three 
ventral  segments  are  largely  marked  with  yellow. 

In  Bingham's  arrangement  this  species  would  come  in  near 
C.  tristis  and  G.  sutphurea. 


EAST    INDIAN    HYMENOPTERA.  17 

ANOPLINI. 

Anoplius  (Pompilus)  orodes,  sp.  nov. 

Black ;  densely  pruinose  ;  the  apex  of  the  hinder  femora  broadly 
and  the  hinder  tibiae  red  ;  the  wings  yellowish-hyaline,  the  apex  from 
the  end  of  the  radius  smoky ;  the  third  cubital  cellule  much  narrowed 
above.      ?  .     Long.  13  mm. 

Hah.     Darjeeling. 

Black  ;  pruinose  ;  the  abdomen  broadly  banded  with  white  pile  ; 
the  apical  third  of  the  hinder  femora  and  the  hinder  tibiae  red.  Head 
very  little  developed  behind  the  eyes ;  the  occiput  transverse.  Eyes 
parallel,  only  very  slightly  converging  above.  Ocelli  in  a  curve,  the 
hinder  separated  from  each  other  by  a  greater  distance  than  they  are 
from  the  eyes;  there  is  a  narrow  furrow  on  the  lower  half  of  the  front. 
Apex  of  clypeus  transverse,  its  sides  rouuded.  Thorax  smooth,  densely 
pruinose  ;  the  pronotum  is  as  long  as  the  head.  Median  segment 
large  ;  the  top  flat ;  the  apex  with  an  oblique  slope,  its  sides  slightly 
dilated ;  the  outer  edges  broadly,  roundly  dilated  ;  below  ending  in  a 
tooth.  The  first  and  third  transverse  cubital  nervures  are  broadly, 
roundly  curved ;  the  second  is  straighter  and  more  oblique ;  the  fuscous 
apical  cloud  commences  at  the  end  of  the  radial  cellule,  and  does  not 
extend  to  the  third  transverse  cubital  nervure  ;  the  third  cubital  cellule 
is  greatly  narrowed  above. 

Comes  near  to  P.  incognitas,  Cam.,  but  is  a  larger  and  stouter 
insect ;  has  the  third  cubital  cellule  not  petiolate,  the  apex  of 
the  median  segment  not  thickly  covered  with  silvery  matted 
pubescence,  and  the  wings  are  not  uniformly  infuscated.  It  has 
the  coloration  of  P.  pedestris,  but  it  wants  the  transverse  furrow 
on  the  second  ventral  segment  found  in  that  species. 

Obs. — P.  vischnu,  Cam.,  has  nothing  to  do  with  P.  incognitas, 
Cam.,  as  Bingham  suggests  (Hym.  of  India,  157).  It  would  be 
much  better  when  an  author,  in  a  monographic  work,  cannot 
quote  a  species  with  certainty  as  a  synonym,  to  give  the  original 
description  in  full.  Vischnu,  Cam.,  has  the  legs  entirely  black, 
and  has  not  the  hinder  femora  and  tibiae  red,  as  in  incognitus. 
It  is  related,  as  I  have  stated  (Manr.  Memoirs,  1891,  469), 
to  P.  vivax,  Cam.  So,  too,  on  p.  169,  hero,  Cam.,  is  doubtfully 
referred  to  P.  rothneyi.  There  are  considerable  differences  in 
coloration  between  them,  and  although  the  two  might  be  sexes 
of  one  species,  it  would  have  been  better,  and  have  saved  the 
student  trouble,  if  the  original  description  had  been  given  in  full, 
seeing  that  the  identity  of  the  two  species  was  so  doubtful. 


ENTOM. — JANUARY,    1905. 


18  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

A   PRELIMINARY   LIST   OF   THE    LEPIDOPTERA   OF 

MALTA. 
By  Thomas  Bainbrigge  Fletcher,  R.N.,  F.E.S. 

(Concluded  from  vol.  xxxvii.  p.  319.) 

2429.  T.  parva,  Hb. — Common  ;  occurs  in  June  and  October,  and 
probably  throughout  the  summer.  A  specimen  taken  on  October  Gtli , 
1903,  is  ab.  rubs  facta,  Mab. 

2490.  Emmelia  (Erotyla)  trabealis,  Sc.  (sulphuralis,  Linn.). — Not 
common.     Marsa ;  May  lGtb,  1901,  and  June  7th,  1902. 

2557.  Plusia  cJialcytes,  Esp.  One  specimen ;  at  light ;  October 
11th,  1903. 

2562.  P.  gamma,  Linn. — Common  from  March  onwards. 

2583.  Metoptria  rjnonogramma,  Hb.  —  Common,  but  very  local. 
Occurs  in  grassy  places  in  the  wieds  in  April  and  May.  Birzebbugia 
(Mathew) ;  Wied  Kratal ;  Mnaidra. 

2818.  Hypena  obsitalis,  Hb. — Common  in  shady  places  and  caves 
from  May  to  October.     The  variation  is  very  great. 

2820.  H.  lividalis,  Hb.  —  Not  common.  May  24th,  1902,  and 
November  14th,  1903. 

2897.  Eucrostes  indigenata,  Yill. — One  specimen ;  October  11th,  1902, 

2971.  Acidalia  asellaria,  H.S.— '«  28th  March,  1891 "  (dela  Garde). 
I  have  a  specimen,  beaten  from  carouba  May  24th,  1902,  which  I  doubt- 
fully refer  to  this  species. 

2983.  A.  virgularia,  Hb. — "  Male,  pale  form  (var.  australis,  Zell.) ; 
May  1898  (is  not  this  rather  early  for  '  gen.  aest.  ?'),  Mathew's  coll." 
(Prout,  Entom.  xxxvi.  p.  204.) 

3032.  A.  (Idaa) filieata,  Hb. — One  specimen;  May  16th,  1901. 

3143.  Tthodometra  (Sterrha)  sacraria,  Linn. — Common  from  April 
to  October. 

3220.  Anaitis  plagiata,  Linn. — Common  from  February  to  October. 

3340.  Larentia  salicata,  Hb.  Yenusia  sp.  (de  la  Garde).  Common 
in  February  and  March.  Maltese  specimens  rather  incline  to  var. 
ablutaria,  Bdv. 

3344.  L.  jiuctnata,  Linn. — "Female,  dated  3rd  March,  1897;  an 
extremely  interesting  aberration,  the  markings  being  all  excessively 
weak,  notwithstanding  that  the  specimen  is  in  immaculately  perfect 
condition — Mathew's  Coll."  (Prout,  Entom.  xxxvi.  p.  204.) 

3481.  L.  {Camptogramma)  UUneata,  Linn. — Common  in  March  and 
April.     Boschetto,  Zurrico,  &c. ;  beaten  out  of  ivy,  &c.  (Mathew). 

3658.  Tephroclystia  pumilata,  Hb. — Common  ;  February  to  June. 
Maltese  examples  seem  intermediate  between  the  northern  form  and 
var.  tempe&tivata,  Z. 

3948.  Gnophos  variegata,  Dup. — Not  uncommon  in  the  early  spring. 
This  species  is  beautifully  protected  by  its  coloration  when  at  rest  on 
the  rocky  sides  of  the  wieds. 

4075.  Aspilates  gilvaria,  Fb. — Mr.  Mathew  [in  litt.)  informs  me  of 
the  occurrence  of  this  species. 

4077.  A.  ochrearia,  Rossi,  (citraria,  Hb.). — Common  from  March 
to  May. 


PRELIMINARY  LIST  OF  THE  LEPIDOPTERA  OF  MALTA.      19 

4168.  Phraymatobia  fuliyinosa,  Linn. — Not  uncommon  in  March. 
I  have  found  the  larva  in  May,  so  there  is  probably  another  brood 
which  emerges  in  the  summer  and  oviposits  in  the  early  autumn. 
Maltese  specimens  seem  to  incline  to  v&v.fervida,  Stdgr. 

4203.  Arctica  villica,  Linn. — One  crushed  larva  upon  a  road  near 
Zurrico  (Mathew). 

4238.  Cymbalophora  (Euprepia)  pudica,  Esp. — Common  from  July 
to  October.  The  larvae  are  common  under  stones,  in  waste  places, 
from  January  to  March ;  they  feed  by  night  on  various  kinds  of  grass. 

4249.  Euprepia  (Coscinia)  striata,  Linn,  (grammica,  Linn.). — One 
specimen ;  July,  1897  ;  valley  leading  down  to  Birzebbugia  (Mathew). 

4257.  Utetheisa  (Deiopeia)  pulchella,  Linn. — I  never  met  with  this 
species,  which  appears  to  be  scarce  as  a  rule,  but  intermittently 
abundant.  There  seem  to  be  two  (?  three)  broods,  as  dates  noted 
are : — May  9th  (de  la  Garde) ;  beginning  of  August,  1892  (Caruana- 
Gatto)  ;  and  October  25th,  1897  (Mathew).  Mr.  Caruana-Gatto  gives 
us  an  interesting  note  on  the  spasmodic  abundance  of  the  species  in 
1892.  He  writes  (Medn.  Nat.  vol.  ii.  p.  239,  September,  1892):— 
"  It  is  worthy  of  notice  that  this  pretty  moth  has  occurred  in  unusual 
abundance  this  year,  and  at  the  moment  of  writing  (August  10th), 
and  for  a  fortnight  past,  it  has  been  the  commonest  moth  to  be  seen 
on  the  wing.  I  do  not  remember,  in  fact,  ever  having  had  occasion 
to  record  such  extraordinary  numbers  of  any  butterfly  or  moth.  In 
the  open  country,  and  in  fields,  especially  where  the  Heliotropium 
europmum  (on  which  the  Deiopeia  feeds)  grows,  it  is  a  most  curious 
sight  to  see  the  innumerable  quantities  of  this  pretty  species,  fluttering 
here  and  there,  looking  like  large  animated  snowflakes.  Nor  is  it  only 
by  daylight  that  the  moth  appears,  but  also  in  the  night  it  is  found, 
attracted  by  the  lights.  Mr.  R.  Bnffa,  a  friend  of  mine,  and  a  gentle- 
man greatly  interested  in  our  Lepidoptera,  was  telling  me  that  at 
Sliena  there  were  thousands  of  the  species  flitting  about  in  every  part 
of  the  gardens  and  fields.  The  same  may  be  said  of  all  other  parts  of 
the  island,  as  I  have  seen  the  Marsa,  Corradino,  Notabilo,  Attard,  and 
many  other  places,  teeming  with  this  moth  and  its  caterpillar." 

"  As  to  the  cause  of  such  an  unusual  frequence,  I  believe  it  is  to  be 
referred  to  the  rains  which  fell  during  the  late  spring  causing  an  over- 
growth of  the  Heliotropium.  The  extra  abundance  of  this  plant  .  .  . 
may  therefore  in  a  measure  account  .  .  .  for  the  unusual  numbers  of 
this  insect." 

Psyche  sp.  —  Larvae  are  abundant  during  the  spring,  and  feed  on 
various  kinds  of  grass.     The  moth  appears  in  August. 

4641.  Trypanus  (Cossus)  cossas,  Linn,  [ligniperda,  Fb.).  —  Mr. 
Mathew  notes  that  he  has  often  smelt  the  larva  of  this  species.  I 
cannot  help  thinking  that  it  is  of  rather  doubtful  occurrence  in  Malta, 
and  even  then  ouly  as  a  casual  importation  in  trees. 

II.  257.  Ephestia  calidella,  Gn. — One  specimen.     April  5th,  1902. 

377.  Heteroyraphis  convexella,  Led.  One  specimen.  June  14th, 
1902. 

401.  Oxybia  transversella,  Dup. — Two;  June  7th  and  14th,  1902. 

516.  Bradyrrhoa  cantenerella,  Dup.  —  Fairly  common  at  the  end 
of  May. 

c  2 


20  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

825.  Aglossa  plngulnalis,  Linn.—"  28th  March,"  1891  (de  la  Garde). 

836.  Pyralis  farinalis,  Linn. — Common  from  March  to  May  ;  pro- 
bably throughout  the  year. 

927.  Duponchelia  fovealls,  Zell. — One  specimen  ;  April  14th,  1902. 

1039.  Nomophila  noctuella,  Schiff.  —  Abundant  throughout  the 
year.  The  dates  of  capture  of  my  specimens  range  from  February 
24th  to  June  7th ;  the  variation,  however,  does  not  seem  to  depend 
on  the  season  of  emergence. 

1058.  Phi  yet  anodes  nudalis,  Hb. — One  specimen  ;  October  10th, 
1903. 

1151.  Pionea  ferrurjalis,  Hb.  —  Common  from  March  to  June. 
Specimens  range  from  pale  straw-colour  to  dark  yellowish  brown. 

1274.  Cornifrons  ulcer ataiis,  Ld. —  "  March  (var.)." —  De  la  Garde. 

1291.  Noctuelia  floralis,  Hb. — Common  from  June  to  September, 
flying  in  the  sunshine  over  fields,  and  feeding  on  flowers  of  wild  thyme. 

1365.  Aluclta  tetradactyla,  Linn. — Common  from  April  to  June; 
Wied  Kratal. 

1387.  Pterophorm  monodactylus,  Linn.  (?) — One  specimen;  June 
14th,  1902.  This  identification  appears  doubtful.  If  correct,  the 
specimen  is  very  small,  but  I  have  a  similar  one  from  Greece. 

1406.  Stenoptilia  bipunctidactyla.  Haw.,  var.  plagiodactyla,  Stt. — 
One  specimen  ;  April  6th,  1902. 

1437.  Orneodes  hexadactyla,  Linn. — One  specimen ;  January  14th, 
1902. 

1573.  Tortrix  pronubana,  Hb. — Fairly  common  in  April. 

1608.  Cnephasia  longana,  Hw.  (Ictericana,  Hw.).  —  Common  in 
March  and  April. 

1811.  Eitxanthis  straminea,  Hw. — One  specimen;  May  24th,  1902. 

1832.  Phtheochroa  duponcheliana,  Dup. — One  specimen;  May  15th, 
1902. 

2447.  PluteUa  maculipennis,  Curt,  (cmci feramm, Zell.). — Common  in 
February. 

Depressaria,  sp. — Common  in  May  and  August.  The  green  larvae 
were  common,  spun-up  in  leaves  of  wild  fennel,  in  Wied  Kratal,  at 
the  beginning  of  April,  1902.  Pupation  takes  place  in  a  cocoon  formed 
of  fragments  of  the  fennel-leaves. 

4693.  Nemotois  latreillellus,  Fb. — Common  in  May,  but  very  local. 
I  have  seen  the  males  flying  around  thistle-flowers  in  the  hot  afiernoon 
sunshine. 

In  addition  to  the  foregoing,  I  have  some  fifteen  species 
which  as  yet  I  have  been  unable  to  identify. 

Finally,  I  cannot  conclude  better  than  by  thanking  those  to 
whose  courtesy  I  am  indebted  for  making  the  foregoing  list  as 
complete  as  possible.  To  Sir  George  Hampson  my  warmest 
thanks  are  due,  for  valuable  assistance  in  enabling  me  to  identify 
many  doubtful  species ;  and  also  to  Mr.  Gervase  F.  Mathew,  for 
his  extreme  kindness  in  supplying  information,  and  for  the  loan 
of  some  of  the  specimens  from  his  own  collection. 


21 


A   NEW    GENUS    AND    SPECIES    OF    L ABRIDGE   FROM 
CENTRAL    AMERICA. 

By  P.  Cameron. 

On  bringing  together  recently,  for  the  purpose  of  study,  my 
neo-tropical  specimens  of  Odynerus  nasidens  and  allies,  I  found 
among  them  a  species  of  Larrida?  which  agreed  almost  exactly 
with  0.  nasidens,  having  the  same  size,  golden  pubescence,  wing- 
coloration,  and  form.  It  belongs  to  the  Lyrodinae,  and  comes 
closest  to  Heliocausus,  which  may  be  known  from  it  by  the 
transverse  median  nervure  being  received  behind  the  transverse 
basal,  by  the  cubitus  in  hind  wings  being  received  much  behind 
the  median,  by  the  recurrent  nervures  being  widely  separated, 
he  first  behind  the  middle,  and  by  the  eyes  converging  above. 

Icuma,  gen.  nov. 
Eyes  parallel,  not  converging  above,  reaching  to  the  base  of  the 
mandibles.  Ocelli  in  a  triangle.  Clypeus  short,  its  apex  broadly 
rounded.  Mandibles  not  incised  below,  the  apical  tooth  long.  Temples 
broad,  obliquely  narrowed  ;  the  occiput  transverse.  Pronotum  very 
short.  Scutellums  large.  Median  segment  short,  gradually  rounded, 
the  basal  area  large,  closely  striated.  Tibia?  and  tarsi  spined,  the  fore 
tarsi  ciliated  with  long  stout  spines  on  the  outer  side ;  claws  long, 
curved,  without  a  spine.  Abdomen  short,  ovate ;  the  pygidial  area 
distinct.  Antenna?  short,  placed  close  to,  but  clearly  separated  from, 
the  clypeus.  Kadial  cellule  long,  its  apex  narrowed,  but  bluntly 
pointed  ;  the  transverse  median  nervure  received  clearly  beyond  the 
transverse  basal ;  the  recurrent  nervures  are  received  in  the  apical 
third  of  the  second  cubital  cellule  ;  the  cubitus  in  hind  wings  origin- 
ating shortly  beyond  the  transverse  median. 

Icuma  sericea,  sp.  nov. 
Black,  covered  densely  with  a  pale  golden  pile  ;  the  under  side  of 
scape,  an  irregular  line  across  the  middle  of  the  clypeus,  a  line  on  the 
lower  half  of  the  inner  orbits  on  the  apex  of  the  pronotum,  a  narrow 
one  on  the  second  abdominal  segment,  more  than  the  apical  half  of 
the  third,  and  the  whole  of  the  other  segments,  fulvous  yellow.  Legs 
black,  a  line  on  the  under  side  of  the  femora,  on  the  under  side  of  the 
tibiae,  and  on  the  posterior  at  the  basal  half  behind,  fulvous  yellow. 
Wings  fulvous  hyaline,  clearer  at  the  apex,  the  radial  cellule  and  the 
basal  two  cubitals  smoky ;  stigma  and  costa  fulvous,  the  nervures 
darker.     ?  .    Length,  12  mm. 

Panama,  Pacific  side. 

Head  with  scattered  punctures,  the  face  and  clypeus  more  shining 
than  the  rest.  Thorax  distinctly  but  not  closely  punctured,  the  meta- 
noturn  more  strongly  than  the  rest ;  the  stria?  on  the  basal  area 
distinct,  rather  stout,  clearly  separated.  Abdomen,  except  the  pygidial 
area,   almost  impunctate ;    the  area   with   longish,  clearly  separated 


22  THE   ENTOMOLOGIST. 

punctures  in  rows.  The  second  cubital  cellule  is  the  smallest,  and  is 
narrowed  in  front ;  the  first  and  second  abscissas  of  the  radius  are 
equal  in  length  ;  together  they  are  equal  in  length  to  the  third.  Hind 
ocelli  separated  from  each  other  by  a  slightly  greater  distance  than 
they  are  from  the  eyes.  Basal  four  joints  of  flagellum  rufo-fulvous 
below  ;  the  first  joint  of  flagellum  is  shorter  than  the  following  two 
united. 

The  form  of  coloration  shown  by  this  species  is  found  in 
various  genera  and  species  of  neo-tropical  Vespidae.  I  have  a 
Chartergus  which  resembles  it  very  closely. 


NOTES     AND     OBSERVATIONS. 

Colias  edusa  reared  from  Ova  in  1904. — Last  August  I  received 
from  a  friend  twenty  ova  of  Colias  edusa,  which  were  deposited  by  a 
female  taken  by  him  at  Sidmouth,  South  Devon,  in  the  same  month. 
These  hatched  on  the  30th,  and  feeding-up  on  clover  all  the  larva? 
pupated  from  Sept.  25th  to  Oct.  16th.  I  then  moved  the  pupa?  into  a 
warm  room  and  they  began  to  change  colour  on  Oct.  19th.  Nineteen 
fine  imagos  emerged  from  Oct.  23rd  to  Nov.  4th,  eight  males  and 
eleven  females,  one  of  the  latter  being  without  the  yellow  spots  in  the 
black  hind-marginal  band  on  the  fore  wings. — J.  B.  Morris;  14,  Rane- 
lagh  Avenue,  Barnes,  Dec.  12th,  1904. 

Teratological  Specimen  of  Hybernia  defoliaria. — It  may  be  of 
interest  to  note  that  on  Nov.  20th  I  captured  at  West  Wickharn  a 
recently  emerged  male  specimen  of  Hybernia  defoliaria  in  which  both 
wings  on  the  right  side  are  entirely  absent.  The  antenna?,  legs,  and 
the  wings  on  the  left  side  are  perfectly  developed  and  quite  normal ; 
but  there  is  no  trace  of  even  the  rudiments  of  wings  on  the  right 
side. — A.  B.  Kidner  ;  139,  Rosendale  Road,  West  Dulwich,  S.E., 
Dec.  12th,  1904. 

Monk's  Wood  and  Thecla  pruni. — It  will,  I  fear,  be  a  great  dis- 
appointment to  entomologists  in  general  to  hear  that  Monk's  Wood, 
near  Huntingdon,  is  now  closed  to  the  public.  Lord  Chesham,  the 
owner,  is  at  present  preserving  game  in  this  wood  so  closely  that  the 
keepers  have  strict  orders  to  forbid  the  entrance  of  entomologists. 
The  result  of  this  will,  no  doubt,  be  an  increased  difficulty  in  obtaining 
a  good  series  of  T.  pruni,  for,  although  the  species  does  occur  else- 
where— notably  at  Barnwell  Wold — still  Monk's  Wood  may  be  regarded 
as  its  headquarters  in  the  British  Isles.  So  much  so  that  those  desir- 
ing to  take  T.  pruni  with  their  own  hands  have  for  the  last  hundred 
years  undertaken  a  pilgrimage  to  this  celebrated  Midland  wood.  At 
various  times  I  have  had  the  pleasure  of  looking  through  many  of  the 
best  collections  of  British  Lepidoptera,  and  I  think  I  may  safely  say 
that  the  two  obtainable  species  that  are  least  adequately  represented 
are  T.  pruni  and  Carterocephalus  pal&mon — but  more  especially  the 
former.  Caught  specimens  are  the  rule,  generally  brown  with  age,  or 
torn,  or  bereft  of  many  scales.      In  iact,  T.  pruni,  like  T.  w-album, 


NOTES    AND    OBSERVATIONS.  23 

to  be  really  fine,  must  be  bred.  It  is  tben  of  an  intensely  black  hue 
(instead  of  black-brown)  and  is  a  decidedly  "taking"  species.  C. 
palamon  is  almost  equally  local,  but  is  fortunately  much  easier  to  obtain 
in  fine  condition,  if  captured  when  it  first  appears  at  the  end  of  May. 
I  suspect  tbe  reason  one  so  seldom  sees  a  fine  representative  series  is 
that  very  few  collectors  live  within  reach  of  this  most  charming 
member  of  the  Hesperidas.  To  some  collectors  the  idea  of  placing  a 
monetary  value  on  British  Lepidoptera  is  altogether  repugnant,  But 
I  must  confess  that  to  me  it  seems  tbe  only  feasible  method  of  deter- 
mining the  relative  value  of  the  different  species,  and  I  do  not  mind 
confessing  that  I  am  always  deeply  interested  in  the  prices  charged  by 
reliable  dealers  or  realized  at  London  auctions.  Most  of  us,  I  think, 
occasionally  buy  species  we  see  no  other  possibility  of  obtaining,  but 
any  one  who  thinks  he  can  buy  really  fine  specimens  of  pruni  and 
palamon  at  the  usual  quotations  is  grievously  mistaken.  I  myself  have 
bought  a  good  deal  of  late  years,  but  have  never  succeeded  in  purchas- 
ing a  single  fine  bred  specimen,  or  a  single  larva,  of  T.  pruni,  although 
I  have  commissioned  the  chief  dealers  to  procure  me  the  latter  even  at 
so  high  a  price  as  2s.  each.  I  reallv  think  that  a  fine  bred  pruni, 
compared  with  other  British  butterflies,  is  quite  worth  5s.,  and 
palamon  I  should  estimate  at  2s.  With  regard  to  the  range  of  pruni 
in  these  islands,  I  find  old  records  of  its  occurrence  at  Linford  Wood, 
near  Stony  Stratford  (Entom.  vii.  175)  and  at  Beaumont,  Berks 
(Eutom.  xvii.  267)  ;  but  at  the  latter  place  the  (single)  specimen  was 
only  seen.  I  wonder  if  any  of  your  readers  have  come  across  pruni 
elsewhere  than  in  its  Northamptonshire  and  Huntingdonshire  haunts. 
— (Rev.)  Gilbert  H.  Raynor  ;  Hazeleigh  Rectory,  Maldon,  Dec.  13th, 
1904. 

The  Noctuid  Genus  Ala. — The  name  of  this  genus  (Staudinger, 
1882)  was  used  by  Lockington  for  a  crustacean  in  1877.  Hence  the 
later  name  Trichanarta,  Hampson,  1896,  will  stand,  and  the  three 
species  will  be  known  as  Trichanarta  picteti  (Ala  picteti,  Staud.),  T. 
pretiosa  (Alapretiosa,  Alph.),  and  T.  ladakensis  (Anarta  ladakensis,  Feld.). 
t.  d.  a.  cockerell. 

The  Entomological  Collections  in  the  Oxford  University 
Museum. — In  the  "  Sixteenth  Annual  Report  of  the  Delegates  of  the 
University  Museum  "  (for  1903)  will  be  found  an  exceedingly  interest- 
ing account  of  work  completed,  in  hand,  or  to  be  undertaken,  con- 
nected with  the  entomological  collections  in  the  Hope  Department  of 
the  Museum.  Some  idea  of  the  thoroughness  with  which  the  labours 
are  there  conducted  may  be  gathered  from  the  following  excerpt  from 
Dr.  Dixey's  account  of  work  upon  the  Pierinaa  which  is  embodied  in 
the  "  Report  of  the  Hope  Professor  of  Zoology"  (pp.  21-69). 

"  In  1893  the  Pierinas  in  the  Hope  Collection  occupied  about  fifty 
drawers  ;  they  were  to  some  extent  sorted  out  into  genera  and  species, 
but  the  arrangement  did  not  pretend  to  critical  exactness,  nor  did  it 
profess  to  represent  the  existing  knowledge  of  the  different  species  with 
their  distribution  and  affinities.  There  were  no  labels  except  those  in 
'  MS.  attached  to  the  individual  specimens.  These  were  often  elaborate 
and  written  with  much  care  ;  but  they  could  not,  as  a  rule,  be  read 
without  the  removal  of  the  specimen  from  the  cabinet.     The  greater 


24  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

number  of  the  species  were  grouped  together,  but  several  were  de- 
tached from  the  general  arrangement,  aud  had  to  be  sought  in 
different  parts  of  the  collection.  For  reasons  of  this  kind  the  dif- 
ficulties in  the  way  of  making  an  effective  study  of  the  group  were 
very  great. 

"  At  the  present  time  the  space  devoted  to  the  Pierinae  consists  of 
five  cabinets  of  sixty  drawers  each — three  hundred  drawers  in  all. 
Each  specimen  has  been  carefully  considered  and  placed  in  the  position 
that  may  best  illustrate  its  natural  affinities  and  relation  to  conditions 
of  locality  and  season.  The  genera  and  species  have  been  indicated 
throughout  by  easily-read  labels,  and  synonyms  have  been  added  when 
they  possess  special  interest  or  importance.  The  order  of  the  species 
within  each  genus,  and  of  the  genera  within  the  subfamily,  has  been 
determined  with  the  view  of  exhibiting  the  probable  relationship  of 
the  various  forms  on  a  phylogenetic  basis.  With  every  genus  and 
every  species  a  map  is  given,  coloured  to  show  the  present  distribution 
of  the  particular  assemblage  on  the  earth's  surface.  Within  the  limits 
of  each  species  the  individual  specimens  are  arranged  geographically, 
according  to  a  uniform  plan ;  seasonal  modification  of  forms,  where  it 
exists,  is  duly  indicated  by  special  labels." 

iEscHNA  mixta  in  Epping  Fokest. — Henry  Doubleday  is  apparently 
not  properly  entitled  to  hold  the  Epping  Forest  record  for  M.  mixta. 
In  his  list  of  1871,  Doubleday  speaks  of  this  dragonfly  as  being  on  the 
wing  as  early  as  June — in  fact,  his  observations  are  confined  to  that 
month.  Now,  we  claim  to  have  a  particularly  close  acquaintance 
with  mixta  in  the  Epping  Forest  district,  and  we  have  never  met  with 
the  species  before  September ;  indeed,  its  flight  seems  to  be  restricted 
to  that  and  the  succeeding  month.  We  think  it  is  pretty  clear  that 
Doubleday  wrongly  identified  some  other  species  as  mixta,  or,  alter- 
natively, failed  to  keep  a  proper  note  of  the  dates  of  capture  or  observa- 
tion. —  F.  W.  &  H.  Campion  ;  33,  Maude  Terrace,  Walthamstow, 
Essex,  Oct.  31st,  1904. 

[It  certainly  seems  to  be  the  case  that  ;E.  mixta  does  not  appear 
before  August. — W.  J.  L.] 


CAPTURES  AND  FIELD  REPORTS. 

Sphinx  (Agrius)  convolvuli  in  Hampshire. — S.  convolvuli  has  been 
common  here  this  season  wherever  the  tobacco-plant  was  grown.  A 
cat  belonging  to  a  gentleman  residing  in  Brockenhurst  has  accounted 
for  three  specimens.  She  might  be  seen  on  any  mild  evening  during 
August  and  September  prowling  along  by  the  flower-beds  and  waiting 
for  the  moths  which,  although  never  seen  in  the  act,  she,  no  doubt, 
captured  on  the  wing.  The  three  specimens  mentioned  were  taken 
from  her  mouth  alive  (they  were  not  cabinet  specimens)  ;  how  many 
more  she  caught  and  consumed  is,  of  course,  unknown.  S.  convolvuli 
did  not  come  to  the  flowers  on  cold  nights,  neither  did  puss  attempt 
to  go  hunting.  In  this  she  showed  more  wisdom  than  some  of  our 
local  entomologists.     Mr.  L.  F.  Hill,  of  Cremona,  Brockenhurst,  has 


CAPTUKES    AND    FIELD    REPORTS.  25 

kindly  supplied  me  with  a  list  of  forty-nine  specimens  which  he  saw, 
and  most  of  which  he  captured,  at  tobacco,  between  Aug.  16th  and 
Sept.  23rd,  a  record  for  this  neighbourhood. — G.  T.  Lyle  ;  Brocken- 
hurst. 

Late  Appearance  of  Colias  edusa. — On  Oct.  18th  last,  a  fine  warm 
day,  I  saw,  while  shooting  on  the  marshes  at  Wallasea,  Essex,  a  male 
C.  edusa  on  the  wing  ;  after  watching  it  a  short  time  it  settled  to  feed 
on  yarrow-blossom.  It  was  apparently  in  perfect  condition.  I  hear 
that  other  specimens  have  recently  been  seen  in  Devon,  one  as  late  as 
Nov.  13th.— F.  W.  Frohawk;  November,  1904. 

Late  Appearance  of  Pyrameis  atalanta. — Owing  to  the  recent  fine 
warm  weather,  P.  atalanta  has  been  putting  in  a  late  appearance.  On 
Nov.  13th  my  wife  saw  a  specimen  on  the  wing,  in  the  finest  condition, 
at  Rayleigh,  Essex,  and  daring  the  past  week  specimens  have  been 
emerging.  The  larvae  were  found  quite  young  at  the  end  of  Septem- 
ber and  beginning  of  October,  which  were  obviously  from  eggs  deposited 
during  September  by  specimens  which  emerged  during  August  or 
September.  Although  it  is  generally  believed  that  only  one  brood 
emerges  in  the  year,  I  am  convinced  that  usually,  if  not  every  year, 
there  are  two  broods,  the  first  appearing  in  July  and  August,  and  the 
second  continuing  through  the  autumn. — F.  W.  Frohawk;  Nov.,  1904. 

Colias  edusa,  C.  hyale,  &c,  at  Felixstowe. — On  Aug.  10th  and 
11th  last  I  took,  at  Felixstowe,  two  female  specimens  of  C.  edusa,  on 
open  land,  fluttering  over  patches  of  red  clover.  I  saw  six  altogether, 
but  these  two  alone  gave  any  chance  of  capture.  I  also  saw  two  speci- 
mens of  C.  hyale  in  the  public  road,  but  my  net  was  disconnected,  and 
they  flew  almost  at  once  into  private  grounds.  I  was  only  able  to  spare 
two  days  for  collecting  out  of  my  brief  vacation,  and  then  found  the 
following  plentiful  but  much  worn  ;  only  a  small  number  of  the  speci- 
mens captured  were  worth  retaining:  Pieris  brassica,  P.  rapce,  P.  napi, 
Vanessa  urtica,  V.  polychloros,  Pyrameis  atalanta,  Pararge  egeria,  P. 
megara,  Satyrus  semele,  Epinephele  ianira,  Ccenonympha  pamphilus,  and 
of  Lycana  icarus  I  obtained  a  large  series,  both  males  and  females. 
I  may  perhaps  note  that  I  did  not  see  a  single  specimen  of  P.  cardui, 
neither  have  I  met  with  this  species  during  the  year  in  or  near 
London.— W.  T.  Page,  F.Z.S. 

Lepidoptera  at  Kingston,  Surrey. — Cheimatobia  boreata  is  simply 
swarming  at  the  lamps  here  just  now.  It  is  no  exaggeration  to  say 
that  one  might  easily  take  hundreds  each  evening.  Previous  to  this 
year  I  had  only  one  specimen  taken  in  Kingston,  although  I  have 
often  searched  for  it.  I  may  also  mention  that  Chesias  spartiata,  Opo- 
rabia  dilutaria,  and  Hybernia  defoliaria  have  been  extremely  abundant, 
and  some  beautiful  forms  of  the  latter  have  been  obtained.  I  have  seen 
a  specimen  of  Asteroscopus  sphinx  (cassinea)  which  was  taken  on  the 
hill,  also  a  few  Diloba  cceruleocephala.  I  have  not  seen  H.  aurantiaria 
at  all  this  year. — Percy  Richards;  "  Wellesley,"  11,  Queen's  Road, 
Kingston  Hill,  Nov.  18th. 

Species  of  Plusia  visit  Flowers  of  Stachys.  —  When  capturing 
insects  on  the  wing  at  dusk  this  year,  I  noticed  a  fact  which  may  not 


26  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

be  generally  known.  It  is  that  several  species  of  Plusia  come  to  the 
flowers  of  the  hedge  woundwort  [Stachys).  I  have  never  seen  the  name 
of  this  plant  in  the  list  of  natural  attractions,  hut  of  some  Plusias  I 
could  have  captured  large  numbers,  so  attractive  is  it.  During  the  past 
summer  the  following  species  were  captured  at  Stachys: — Abrostola 
urticce,  A.  triplasia,  Plusia  chrysitis,  P. gamma,  P.  iota,  and  P.  pulchrina. 
Of  these  species  P.  chrysitis  and  P.  pulchrina  were  the  most  numerous, 
but  both  species  of  Abrostola  were  fairly  common.  P.  iota  and 
P.  gamma  were  scarce. — W.  A.  Bogue  ;  Spring  Cottage,  Shepton 
Mallet. 

[Barrett  (Lep.  Brit.  vol.  vi.)  mentions  the  following  Labiate  as 
being  attractive  to  species  of  Plusia  : — Ballota  nigra  and  other  Labi- 
ates (P.  chrysitis),  Stachys  palustris  and  S.  syhatica  (P.  festucce),  and 
Teucrium  scorodonia  (P.  interrogation,! s)  ;  the  blossoms  of  various  labi- 
ate plants  are  visited  for  their  honey  by  P.  iota.  Several  species  of 
the  Labiatfe,  especially  Lamium  and  Stachys,  are  among  the  known  larval 
food-plants  of  P.  bractea,  P.  chrysitis,  P.  gamma,  P.  iota,  and  P.  pul- 
chrina.— Ed.] 

Notes  on  Coleoptera  in  South-west  Surrey. — The  following  is  a 
list  of  Coleoptera  taken  in  this  district  during  1901  : — Cychrus  ros- 
tratus,  L.  :  I  took  two  specimens  of  this  Carabid  in  July,  and  one  of 
them  exhibited  traces  of  three  irregular  lines  on  each  wing-case. 
Carabus  monilis,  F.,  C.  violaceus,  L.,  were  plentiful  on  paths  and  under 
stones.  C.  granulatus,  L.,  in  the  rotten  wood  of  fallen  trees  and 
under  stones  on  Peasmarsh.  Creophilus  maxillosus,  L.,  abundant  on 
dead  animals.  Pader.us  caligatus,  Er.  :  I  found  this  for  the  first  time 
on  Peasmarsh  on  Feb.  21st.  Xantholinus  fulgidus,  F.,  in  decayed 
wood.  Ocypus  olens,  Mull.,  occurred  frequently.  Aromia  moschata,  L., 
in  July,  on  willows.  Cetonia  aurata,  L.,  common  on  roses.  Lucanus 
cervus,  L.,  occurred  from  about  July  2nd,  the  males  being  far  more 
plentiful  than  the  females.  Prionus  coriarius,  L.,  one  female  taken  on 
July  24th,  while  flying  against  a  window  at  night.  Melolontha  vulgaris, 
F.,  Rhizotrogus  solstitialis,  Latr.,  very  plentiful.  Phyllopertha  hordeola, 
L.,  frequently  during  the  daytime  in  June,  at  rest  on  oak.  Strangalia 
arniata,  Herbst..  occurred  frequently  on  flowers.  Geotrupes  typhmis,  L., 
common  at  Puttenham  in  early  spring,  in  the  loose  sandy  soil.  I  ob- 
served several  dragging  pellets  of  rabbits'  excrement  into  their  burrows. 
They  varied  much  in  colour,  some  having  castaneous  elytra.  Do  reus 
parallelopipedus,  L.,  abundant.  On  March  26th  1  found  larvae,  pupaa, 
and  several  imagines  in  one  piece  of  decayed  oak,  Necropkorus 
humator,  F.,  common  on  dead  animals.  Ar.  mortuorum,  F.,  occurred 
only  once,  on  a  dead  rat  near  Eashing.  Cicindela  campestris,  L.,  fairly 
common  on  sandy  soil.  Notiophilus  biguttatus,  F.,  common  on  ploughed 
fields.  N.  aquaticus,  L.,  occasionally  on  Peasmarsh.  Geotrupes  sterco- 
rarius,  Er.,  abundant  everywhere.  G.  vemalis,  L.,  occasionally  in 
cowdung.  Timarcha  laevigata,  L.,  on  grassy  banks.  Aphodius  fime- 
tarius,  L.,  plentiful  in  cowdung.  Balaninus  villosus,  Herbst.,  on  oak- 
trees.  Malthodes  marginatus,  Latr.,  under  bark  and  in  C'ossHs-infected 
trees.  Blaps  mucronata,  Latr.,  common  in  cellars  and  outhouses. 
Pterostichus  madidus,  F.,  P.  athiops,  Panz.,  P.  vulgaris,  L.,  P.  striula,  F., 
P.  versicolor,  Sturm.,  under  stones  and  logs  of  wood.     Lampyris  nocti- 


SOCIETIES.  27 

luca,  L.,  abundant.  Coccinella  7 -punctata,  L.,  C.  bipunctata,  L.,  C. 
variabilis,  F.,  common  everywhere.  Coccinella  ocellata,  L.,  only  one, 
taken  on  pine-tree,  Hister  bima.cul.atus,  L.,  under  stones.  Cossonus 
linearis,  F.,  very  local.  Clivina  fossor,  L.,  under  stones.  At/was 
hcemorrhoidalis,  F.,  very  abundant.  (Edemere  ccerulea,  L.,  abundant 
on  flowers  during  July  and  August.  Telephorus  clypeatus,  111.,  and 
other  Telephorida3,  common  on  flowers.  Xestobium  {Anobium)  tessel- 
lation, F.,  plentiful  in  old  wood.  Nebria  brevicollis,  F.,  Pogonvs 
chalceus,  Marsh,  under  stones  on  the  "  Hog's  Back."  Amara  fu/va, 
De  G.,  very  few  met  with.  A.  familiaris,  Duft.,  A.  lucida,  Duft., 
common  under  stones,  particularly  on  Peasrnarsh. — J.  A.  Croft  ; 
Charterhouse,  Godalming,  Surrey. 

Pyg&ra  pigra  in  Surrey. — In  the  most  recent  list  of  the  Lepido- 
ptera  of  Surrey  P.  pigra  is  noted  as  being  uncommon,  and  only  two 
localities  in  the  county  are  given  for  the  species.  It  may  therefore  be  of 
interest  to  mention  that  larva?  of  P.  pigra  are  to  be  found  more  or  less 
commonly  in  the  Esher  and  Ockham  districts.  On  August  27th  last 
they  were  decidedly  numerous  at  Wisley,  and  I  collected  over  forty 
small  ones  in  less  than  half  an  hour.  The  species  also  occurs  at 
Byfleet,  and  I  have  frequently  found  larvaB  there  on  dwarf  sallow. — 
Richard  South. 


SOCIETIES. 

Entomological  Society  of  London.  —  Wednesday,  November  l§th, 
1904.— Professor  E.  B.  Poulton,  M.A.,  D.Sc,  F.R.S.,  President,  in 
the  chair. — Mr.  Edward  Goodwin,  of  Canon  Court,  Wateringbury, 
Kent,  was  elected  a  Fellow  of  the  Society. — Mr.  H.  St.  J.  Donis- 
thorpe  exhibited  the  second  recorded  British  specimen  of  Orchestes 
sparsus,  Fahr.,  taken  by  him  on  August  28th  last  in  the  New  Forest. 
— Mr.  H.  W.  Andrews,  specimens  of  Atherix  crassipes,  Mg.,  from  the 
New  Forest,  the  only  previously  recorded  locality  in  Great  Britain 
being  near  Ticehurst,  Sussex. — Mr.  G.  0.  Sloper,  two  aberrant  forms 
of  Melitaa  athalia,  male  and  female,  from  Luan,  above  Corbeyrier, 
Switzerland,  and  one  male  taken  on  June  26th  this  year  at  Martigny. 
The  tendency  of  the  black  markings  to  supersede  the  fulvous  was  par- 
ticularly noticeable  in  the  latter  specimen. — The  President,  cases  con- 
taining Diptera,  and  a  case  containing  the  skins  of  African  Sphingid 
larva?,  dried  in  botanical  paper,  and,  after  seventy  years,  still  preserving 
their  colours,  from  the  Burcheli  collection  in  the  Hope  Museum,  Oxford. 
Mr.  C.  0.  Waterhouse,  a  gall  of  some  lepidopterous  insect  found  on  the 
Califate  bushes  in  Patagonia.  The  gall  resembled  that  of  Cynips  kollari, 
but  was  hollow,  the  walls  being  about  ^  in.  in  thickness.  The  circular 
door  prepared  by  the  larva  was  about  ^  in.  in  diameter.  The  pupa 
was  lying  free,  without  any  silk  cocoon.  It  was  suggested  that  the 
insect  was  perhaps  allied  to  CEcocecis. — Mr.  C.  H.  Kenrick  communi- 
cated a  paper  entitled  "  Natural  Selection  applied  to  a  Concrete  Case." 
Mr.  J.  C.  Kershaw,  papers  on  "Enemies  of  Butterflies  in  South  China," 
and  "A  Life-history  of  Gerydus  chinensis." — Mr.  Nelson  Annaiidale, 
B.A.,  a  paper  on  "  The  Eggs  and  Early  Stages  of  a  Coreid  Bug,  pro- 
bably Dalader  acuticosta,  with  a  note  on  its  Hymenopterous  Parasites." 


28  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Wednesday,  December  1th,  1904. — Professor  E.  B.  Poulton,  M.A., 
D.Sc,  F.R.S.,  President,  in  the  chair. — Mr.  Horace  A.  Byatt,  B.A.,  of 
the  Colonial  Office;  and  Mr.  J.  0.  Winterscale,  F.Z.S.,  of  Karangan, 
Kedah,  Penang,  Straits  Settlements,  were  elected  Fellows  of  the 
Society. — Mr.  Rowland  Brown,  one  of  the  Secretaries,  read  the  list  of 
Fellows  recommended  for  election  as  Officers,  and  to  serve  on  the 
Council  for  the  ensuing  year  ;  and  there  being  no  additional  Fellows 
proposed,  they  were  nominated  accordingly. — Mr.  H.  St.  J.  Donis- 
thorpe  exhibited  Quedius  nigrocwruleus,  taken  by  Mr.  H.  C.  Dollman  in 
a  rabbit-hole  at  Ditchliug,  Susses,  this  being  the  fourth  recorded 
British  specimen. — Professor  T.  Hudson  Beare,  a  specimen  of  the  rare 
Longicorn,  Tetropiwn  castaneum,  L.,  taken  about  two  years  ago  in  the 
vicinity  of  the  Hartlepool  Quays,  and  probably  introduced  from  abroad. 
— Mr.  G.  J.  Arrow,  a  series  of  the  Lamellicorn  beetles  from  the 
Burchell  Collection,  and  remarked  that  Burchell,  at  the  time  of  their 
capture  some  seventy  years  ago,  had  already  noted  their  powers  of 
producing  musical  sound. — Mr.  C.  0.  Waterhouse,  drawings  illus- 
trating the  development  of  the  front  wing  in  the  pupa  of  the  tusser 
silk-motli,  showing  the  relation  of  the  tracheae  to  the  veins,  prepared 
for  exhibition  in  the  Natural  History  Museum.  He  also  exhibited 
some  coffee-berries  from  Uganda,  injured  by  a  small  beetle  belonging 
to  the  Scolytidaa.  The  beetles  laid  their  eggs  in  the  berries  when 
young  and  green.  The  mature  berries  were  often  found  with  little  of 
the  inside  left.  Mr.  Waterhouse  further  exhibited  two  coleopterous 
larvae  from  the  Burchell  Collection  from  Brazil,  submitted  to  him  for 
determination  by  Prof.  Poulton.  One  was  a  heteromerous  larva  two 
inches  long,  much  resembling  the  larva  of  Helops.  The  more  interest- 
ing one  was  noted  by  Burchell  to  be  luminous,  and  appeared  to  be  the 
larva  of  an  Elaterid,  but  the  prothorax  was  unusually  large,  and  the 
head  retracted  beneath. — Commander  J.  J.  Walker,  the  type-specimen 
of  Haplothorax  burchelli,  G.  R.  Waterhouse,  from  the  Hope  Collection, 
Oxford  University  Museum.  This  very  remarkable  Carabid  was  dis- 
covered by  Burchell  in  St.  Helena.  It  is  now  exceedingly  rare,  if  not 
entirely  extinct,  in  its  sole  locality,  the  late  Mr.  Wollastou,  during  his 
visit  to  the  island  in  1875-6,  having  entirely  failed  to  find  the  beetle 
alive,  although  its  dead  and  mutilated  remains  were  often  met  with. 
— The  President,  cases  showing  the  results  of  breeding  experiments 
upon  Papilio  cenea  conducted  by  Mr.  G.  F.  Leigh,  who  had  for  the 
first  time  bred  the  trophonius  form  from  trophonius  itself ;  also  a  photo- 
graph, taken  by  Mr.  Alfred  Robinson,  of  the  Oxford  University 
Museum,  showing  the  Xylocopid  model  and  its  Asilid  mimic  exhibited  by 
Mr.  E.  E.  Green  at  a  previous  meeting.  The  example  was  particularly 
interesting,  inasmuch  as  Mr.  Green's  record  of  the  mimic  circling 
round  its  model  tended  to  support  the  view  that  the  bee  is  the  prey  of 
the  fly. — Dr.  T.  A.  Chapman,  M.D.,  read  a  paper  on  Erebia  palarica, 
n.  sp.,  and  E.  stygne,  chiefly  in  regard  to  its  association  with  E.  evias 
in  Spain.  Describing  E.  palarica,  he  said  it  was  a  new  species  from 
the  Cantabrian  range,  phylogenetically  a  recent  offshoot  of  E.  stygne, 
and  the  largest  and  most  brilliant  in  coloring  of  all  the  known  mem- 
bers of  the  family. — Dr.  G.  B.  Longstaff,  D.M.,  gave  an  account  of  his 
entomological  experiences  during  a  tour  through  India  and  Ceylon, 
Oct.   10th,  1903,  to  March   26th,   1904,  illustrating  his   remarks  by 


SOCIETIES.  29 

exhibiting  some  of  the  insects  referred  to,  and  lantern-slides  of  the 
localities  visited. — H.  Rowland  Brown,  M.A.,  Hon.  Secretary. 

South  London  Entomological  and  Natural  History  Society. — 
November  2ith,  1904.— Mr.  E.  Step,  F.L.S.,  Vice-President,  in  the  chair. 
Special  exhibit  of  varieties  : — Mr.  H.  W.  Moore,  of  Shortlands,  Kent, 
was  elected  a  member. — Mr.  Cannon  exhibited,  on  behalf  of  Mr. 
Frohawk,  (1)  a  long  series  of  Colias  edusa  v.  helice  bred  from  v.  helice 
ova  in  1900  (autumn),  showing  every  gradation  from  typical  white  v. 
helice  to  typical  C.  edusa ;  (2)  a  series  of  C.  hyale  showing  gradation  in 
extent  of  markings;  and  (3)  a  fine  pale  variety  of  the  last  with  all  the 
usual  black  markings  replaced  by  pale  opalescent  colouring. — Mr. 
Colthrup,  (1)  a  very  pale  form  of  Smerinthus  ocellatus;  (2)  a  partially 
xanthic  form  of  Anthrocera  Jilipendulce  ;  and  (3)  a  Bianthcecia  capsincola 
of  a  very  unusual  shade. — Mr.  Harrison  and  Mr.  Main,  (1)  Argynnis 
aglaia,  from  North  Cornwall,  with  xanthic  markings;  (2)  a  bleached 
specimen  of  Epinephele  jurtina  (ianira),  from  North  Cornwall ;  (3) 
Zonosoma  pendularia  v.  subroseata  from  Staffordshire ;  (4)  a  series  of 
Boarmia  repandata  and  v.  conversaria  from  North  Cornwall,  with  series 
from  Wiltshire  and  Isle  of  Lewis  for  comparison  ;  (5)  a  series  of 
Aplecta  nebulosa  from  North  Cornwall,  with  series  for  comparison  from 
Delamere  Forest,  including  v.  robsoiii,  and  from  Epping  Forest ;  (6) 
Miana  strigilis,  from  North  Cornwall,  but  none  dark ;  from  Delamere 
Forest,  but  scarcely  any  bright  forms ;  (7)  Hybemia  marginaria, 
melanic  specimens  from  near  Liverpool ;  (8)  long  series  of  Pier  is  napi, 
spring  brood  from  North  Cornwall,  with  spring-bred  Enniskillen  series 
for  comparison  ;  (9)  summer  broods  of  the  same  species  from  Ennis- 
killen and  Delamere  Forest ;  and  (10)  series  of  spring  brood  of  the 
same  species  from  Kilkenny,  bred  by  Mr.  Montgomery,  with  particu- 
larly dark  females. — Mr.  Montgomery,  series  of  bred  and  captured 
Leucophasia  sinapis  of  both  broods,  from  Berkshire,  Cornwall,  Devon- 
shire,Worcestershire,  and  the  New  Forest. — Mr.  Hickman,  an  extremely 
dark  var.  of  Arctia  caia  bred  from  a  larva  taken  at  Wye  in  August, 
1903. — Mr.  Crow,  a  remarkable  rosy  form  of  Calymnia  trapezina  from 
Hayes,  and  a  specimen  of  Pyrameis  atalantu,  showing  xanthic  spots, 
bred  from  a  larva  taken  at  Elmer's  End. — Mr.  Stonell,  a  gynandrous 
example  of  Lachneis  lanestris. — Mr.  Joy,  (1)  a  bred  series  of  Pararge 
egeria,  from  ova  laid  by  a  female  taken  in  June,  1903  ;  (2)  two  series 
of  the  same  species,  bred  from  a  pairing  induced  in  captivity,  of  which 
(a)  hybernated  as  pupse,  (b)  hybernated  as  half-fed  larvae. — Mr.  Chit- 
tenden, a  large  number  of  varieties  and  aberrations  of  Lepidoptera, 
including  Spilosoma  lubricipeda  var.  radiata  with  black  fringes,  Boarmia 
repandata,  dark,  Acidalia  inornata,  very  dark,  from  Kent,  very  dark 
Cymatophora  duplaris  from  Market  Drayton,  Caradrina  morplieus,  Agrotis 
segetum,  A.  exclamationis,  A.  corticea,  all  very  dark,  from  Kent. — Mr. 
R.  Adkin,  (1)  a  specimen  of  Saturnia  pavonia,  having  the  body  and 
wings  undoubtedly  female,  while  the  antennas  were  distinctly  male. 
It  was  bred  in  1904  from  an  Isle  of  Lewis  larva  of  1901  ;  (2)  a  very 
dark  specimen  of  Syrichthus  malvm  from  Brighton  ;  and  (3)  a  fine 
specimen  of  Agrius  convolvuli  taken  at  Eastbourne,  Sept.  18th,  1904. — 
Mr.  Harris,  a  very  interesting  series  of  Hemerophila  abruptaria,  bred  from 
a  pairing  obtained  in  captivity  between  two  captured  specimens,  includ- 


30  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

ing  a  number  of  the  more  or  less  extreme  melanic  form. — Mr.  Goulton, 
varied  series  and  examples  of  Hypsipetes  sordidata  (elutata)  with  dark 
forms,  Pseudoterpna  priunata  with  brown  forms  (bred),  aud  light  forms 
of  Boarmia  repandata  from  Ranmore. — Mr.  Brown,  numerous  species 
and  forms,  including  Hydrcecia  nictitansv&Y.  paludis,  very  dark  Xylophasia 
polyodon,  dark  Leucania  coniyera,  all  from  Deal;  varied  under  sides  of 
Polyommatm  corydon  from  Reigate,  bred  and  very  varied  series  of 
Cidaria  russata  and  C.  immanata  from  Horsley,  and  light  and  dark 
forms  of  Amphidasys  betularia,  bred. — Mr.  Dobson,  twenty-seven  species 
of  dragonflies  taken  by  him  in  Surrey  and  Hampshire  during  the  last 
two  years,  including  Gomphus  vulgatissimus,  Anax  imperator,  JEschna 
mixta,  Platy mentis  pennipes,  Ischnura  pumilio,  and  Agrion  mercuriale. — 
Mr.  H.  Moore,  an  example  of  Heliconins  siculata  from  Trinidad,  some- 
what different  from  the  type,  and  a  series  of  the  beautiful  H.  cydno, 
showing  the  range  of  variation  of  the  snow-white  markings. — Mr. 
Garrett,  a  specimen  of  Pyrantels  atalanta,  taken  in  Northamptonshire, 
having  xanthic  markings  in  red  band  of  the  hind  wings. — Mr.  South, 
(1)  Aplecta  nebulosa  with  var.  robsoni  and  the  so-called  var.  thompsoni, 
and  numerous  examples  from  many  localities  to  show  the  range  of 
variation  in  the  species ;  (2)  Polia  chi,  a  female  var.  oliuacea,  and  a 
series  reared  from  ova  laid  by  it,  all  of  which  were  dark ;  *  (3)  an 
Abraxas  yrossulariata  with  buff  ground  colour  ;  (4)  Ewrrhypara  urticata 
with  confluent  or  much-intensified  spots  ;  (5)  Peronea  hastiana,  series 
from  Wisley  and  Lancashire,!  the  latter  including  several  forms;  and 
(6)  Peedisca  solandriana,  a  long  series,  collected  in  two  afternoons  at 
Oxshott,  including  at  least  seven  named  forms. — Mr.  G.  T.  Porntt,  a 
fine  bred  series  of  Agrotis  ashworthii  from  North  Wales. — Mr.  H.  J. 
Turner,  a  copy  of  the  original  edition  of  Moses  Harris'  '  Aurelian,' 
slightly  defective,  picked  up  for  a  few  shillings  on  a  bookstall. — Mr. 
W.  J.  Kaye,  (1)  a  series  of  Pseudoterpna  pruinata,  showing  considerable 
variation  in  the  banding,  several  bred  specimens  from  Bude  had  all 
the  usual  markings  suppressed ;  and  (2)  a  specimen  of  Titanus  yiyanteus, 
the  largest  known  longicorn  beetle,  from  British  Guiana. — Mr.  Barraud, 

(1)  Epinephele  jurtina  var.,  with  the  usual  white  pupilled  spot  on  the 
fore  wing  absent,  and  on  the  under  side  hind  wings  specks  instead  of 
spots;  and  (2)  a  brown  suffused  Spilosoma  menthastri  from  Bushey. — 
Rev.  J.  E.  Tarbat,  (1)  Euthemonia  russula,  with  smoky  hind  wings  ; 

(2)  a  female  Pcecilovampa  populi,  having  a  rudimentary  fifth  wing 
anterior  to  the  right  fore  wing  ;  and  (3)  a  male  Erebia  cethiops  with 
shaded  marks  on  left  hand  wings. — Mr.  Bacot,  varieties  of  various 
species  and  long  series  of  Spilosoma  urtica  consisting  of  eight  broods 
belonging  to  three  generations,  all  originating  from  a  single  female 
captured  in  Norfolk.  They  showed  large  extremes  of  variation  as 
regards  the  spotting. — Mr.  Prout,  for  Mr.  Mutch,  pale  aberrations  of 
Agrotis  ypsilon  and  Phloyophora  meticulosa,  with  much  darkened  speci- 
mens of  Cleora  glabraria. — Mr.  Prout,  some  extremely  fine  varieties  of 
(1)  Melitaa  cinxia,  mostly  of  one  aberrant  brood  in  1902  ;  (2)  blackish 
ab.  ingenua  of  Aporophyla  australis  ;  and  (3)  very  dark  Eubolia  bipunc- 
taria  from  North  Devon  and  Luperina  testacea  from  Sandown. — Mr. 
Edwards,  representatives  of  all  the  genera  closely  allied  to  the  genus 
Papilio,  and  contributed  notes  on  each.     The  rare  Armandia  thaidina 

*  See  Entom.  xxxvii.  263.  f  See  Entom.  xxxvii.  320. 


RECENT    LITERATURE.  31 

and  Bhutanitis  lidderdalii  were  included  in  the  exhibit. — Dr.  Chapman, 
(1)  a  very  large  number  of  the  genus  Chrysophamis  taken  this  year  in 
Spain,  including  the  var.  miegii  of  C.  virgaurea,  various  forms  of  C. 
phlaas,  from  light  forms  to  the  extreme  dark  var.  eleus  ;  (2)  a  drawer 
of  Erebias,  also  from  Spain,  including  various  races  of  E.  evias  and 
E.  stygne,  and  a  long  series  of  a  new  species,  which  he  had  named 
E.  palarica,  and  which  was  closely  allied  to  E.  stygne,  but  much  larger 
than  any  Erebia  hitherto  known. — Dr.  Chapman,  on  behalf  of  Mr. 
Tutt,  for  comparison  with  his  own,  a  large  number  of  Chrysophanids 
from  many  mid-European  sources. — Mr.  Tonge,  three  albums  of 
photographs  of  Lepidoptera,  most  of  them  taken  with  the  aid  of  the 
electric  light, — Mr.  Carr,  on  behalf  of  Mr.  F.  M.  B.  Carr,  a  specimen 
of  Vanessa  io  having  the  usual  eye-like  spots  on  the  hind  wings  very 
obscure. — Mr.  West  (Streatham)  and  Mr.  Fremlin  exhibited  objects 
under  their  microscopes. — Hy.  J.  Turner,  Hon.  Rep.  Sec. 

Lancashire  and  Cheshire  Entomological  Society. — By  the  kind- 
ness of  the  Chester  Society  of  Natural  Science  an  ordinary  meeting 
was  held  in  the  Grosvenor  Museum,  Chester,  on  Monday,  Nov.  21st, 
1904,  Mr.  Ed.  Wilding,  Vice-President,  in  the  chair. —  The  following 
gentlemen  were  elected  members  of  the  Societv  :  Messrs.  C.  M.  Adams, 
F.C.S.  (Southport),  Ed.  S.  Bagnall,  F.E.S.  (Winlaton-on-Tyne),  J.  H. 
Leyland  (Ormskirk).  W.  C.  Boyd  (Cheshunt),  John  F.  Dixon-Nuttall 
(Prescot),  Ed.  Hancock  (Handsworth),  and  E.  E.  Lowe  (Plymouth). — 
Dr.  Herbert  Dobie  having  welcomed  the  Society  to  Chester,  the  chair- 
man called  on  Mr.  Eobert  Newstead,  A.L.S.,  F.E.S. ,  Hon.F.E.H.S., 
who  gave  a  most  interesting  and  instructive  lecture  on  "  The  Collections 
in  the  Grosvenor  Museum." — Amongst  interesting  exhibits  examined 
during  the  evening  were: — Mr.  Newstead,  a  living  specimen  of  the 
male  of  Lecanium  hesperidum :  this  he  had  recently  bred  from  a  colony 
of  Coccids  which  had  been  under  observation  for  the  past  three  or  four- 
years,  the  example  being  the  first  authentic  one  observed,  although 
the  male  had  been  searched  for  since  the  time  of  Linureus. — Mr.  J.  J. 
Eichardson,  a  series  of  exotic  Lepidoptera  mounted  in  frames,  with 
slips  of  glass  so  arranged  as  to  allow  of  the  examination  of  the  under 
sides. — Mr.  J.  E.  Charnley,  F.Z.S.,  fourteen  specimens  of  insects  in 
amber  from  the  north  coast  of  Germany,  both  the  insects  and  clearness 
of  some  of  the  pieces  of  amber  being  much  admired. — Anisotoma  furva 
(from  Crosby)  was  exhibited  by  Mr.  Wilding ;  and  a  selection  of  British 
Lepidoptera  by  Mr.  W.  Mansbridge,  F.E.S.  ;  &c. — E.  J.  B.  Sopp  and 
J.  E.  le  B.  Tomlin,  Hon.  Secretaries. 


RECENT     LITERATURE. 

Catalogue  of  Lepidoptera.  By  Frederick  Lowe.  Vol.  i.  pt.  1.  Pp.  51. 
London:  Hutchings  &  Crowsley.  1901  (Dec). 
The  initial  instalment  of  this  important  work  deals  with  the 
Nymphalid  subfamily  Danainae,  and  all  the  species,  subspecies  or  local 
races  that  have  been  described  up  to  date  are  included  therein.  The 
part  is  interleaved  with  MS.  paper,  so  that  subsequent  new  species, 
&c,  may  be  added.     There  is  also  an  index  to  the  species  mentioned 


32  THE    ENT0M0L0GI8T. 

in  the  catalogue.  This  method  of  treating  the  Lepidoptera  by  sub- 
families possesses  obvious  advantages,  and  the  scheme  of  compilation 
has  been  devised  to  facilitate  the  work  of  the  student.  Where  they  are 
accessible  the  location  of  types  is  stated.  The  arrangement  of  genera 
and  groups  is  based  on  a  trivial  character  which  the  author  states  he 
has  found  constant  and  not  confined  to  one  sex. 

Judging  from  the  part  before  us,  the  Catalogue  promises  to  be  of  the 
utmost  utility,  and  will  meet  a  pressing  need. 

The  Second  Part  is  in  the  press,  and  it  is  proposed  to  complete  the 
work  during  the  year. 


CHARLES   GOLDING   BARRETT. 

Entomologists  throughout  the  kingdom  will  regret  to  hear  that 
on  December  11th  last  Mr.  C.  G.  Barrett  succumbed  to  the  malady 
from  which  he  had  suffered  for  some  time  past.  As  an  authority 
on  Lepidoptera  he  was  known  far  and  wide,  and  his  willing  help  and 
kindly  advice  were  always  at  the  service  of  anyone  who  appealed 
to  him.  His  departure  from  among  us  has  created  a  void  that  will 
not  be  readily  filled. 

Among  his  contributions  to  entomological  literature  are  notes  con- 
tained in  the  '  Entomologist's  Weekly  Intelligencer'  (1856-61),  also 
in  the  'Weekly  Entomologist :  (1862),  and  occasional  communications 
to  the  '  Entomologist,'  dating  from  1864. 

Mr.  Barrett,  in  1880,  joined  the  editorial  staff  of  the  '  Entomolo- 
gists' Monthly  Magazine,'  to  which  he  had  been  a  valued  contributor 
from  its  foundation  in  1864.  Among  the  more  important  of  his 
writings  that  have  been  published  in  that  journal  are  a  series  en- 
titled "  Notes  on  British  Tortrices,"  which  were  commenced  in 
vol.  ix.  (1872),  and  continued  year  by  year  up  to  vol.  xxvi.  (1890). 

In  his  excellent  work  "  The  Lepidoptera  of  the  British  Islands  " 
is  concentrated  the  knowledge  acquired  during  a  lifetime  of  assiduous 
research  and  careful  observation.  The  first  volume  was  issued  in 
1893,  and  the  ninth  in  1904.  In  the  tenth  volume,  which  was  passing 
through  the  press  at  the  time  of  his  decease,  was  commenced  the 
consideration  of  the  Tortricina,  a  group  in  which  he  as  an  expert 
had  long  been  acknowledged  pre-eminent.  It  is  ever  to  be  regretted 
that  he  was  not  spared  to  see  this  great  undertaking  completed,  and 
we  earnestly  hope  that  among  his  literary  remains  material  will  be 
found  to  enable  the  work  to  be  continued  to,  at  least,  the  end  of 
the  Tortricina,  which,  excepting  the  Tineina,  is  perhaps  the  most 
neglected  group  of  British  moths. 

Mr.  Barrett  was  elected  a  Fellow  of  the  Entomological  Society 
of  London  in  1884,  and  a  Member  of  the  South  London  Entomo- 
logical and  Natural  History  Society  in  1889.  He  was  President  of 
the  latter  Society  in  1892. 

We  understand  that  the  collections  of  British,  Continental  types, 
and  South  African  Lepidoptera  will  be  realized. 


WATKINS     &     DONCASTER, 

Naturalists  and  Manufacturers  of  Entomological  Apparatus  and  Cabinets. 
Flain  Ring  Nets,  wire  or  oaue,  including  Stick,  Is.  3d.,  2s.,  2s.  6d.  Folding  Netf , 
3s.  6d.,  4s.  Umbrella  Nets  (self-acting),  7s.  Pocket  Boxes,  (id.,  9d.,  Is.,  Is.  6d. 
Zino  Relaxing  Boxes,  Ud.,  Is.,  Is.  6d.,  2s.  Nested  Chip  Boxes,  7d.  per  four  dozer* , 
Entomological  Pins,  assorted  or  mixed,  Is.,  Is.  6d.  per  oz.  Pocket  Lanterns,  2s.  fid. 
to  8s.  Sugaring  Tin,  with  brush,  Is.  6d.,  2s.  Sugaring  Mixture,  ready  for  use, 
Is.  9d.  per  tin.  Store  Boxes,  with  camphor  cells,  2s.  6d.,  4s.,  5s.,  (>s.  Setting 
Boards,  flat  or  oval,  1  in.,  6d. ;  1  £  in.,  8d. ;  2  in.,  lOd. ;  2£  in.,  Is. ;  3$  in.,  Is.  4d. ; 
4  in.,  Is.  6tl. ;  5  in.,  16.  10d. ;  Complete  Set  of  fourteen  Boards,  10s.  fid.  Setting 
Houses,  9s.  fid.,  lis.  fid.;  corked  back,  14s.  Zino  Larva  Boxes,  9d.,  Is.,  Is.  6d. 
Breediug  Cage,  2s.  fid.,  4s.,  5s.,  7s.  fid.  Coleopterist's  Collecting  Bottle,  with  tube, 
Is.  fid.,  Is.  8d.  Botanical  Cases,  japanned,  double  tin,  Is.  6d.,  2s.  9d.,  3s.  6d.,  4s.  6d. 
Botanical  Paper,  Is.  Id.,  Is.  4d.,  Is.  9d.,  2s.  2d.,  per  quire.  Insect  Glazed  Cases, 
2s.  fid.  to  lis.  Cement  for  replacing  Antennas,  4d.  per  bottle.  Steel  Forceps, 
Is.  6d.,  2s.,  2s.  6d.  per  pair.  Cabinet  Cork,  7  by  3$,  best  quality,  ls.4d.  per  dozen 
sheets.  Brass  Chloroform  Bottle,  2s.  6d.  Insect  Lens,  Is.  to  8s.  Glass-top  and 
Glass-bottomed  Boxes  from  Is.  per  dozen.  Zino  Killing  Box,  9d.,  Is.  Pupa 
Digger,  in  leather  sheath,  Is.  9d.  Taxidermist's  Compauiou,  containing  rnoRt 
necessary  implements  for  skinning,  10s.  6d.  Scalpels,  Is.  3d.  ;  Scissors,  2s.  per 
pair;  Egg-drills,  2d.,  3d.,  9d;  Blowpipes,  4d.,  fid.;  Artificial  Eyes  for  Birds  and 
Animals;  Label-lists  of  British  Butterflies,  2d. ;  ditto  of  Birds'  Eggs,  2d.,  3d.,  6d. ; 
ditto  of  Land  and  Fresh-water  Shells,  2d.;   Useful  Books  on  Insects,  Eggs,  &c. 

The  WAND  TELESCOPIC  NET— An  innovation  in  Butterfly  Nets.— We  beg 
to  call  your  attention  to  our  new  Telescopic  Handle  for  Butterfly  Nets.  It  is 
made  entirely  in  brass,  and  is  light  and  strong ;  and  moreover  it  can  bo  shut  up  to 
carry  in  small  compass,  A  very  compact  pattern,  effecting  great  saving  of  weight 
and  bulk.  Prices. — With  two  joints,  8s.  6d. ;  with  three  joints,  9s.  6d. ;  with  four 
joints,  10s.  6d.  Complete  with  improved  Cane  Folding  Ring,  and  Bag.  We  shall 
be  pleased  to  send  on  approval. 

SHOW       ROOM       FOR      CABINETS. 

Of  every  description  for  Insects,  Birds'  Egos,  Coins,  Microscopical  Objects, 
Fossils,  &c.     Catalogue  (96  pp.)  sent  on  application,  post  free. 

\    LARGE     STOCK    OF    INSECTS    AND    BIRDS'    EGGS 

(BRITISH,    EUROPEAN,    AND    EXOTIC). 

Birds,  Mammals,  do.,  Preserved  and  Mounted  by  First-class  Workmen. 

Only  Address : — 

86  STRAND,  W.C.,  LONDON  (5  doors  from  Charing  Guess). 

HERBERT    W,    MARSDEN, 

NATURAL     HISTORY     AGENT     AND     BOOKSELLER, 
40,    TRIANGLE   West,  CLIFTON,  BRISTOL. 

Moderate  Prices. 
Cabinets  and  Apparatus  for  Entomologists,  Oologists,  Ornithologists,  Botanists,  &c. 
Botanical  Cases,  Drying  Paper,  &c. — British  &  Exotic  Shells. 
The  most  reliable  Stock  of  BIRDS'  SKINS  and  BIRDS'  EGGS  in  Britain. 
New  and  Second-hand  Books. — Exchange  and  Label  Lists. 
Ornithological  Catalogue,  1905,  now  ready;  also  Shell  Catalogue. 
N.B. — Mr    Marsden's  large  Stock  of  Insects  has  now  been  made  up  into  numerous 
useful  lots;  also  many  lots  of  Birds'  Skins  and  Eggs,  all  of  which  are  offered  at  excep- 
tionally low  prices.    Lists  on  application. 

THOS.  SALVAGE,  Arlington,  Berwick,  Sussex, 

Has  for  Sale  Extra  Fine  Avion,  Ichmumiformis,  MuscifoiTnis,  Geminipnncta, 
Petrifieata,  and  very  many  other  fine,  well-set  Irnagos.  Healthy  PupsB  of 
Orion,  Liyustri,  Leporina,  Or,  Asteris,  <  'haonia  (Abbotswood),  Eeclit.su,  Pul- 
veraria,  Consortaria,  Bidentata  (dark  Northern),  Isogrammata,  &c.  Also  a 
large  quantity  of  Ova,  all  very  cheap. 

For  Prices  apply  to   above  :    all  sent  on  Applicati 
T.  S.  will  work  Cornwall  for  the  Season  (six  months)  on   Subscription.     A 
limited  number  of  Subscribers  required  at  £5  each.     Apply  as  above. 


CONTENTS. 

The  Earlier  Stages  of  Cataelysta  lemnata,  L.,  T.  A.  Chapman  (with  Plate),  1, 
Notes  on  the  Wave  Moths  (Genus  Aeidalia.  Auct.b  Louis  B.  Front,  6.  Some 
Tasmania  n  Case-bearing  Lepidoptera,  Frank  M.  Littler,  11.  Descriptions  of 
a  Kew  Genus  and  some  New  Species  of  East  Indian  Hyrnenoptera  (concluded), 
dmeron  14.  ■  A  Preliminary  List  of  the  Lepidoptera  of  Malta  (concluded i, 
Thomas  Bainbriyye  Fletcher,  18.  A  New  Genus  and  Species  of  Larrkhe 
from  Central  America,  P.  Cameron,  21. 

Notes  am>  Observations. — Colias  edusa  reared  from  Ova  in  1904,  J".  B.  Morris, 
22.  Teratologics!  Specimen  of  Hybernia  dtluliaria,  A.  B.  Kidncr,  22.  Monk's 
Wood  and  Thecla  pruni,  (Bev.)  Gilbert  H.  Baynor,  22.  The  Noctuid  Genus 
Ala,  T.  D.  A.  Cockercll,  28.  The  Entomological  Collections  in  the  Oxford 
University  Museum,  23.  iEschna  mixta  in  Epping  Forest,  F.  \V.  $  II. 
Campion,  24. 

Captures  and  Field  Reports. — Sphinx  (Agrius)  convolvuli  in  Hampshire,  G.  T. 
Lyh ,  24.  Late  Appearance  of  Colias  edusa;  Late  Appearance  of  Pyrameis 
atalarita,  F.  W.  Froluark,  2").  Colias  edusa,  C,  hyale,  &.c,  at  Felixstowe, 
TI".  7".  Page,  25.  Lepidoptera  at  Kingston,  Surrey,  Percy  Ricliards,  2.i. 
Species  of  Plusia  visit  Flower-  o1  Stachys,  IP.  A.  Boyue,  25.  Notes  on  Coleo- 
ptera  in  South-west  Surrey,  ./.  A.  Croft,  20.  Pygsera  pigra  in  Surrey,  Ei< 
Sou tli.  27. 

Sorn./jiKs. — 27.  Obituary. — Charles  Golding  Barrett,  32. 

ISsf  SPECIAL  INDEX  for  1904.— This  is  issued  with  the  present 
number  of  the  '  Entomologist,'  and  should  be  added  to  the  General  Index 
issued  with  the  December  number,  1904.     Binder  will  please  note  this. 

DR.  STAUDINGER  &  BANG  =  HAAS,  Blasewitz- Dresden,  in  their 
Trice  List,  No.  XLYIIL  for  1905,  offer  more  than  16,000  Species  of 
well-named  LKPIDOPT15RA,  Bet  or  in  papers,  from  all  parts  of  the  world,  in 
finest  condition;  1400  lands  of  PREPARED  l.ALV.F;  numerous  LIVING 
PUPiE,  &c.  Separate  Prick  Lists  for  COLEOPTERA  (22,000  species),  for 
IIYMLNOITLKA  (3200  species),  DlPTERA  (240(ty  IIEMIPTLHA  (2200), 
ORTHOPTERA  (1100),  NELLOP TERA  (000),  BIOLOGICAL  OBJECTS  (21 
Discount  for  Cash-orders.     Prices  low. 

BASTIN  BROTHERS,  The  Hatherley  Rooms,  Reading. 

Plain  Nets,  13  and  2  0.  Folding  Nets,  2/-  to  4/6.  Umbrella  Nets,  7/-.  Water  and 
Sweeping  Nets.  2  6  and  4  6.  Pocket  Boxes,  6d.,  9d.,  1  .■'-,  16.  Zinc  Relaxing  Boxes, 
'.K\.t  I  -,  1/6,  2/-.  Entomological  Pins,  1  -  and  1,6  per  ounce,  mixed.  Killing  Bottles 
(empty),  ■kd.  to  1  -.  Sugaring  Lanterns,  2  6  to  8  -.  Zinc  Killing  Boxes,  9d.  and  1 
Sugaring  Tins.  1  6  and  2  -'.  Sugaring  Mixture,  1/9  per  tin.  Store  Boxes  with  Camphor 
Cells,  2/6,   •  .     Setting  Boards.  14  sizes,  from  6d.  to  1,10;  complete  set,  one 

of  each  size,  10/6.  Setting  Houses.  9  6,  11/6,  (with  store  box  back)  14/-.  Zinc  Larva 
Boxes,  9d.  and  1  — .  Breeding  Cages,  2  ti  to  1, 6.  Japanned  Collecting  Box,  with  strap. 
Glass  top  and  bottom  Boxes,  from  1,4  per  dozen.  Purple  Shouldered  Boxes  (best 
make),  nested,  4  dozen,  1/3.  "Chi)."  Boxes,  nested,  4  dozen,  7d.  Glass  Tubes,  per 
dozen.  6d.  to  .'1,'-.     Split  Cork,  1/-  to  2/8  per  dozen  sheets.     Pupae  diggers,  1/9. 

All  kinds  of  Entomological  Apparatus  kept  in  Stock.     Lists  free. 

The  YOUNG  ENTOMOLOGIST'S  COMPANION,  comprising  Net,  Killing  Bottle, 
Setting  Boards.  Pocket,  Store,  and  Zinc  Boxes,  Pins,  &c,  post  free,  10/6. 

A  very  large  stock  of  EXOTIC  LEPIDOPTERA.  COLEOPTEBA,  and  other 
interesting  Insects  is  always  available.     Lists  free.     Correspondence  invited. 

BASTIN    BROTHERS,   The    Hatherley   Rooms,   READING. 

JAMES     GARDNER, 

MANUFACTURER  of  ALL  KINDS  of  ENTOMOLOGICAL  APPARATIS. 

29  (late  426),  OXFORD    STREET 
(Nearly    opposite    Tottenham    Court    Road). 

PRiC-KD   L18T8    ON   APPLICATION. 

Ml  Articles  Guaranteed;  exchanged  if  not  approved  of.     Friends  and  Cn storm  iv 
are  requested  to  note  the  Address,  as  mistakes  occur  daily. 


je,  including  double  numbers,  should  be  sent  to 
West,  Newman  &  Co. 


•  ox.  A^_:VIIL]        FEBRUARY,    1905.  [No.  501. 


THE 


ENTOMOLOGIST 


ustratcb  Journal 


GENERAL    ENTOMOLOGY. 


EDITED     BY     RICHARD     SOUTH,     F.E.S. 

WITH    THE    ASSISTANCE     OF 

ROBERT   ADKIN,  F.E.S.  W.  F.  KIRBY,  F.L.S.,  F.E.S. 

W.  L.  DISTANT,  F.E.S.,  &c.  G.  W.  KIRKALDY,  F.E.S. 

EDWARDA. FITCH,  F.L.S., F.E.S.  W.  J.  LUCAS,  B.A.,  F.E.S. 

F.W.FROHAWK,  F.E.S.,  M.B.O.U.  Dk.  D.  SHARP,  F.R.S.,  F.E.S.,  Ac. 

MARTIN  JACOBY,  F.E.S.  G.  H.  VERRALL,  F.E.S. 

"By  mutual  confidence  and  mutual  aid 
Great  deeds  are  done  and  great  discoverL_ 

OF  Ct/Yji 


LONDON: 

WEST,    NEWMAN    &    CO.,    54,    HATTON    GARDEN: 

SIMPK1N,   MARSHALL,   HAMILTON,    KENT   &   CO.,   Limited 


DOUBLE   NUMBER— Price  One  Shilling. 


J.    &    W.    DAVIS  (T 

MANUFACTURERS     OF     ENTOMOLOGICAL 

NATURALISTS'   REQUISITES,  a. 

31  &  33.  Hythe  Street.  DARTFORi,. 

Teter  UtTFORD."  IM  DARTFOtD." 

LOCALITY       LABELS. 

— 
V~  ~  Scrftk. 

v»-'riii«.  1.1:3.1 

id  mi:  parts  at 

Wanks  too 

••  Data"  l-abel-.  :  per  100 

53  Briiish  Butterflies                                      5s      Setting-hous.  s.  6d. 

Lar,                  :r's  Guide  ^"i  Calendar                                 E  Mounting. 

Animal.  7  -                             Stufl  Is.  6d.     Label  List. 

British  Macro-Lepidoptera.  6d. 

Naturalists"  Diary  and  Year  Book.  Is.     Our  Country's  Bntterflies  and  Moths,  1000 

FERTILE  CH  Pyramidea.  Tracc^ 

Silkworms'  Egc-  -00. 

HEALTHY  PL  P.-E.  'a.  od.    Callun*. 

j '  labraria. 

Badiata.  Ferr.: 

BRITISH  LEPIDOPTERA.  ndred  named  Specimens,  all  differ 

EXOTIC    BLTTERFLIL  v  le  thousands  of   these  as  recei 

Drawer  Cabinets  Camphor  C  \ch. 

:  2-Drawer  Cabinet  ee. 

Secondhand  Store=b 
New 

Eggs  in  Clutche-  Lirds.    B* 

Coloured   Pictorial  Postcard? 

GENUINE     BRITISH     "WILD"     STOCK. 

CHEAPEST     HOLSE     IN     THE     TRADE. 

-. — Per  11  — Pis!  .:ina.  Oxyacantb.2:.  Pyrainidea,  Chi,  3d. 

/Lna.     Flavoci:  acha.     Ansaiaria.     Autunmaria,     4d.      Kupta. 

P.  PopuH,  5<L 

— Pkabria,    Swat  6d.      Brunnea, 

Qd.     Abietari  . 

Pudibr 
-..  Prasinana.  2d.     Deru 
-:raria,  B  Coryli.  Dolobr 

Prodromaria.  Gonsortar.  Ja,   lOd.     Do- 

tal Barga.  plus  Imagines,  ail  set  on  black  pins,  and 


mm*0tt, 

5.  BBOCKEN'HUEST.  NEW  FOl 


OVA.     LARV/E.     AND     PUP£. 

rtment  always  on  L  .3  for  Pr:c 

H     W.    HEAD.    Entomologist.    SCARBOROUGH, 

.". EPIDOPTERA  m  the  British  I*Ze«. 
Full    I  ZPIEOPTERA.  Apfabatcs,  Cae:  nt  on   application 


THE    ENTOMOLOGIST 


Vol.  XXXVIII. ;  FEBRUARY,     19  05  [No.  501. 

SOME    AMERICAN    HALICTIXE    BEES    IN    THE 
BRITISH    MUSEUM. 

By  T.  D.  A.  Cockerell. 

After  being  long  neglected,  the  Halictina?  of  America  have 
come  to  receive  a  good  deal  of  attention.     Mr.  Charles  Robert- 
son has  lately  published  tables  (Can.  Ent.,  Sept.,  1902)  for  the 
separation  of  the  Illinois  species ;  -while  Mr.  Crawford  has  pre- 
pared, and  I  believe  will  shortly  publish,  a  synopsis  of  all  those 
inhabiting  the  United  States.     Mr.  J.  Vachal,  in  '  Miscellanea 
Entomologica,"  1903-1901,  has  in  course  of  publication  a  synopsis 
of  all  the  American  Halictines   seen   by  him.  very  many  being 
regarded  as  new.     All  this  activity  is  rapidly  increa>ing  our 
knowledge  of  these  insects,  but  the  value  of  some  of  the  re 
obtained  is  seriously  impaired  by  the   difficulty  of  recognizing 
many  of  the  numerous  >pecies  described  years  ago  by  E.  Smith, 
of  the  British   Museum.     Mr.  Vachal,  in  the  majority  of    . 
practically  abandons  the  attempt  to  identify  th     5mi1 
and  gives  new  names  to  a  great  many  bees,  some  of  which  must 
certainly  be  Smithian.    I  should  be  more  ready  to  condemn  this 
proceeding,  had  I  not  discovered  that  some  of  my  own  iden- 
tifications of  Smithian  species,  made  by  the  most  careful  use 
the  descriptions,  were  quite  erroneous. 

The  present  paper  is  the  result  of  an  examination  of  the  m 
rial,  including  most  of  Smith's   types,  in  the  coll<    :.         i  the 
British  Museum.     This  collection,  although  it  has  been  scarcely 
touched  since  Smith's  death  in  1878,  is  probably  still  the  most 
valuable  collection  of  bees  in   existence,   and  it  is  remark 
that  it  has  not  received  more  attention  from  students. 

The  following  abbreviations  are  used: — \T.^  =  type  specimen 
examined  ;  s.  m.  =  submarginal  cell ;  r.  n.  =  recurrent  nervure  ; 
b.  n.=  basal  nervure  :  t.  c.=  transverso-cubital  nervure  ;  t.  m.= 
transverso-medial  nervure  :  hind  spur=hind  spur  of  hind  tibia  ; 

ZNTOM. — FEBRUARY,    1905.  D 


34  THE    ENT0M0L0GI8T. 

area=basal  area  of  inetathorax ;  vibriseae=hairs  forming  a  fine 
ciliation  on  hind  margins  of  abdominal  segments  1  and  2. 

Agapostemon. 

(1.)  A.  sicheli,  Vacbal. — The  museum  contains  a  male  of  this 
extraordinary  species  from  Mexico,  out  of  F.  Smith's  collection. 
The  flagellum  is  black,  twisted  like  a  corkscrew.  The  insect  has 
the  hairy  eyes  and  plumose  pubescence  of  Cameron's  Cainoha- 
lictus. 

(2.)  A.  rhopalocera,  Sm.  (T.)  $  . — Easily  known  by  the  very 
long  antennae,  with  the  last  joint  black  and  somewhat  broadened. 
The  yellow  band  on  first  abdominal  segment  has  on  it  two  dark 
spots.     Eyes  naked. 

(3.)  A.  nasutus,  Sm.  (T.)  $. — Easily  known  by  the  broad, 
yellow,  turned-up  anterior  margin  of  clypeus,  like  a  hog's  snout. 
Abdomen  with  six  dark  bands ;  head  broader  than  long ;  eyes 
naked. 

(4.)  A.  ceruginosus,  Sm.  (T.)  $. — Buns  to  this  in  Vachal's 
table,  but  punctures  of  scutellum,  though  somewhat  larger  than 
those  of  mesothorax,  are  still  extremely  dense. 

Corynura. 
Abdomen  red,  second  segment  not  rapidly  broadening, 
and  not  much  broader  than  first ;  antennal  joints 
9  to  11  strongly  crenulate;  first  r.  n.  joins  second 
s.  m.  (which  is  broad)  very  near  its  end  (Chile). 

abdominalis,  Sm.  (T.). 
Abdomen  not  red .         .         .         .         .         .         .         .  1. 

1.  Head  and  thorax  bright  green  all  over  ;  second  s.  in. 

parallel-sided,  first  r.  n.  meeting  second  t.  c. ; 
first  abdominal  segment  narrow,  second  rapidly 
broadening  to  apex  ;  antennas  very  much  shorter 
than  in  abdominalis  or  marginata  (which  Chilian 
species  have  very  long  antennas) 

jucunda,  Sm.(?(T.);  n.  syn.  pseudobaccha,  Ckll.  1901. 
Head  and  thorax  at  least  largely  dark        .         .         .  2. 

2.  Marginal  cell  and  costa  beyond  fuliginous ;  first  r.  n. 

meeting  second  t.  c. ;  hind  spur  with  three  spines ; 
first  abdominal  segment  narrow, but  much  broader 
at  apex  than  at  base,  with  no  depression  between  it 
and  second  along  lateral  margins  (Mexico)    discolor,  Sm.  $  (T.). 
Wings  yellowish  ;  marginal  cell  and  costa  beyond  not 

fuliginous  ........  3. 

3.  Hind  margins  of  abdominal  segments  white,  edged  in 

front  with  a  sort  of  golden-brown ;  first  and 
second  abdominal  segments  both  very  narrow, 
second  not  expanding  apically  to  any  extent ; 
antennas  very  long ;  second  s.  m.  very  broad,  re- 
ceiving first  r.  n.  near  its  end  (Chile)  .  marginata,  Sm.  $  (T.). 
Hind  margins  of  abdominal  segments  not  so  coloured  : 


AMERICAN    HALICTINE    BEES    IN    THE    BRITISH  MUSEUM.  35 

first  segment  very  narrow, second  becoming  broader 
apically  ;  first  r.  n.  meeting  second  t.  c. ;  antennae 
moderate  (Brazil) agilis,  Sm.  $  (T.). 

By  the  venation  and  the  long  antennas,  the  Chilian  species 
form  a  group  separable  from  those  of  Brazil.  In  Proc.  Acad. 
Nat.  Sci,  Phila.  1901,  p.  218,  I  misidentified  C.  jucunda,  owing 
to  a  misinterpretation  of  a  sentence  in  the  description.  My  so- 
called  jucunda  will  stand  as  G.  (enigma,  Gribodo,  while  my  C. 
pseudobaccha  is  the  real  jucunda. 

The  antennae  of  C.  discolor  (  $  )  are  bright  orange  at  the  tip, 
a  useful  character  to  separate  it  from  C.  atromarginata. 

Augochlora  titania,  Sm.  (T.),  which  I  have  referred  to  Cory- 
nura, has  a  clavate  abdomen,  narrowed  basally,  but  otherwise  is 
not  suggestive  of  Corynura.  It  is  very  small ;  first  r.  n.  joining 
second  s.m.  near  its  end  ;  no  vibrissa? ;  wings  dusky;  eyes  deeply 
emarginate ;  area  striato-granular. 

Corynura  briseis  (Augochlora  briseis,  Sm.)  (T.).  5  . 

Hind  spur  with  two  spines  and  two  nodules  or  extremely  short 
spines;  second  s.  m.  extremely  narrow,  receiving  r.  n.  at  its  middle  or 
slightly  beyond ;  first  abdominal  segment  broad  but  narrowed  basally, 
with  strong  large  punctures,  its  dorsal  surface,  viewed  laterally,  occupy- 
ing a  much  lower  plane  tban  that  of  second;  second  segment  with  large 
punctures  like  first,  but  third  and  beyond  lack  these  punctures,  and 
have  a  greenish  lustre  ;  no  vibrissas  ;  upper  part  of  metathorax  smooth 
and  shining  ;  scutellum  dark  pinkish-purple  ;  mesothorax  shining  very 
dark  purplish,  with  large  sparse  punctures,  its  anterior  margin  sharp, 
and  overlapping  prothorax. 

Megalopta. 

I  discuss  under  this  name  the  species  here  placed  by  Smith, 
although  it  is  evident  that  they  do  not  form  a  natural  group. 
Eventually,  either  Megalopta  must  be  given  up,  and  its  species 
merged  in  Augochlora,  or  else  it  must  be  restricted  to  a  much 
smaller  number  of  species. 

Bright   blue-green;    abdomen    shining;     thorax    very 

coarsely  sculptured      .         .         .         .         .         .  ornata,  Sm. 

Not  so,  colours  dull        .......  1. 

1.  Without  metallic  colours,  or  at  most  slightly  purple  .  2. 
With  bright  metallic  colours  on  some  part         .         .          3. 

2.  Wings  strongly  suffused  with  orange ;  abdomen  nar- 

rowed  basally ;    scutellum    normal ;    body    dark 

purplish      .......         purpurata,  Sm. 

Wings  not  suffused  with  orange ;  abdomen   broad  at 
base  ;  scutellum  bituberculate  ;  body  not*  purplish 

bituberculata,  Sm. 

3.  Abdomen  pallid         .......  4. 

Abdomen  dark.         .......  0. 

n  2 


36  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

4.  Abdomen  green,  covered  with  short  pubescence  .      pUosa,  Sm. 
Abdomen  fulvous  ;  scape  long  and  slender         .         .  5. 

5.  Face  narrow  ;  legs  without  black      ....       idalia,  Sm. 
Face  broad  ;  legs  with  much  black    .         .         .  nigrofemorata,  Sm. 

6.  Hind  margins  of  abdominal  segments  1  and  2  regu- 

larly ciliate  (vibrissate)  with  orange  hairs  ;  metal- 
lic colours  of  face  bluish-green  and  purple   .         .       vivax,  Sm. 
Hind  margins  of  abdominal  segments  1  and  2  not 

ciliate         ........         7. 

7.  Abdomen  thinly  pruinose  with  pale  pubescence  ;  cly- 

peus  and  supraclypeal  area  strongly  suffused  with 

crimson      .......         cuprifrons,  Sm. 

Abdomen  not  thus  pruinose  ;  face  brilliant  golden- 
green,  vextex  purplish         .....  8. 

8.  Larger ;  tegula3  dark         .....  janthina,  Sm. 
Smaller;  tegulaa  ferruginous    ....     calliope,  Sm.,  ms. 

The  following  notes,  additional  to  the  table,  will  serve  to 
confirm  identifications  made  by  it : — 

(1.)  M.  bituberculata,  Sm.  $  (T.). — Face  narrow  ;  ocelli  large ; 
wings  hairy  ;  hind  spur  microscopically  ciliate  (but  probably 
spined  in  the  $  , which  I  have  not  seen);  first  r.n.  joins  second  s.m. 
well  before  its  end  ;  third  s.  m.  very  large,  about  as  large  as 
first. 

(2.)  M. janthina,  Sm. — Ocelli  only  moderate;  wings  hairy; 
stigma  large  ;  both  r.  n.  received  by  third  s.  m.  (near  base  and 
apex),  which  is  not  nearly  so  large  as  first. 

(3.)  M.purpurata,  Sm.  (T.). — Ocelli  large;  first  r.  n.  joining 
second  t.  c. ;  third  s.  m.  not  nearly  as  long  as  first. 

(4.)  M.  cuprifrons,  Sm.  (T.). — Wings  hyaline,  not  at  all  orange, 
but  costa  and  marginal  cell  fuliginous  ;  first  r.  n.  joining  second 
t.  c. ;  second  r.  n.  entering  third  s.  m.  farther  from  its  end  than 
in  janthina  (in  janthina  almost  at  its  end);  ocelli  moderate;  first 
abdominal  segment  with  very  numerous  large  strong  punctures. 

(5.)  M.  vivax,  Sm.  (T.). — Ocelli  moderate;  wings  dusky 
hyaline,  not  yellowish  or  dark  on  costa  ;  first  r.  n.  joining  third 
s.  m.  at  its  extreme  base ;  second  r.  n.  joining  third  s.  m.  as  in 
ciqirifrons. 

(6.)  M.ornata,  Sm.  (T.). — Bright  green,  face  splendid  crim- 
son ;  ocelli  fairly  large  ;  thorax  with  very  large  punctures, 
becoming  subcancellate  ;  hind  spur  with  numerous  (6  or  7)  long 
spines ;  first  r.  n.  meeting  second  t.  c.  on  the  basal  side. 

(7.)  M.  pilosa,  Sm.  (T.). — Hind  spur  with  long  spines;  first 
r.  n.  joining  second  t.  c. 

(8.)  M.  nigrofemorata,  Sm.  (T.).— Ocelli  rather  large  ;  wings 
hairy  ;  first  r.  n.  meeting  second  t.  c.  ;  second  r.  n.  joining  third 
s.  m.  almost  at  its  end. 

(9.)  M.  idalia,  Sm.  (T.). — Hind  spur  with  few  long  spines; 
first  r.  n.  joining  second  s.  m.  near  its  end. 


AMERICAN    HALICTINE    BEES    IN    THE   BRITISH   MUSEUM.  37 

(10.)  M.  calliope,  Sm.,  from  Ega,  Brazil,  was  never  pub- 
lished. I  should  refer  it  to  Augochlora,  with  the  following 
characters  : — 

Augochlora  calliope  (Smith)  n.  sp.  $  . 
Head,  thorax,  and  abdomen  dark  purple ;  face  brilliant  golden 
shining  with  coppery  ;  clypeus  very  sparsely  punctured  ;  mandibles 
dark  ferruginous ;  ocelli  moderate  ;  area  with  a  beautiful  crimson 
lustre  (orange-golden  lustre  in  janthina),  and  delicately  striate  ;  scu- 
tellnm  not  bituberculate  ;  hind  spur  with  very  few  long  spines  ;  hair- 
brush  at  apex  of  basal  joint  of  hind  tarsi  orange-fulvous ;  venter  of 
abdomen  with  quite  abundant  white  hair;  first  r.n.  joining  second  t.c. 
(entering  third  s.  m.  near  base  in  janthina)  ;  second  r.n.  joining  third 
s.  m.  at  its  end  ;  stigma  large. 

Augochlora  festivaga  D.  T.  {/estiva,  Sm.)  $  (T.). 
Santarem. — This  is  a  peculiar  species,  in  some  things  suggestive 
of  Corynura  and  Megalopta  ;  it  has  gigantic  ocelli,  such  as  are  not  seen 
in  Megalopta  idalia  ;  nor  has  it  any  vibrissas.  Face  white-pruinose  at 
sides,  much  narrowed  below ;  clypeus  prominent,  its  central  part 
yellow  ;  scape  yellow,  with  the  apex  brown  ;  ocelli  large  for  Augochlora ; 
mesothorax  shining,  smooth  ;  area  shining,  slightly  rugose,  not 
striated  ;  each  side  of  metathorax  with  a  very  remarkable  dense  patch 
of  slightly  yellowish  cotton-like  pubesceuce  ;  posterior  face  of  meta- 
thorax shining,  longitudinally  sulcate;  legs  yellow;  abdomen  with  the 
first  two  segments,  and  base  of  third,  shining  fulvous ;  wings  hairy  ; 
second  s.  m.  very  narrow,  with  parallel  sides  ;  first  r.  n.  joining  second 
t.c. ;  fourth  ventral  segment  of  abdomen  with  middle  of  apical  margin 
produced. 

Halictus  nanus  (Augochlora  nana,  Sm.)  (T.). 
Very  small ;  head  and  thorax  yellowish -green,  abdomen  and  legs 
entirely  fulvous  ;   inner  orbits  not  emarginate,  but  gently  concave  ; 
first  r.  n.  joining  second  s.  m.  at  its  end ;  outer  nervures  weak  as  in 
Chloralictus. 

Halictus  aspasia  (Augochlora  aspasia,  Sm.)  (T.). 
?  .  Inner  orbits  gently  concave,  not  emarginate.  Front,  vertex, 
mesothorax,  and  some  adjacent  parts,  entirely  covered  with  a  dense 
moss-like  fulvous  tomentum  ;  abdomen  largely  covered  with  a  similar 
tomentum,  and  its  tegument  fulvous,  the  bases  of  the  third  and  fourth 
segments  becoming  black  (but  this  colour  mostly  concealed  by  the 
pubescence) ;  venter  dark  red-brown  with  fulvous  bands  ;  first  and 
second  dorsal  segments  without  vibrissa?  ;  area  strongly  defined, 
strongly  longitudinally  striate-ridged  ;  teguke  fulvous  ;  first  r.  n.  joins 
second  s.  m.  before  its  end ;  nervures  very  pale,  outer  nervures 
weakened  as  in  Chloralictus  ;  hind  spur  with  few  spines. 


38  THR    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

THE     EARLIER     STAGES     OF     CATACLYSTA 
LEMNATA,    L. 

By  T.  A.  Chapman,  M.D. 

(Concluded  from  p.  5.) 

The  newly-hatched  larvse  are  l'5-2'0  mm.  long,  according  to 
the  degree  to  which  they  are  extended  ;  they  have  hairs  appa- 
rently in  precisely  the  same  positions  as  the  older  larvae,  but  the 
principal  setae  are  very  long,  II  and  III  being  more  than  half  the 
diameter  of  the  larva  in  length,  and  the  middle  pair  on  the  anal 
plate  three  times  as  long,  viz.  about  0*3  mm.,  the  others  being 
about  0*1  mm.,  and  I  about  0*07  mm.  The  circlet  of  hooks 
on  the  prolegs  contains  about  eighteen  crochets,  all  of  about 
the  same  size,  and  not  in  two  or  three  lengths  as  in  the  older 
larvae. 

In  an  older  larva  the  thoracic  plate  possesses  at  its  anterior 
border  three  pairs  of  hairs,  much  like  those  on  the  next  two  seg- 
ments, but  has  also  one  towards  the  middle  at  its  dorsal  and 
another  at  its  outer  edge,  and  there  is  one  in  the  posterior  half- 
tinted  border.  On  the  first  abdominal,  I  is  on  one  side  dupli- 
cated, a  rare  variation.  I,  II,  and  III  are  in  usual  position, 
Ilia,  is  wanting,  but  is  present  as  a  very  minute  point  on  the 
following  segments.  IV+V  has  the  posterior  and  smaller  mem- 
ber the  higher,  a  character  apparently  common  to  all  Pyraus- 
tidae,  and  the  reverse  of  what  occurs  in  Pyralidae  and  Phycitidae. 
Below  these,  first  abdominal  has  two  hairs  at  regular  intervals;  on 
second  the  first  of  these  has  a  companion  above  and  behind  it ; 
on  third  the  lower  of  these  is  represented  by  the  usual  three 
hairs  above  and  one  below  the  proleg.  The  anal  plate  is  rounded, 
and  has  three  hairs  down  each  side.  Ninth  abdominal  has  four 
hairs  in  line,  the  third  hardly  visible  ;  they  range  with  and  mav 
be  I,  II,  III,  and  IV+V. 

The  prolegs  have  a  complete  circle  (or  oval)  of  crochets,  of 
which  the  inner  and  outer  ones  are  closely  set  and  nearly  of  a 
size,  but  the  anterior  and  posterior  have  the  alternate  ones  of 
more  than  double  the  size  of  the  others,  to  the  number  of  three 
or  four  on  each  margin.  The  claspers  have  about  seven  large 
hooks  anteriorly,  with  smaller  between,  and  beyond  these  at 
either  end  they  dwindle  away  to  mere  points  in  about  a  dozen 
crochets,  slightly  alternate  in  size.  On  both  prolegs  and  claspers 
are  a  few  points  here  and  there,  as  if  representing  a  third  class 
of  still  smaller  crochets. 

The  general  surface  is  covered  with  very  minute  black  points, 
to  which,  in  fact,  the  dark  colour  of  the  larva  is  due ;  these  are 
ranged  or  massed  in  some  degree  more  densely  in  zones,  so  as 
to  suggest  three  subsegments  in   each   segment,  the   anterior 


EARLIER    STAGES    OF    CATACLYSTA    LEMNATA.  39 

being  the  larger.  They  are  ranged  in  some  degree  in  transverse 
and  other  lines,  but  broadly  their  arrangement  is  too  irregular 
to  be  described.  They  present  various  circular  lacunar,  one  of 
which,  a  little  above  and  behind  the  spiracle  and  two  to  three 
times  its  diameter,  is  conspicuous.  The  spiracles  are  very  in- 
conspicuous. 

The  head  and  mouth  parts  are  not  very  intelligible  without 
elaborate  drawings.  The  second  (?)  antennal  joint  is  very  long, 
and  the  jaws  have  a  remarkable  form.  Where  they  face  each 
other  they  have  not  merely  a  toothed  margin,  but  have  a  circular- 
face,  hollowed  centrally,  and  with  teeth  round  more  than  half 
the  margin,  so  that  they  are  like  scoops  with  toothed  edges. 
This  structure  seems  to  be  attained  by  the  ordinary  five  teeth 
being  placed  in  more  crowded  disposition  than  usual,  and  then 
continued  and  supplemented  beyond  the  end  with  largest  (not 
smallest)  teeth  by  a  little  row  of  four  smaller  accessory  teeth, 
which  I  do  not  remember  to  have  observed  before  in  other  larvse 
(of  course  I  have  examined  really  very  few).  The  circle  in  which 
the  teeth  lie  is,  however,  continued  right  round  to  the  attached 
margin  of  the  jaw,  suggesting  that  the  two  jaws  form  a  more 
than  usually  closed  pocket,  possibly  to  retain  sap,  &c,  in  sub- 
aqueous mastication. 

The  larva  moults  four  times.  The  difficulty  of  following  any 
individual  larva  and  noting  its  moults  seemed  to  be  so  great  that 
I  did  not  attempt  it,  but  I  preserved  first  instar  larvae  and  full- 
grown  ones,  as  well  as  a  considerable  number  in  intermediate 
stages,  of  which  those  in  second  instar  were  the  only  ones  of 
whose  stage  I  was  certain.  But,  arranging  all  my  specimens  by 
the  sizes  of  their  heads,  I  find  that  between  the  second  and  the 
last  instars  two,  and  only  two,  sizes  occur,  and  these  five  sizes 
range  themselves  in  regular  order.  This  method  is  of  course 
nevertheless  not  so  sure  to  be  correct  as  the  actual  observation 
of  each  moult  in  one  individual. 

The  pupa  is  8-10  mm.  in  length  and  3  mm.  in  breadth, 
varying  a  little  in  size,  and  especially  the  females  are  the  larger 
and  wider ;  but  there  is  much  latitude  in  size  in  both  sexes. 
The  apparent  size  varies  also  a  good  deal,  owing  to  the  amount 
of  collapse  possible  in  the  two  free  abdominal  segments  (five 
and  six).  In  a  dead  pupa  these  close  up  very  much  by 
drying,  and  in  an  empty  pupa-skin  they  are  often  completely 
telescoped. 

The  widest  part  of  the  pupa  is  at  the  end  of  the  wings,  some 
5-5  mm.  from  the  front.  Seen  laterally,  the  pupa  is  of  somewhat 
ordinary  oval  form,  well  rounded  at  each  end,  and  a  little  flat  in 
front ;  but,  viewed  dorsally  (or  ventrally),  it  tapers  to  either  end, 
and  this  looks  more  remarkable  forwards,  conically  rather  than 
by  an  oval  outline.  At  any  rate,  it  differs  from  our  average  idea 
of  a  pupa  in  this  direction. 


40  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST, 

The  next  point  to  attract  attention  is  the  projection  beyond 
the  wing-cases  as  a  free  spine  of  the  cases  of  the  third  pair  of 
legs,  supported  basally  by  the  wing  apices  and  the  ends  of  the 
second  legs  and  antennae. 

The  colour  is  a  pale  brownish,  decidedly  darker  than  straw- 
colour,  but  still  nearer  straw-colour  than  to  the  ordinary  pupal 
brown. 

The  wings  and  appendages  are  fixed  to  the  end  of  the  fourth 
abdominal  segment.  The  hind  wing  is  visible  between  the  fore 
wing  and  the  abdominal  dorsum  as  a  narrow  strip,  made  some- 
what waved  and  irregular  by  having  to  accommodate  the  spiracles 
on  second  and  third  abdominal ;  it  ends  at  the  end  of  third 
abdominal  segment,  at  the  anal  angle  of  fore  wing,  it  being  the 
hind  margin  of  fore  wing  that  crosses  the  fourth  abdominal 
segment.  The  inner  margins  of  both  wings,  and  especially  of 
the  under  one,  have  many  fine  wrinkles  or  creases,  probably  due 
to  resistance  to  the  backward  movement  of  the  wings  that  takes 
place  when  they  expand  immediately  after  pupation. 

The  spiracles  are  interesting ;  on  second,  third,  and  fourth 
abdominal  segments  they  have  a  very  elaborate  circumvallate 
fortification  and  are  very  conspicuous ;  on  the  other  segments 
(fifth,  sixth,  seventh  abdominal)  they  are  quite  simple  and 
not  very  easily  seen.  In  these  special  spiracles  is  first  and 
centrally  the  spiracle  proper,  consisting  of  a  central  opening 
(transverse  to  length  of  pupa),  with  a  fibrillate  margin,  and 
round  this  a  set  of  fine  circular  lines,  making  the  oval  spiracle 
into  a  circular  (or  nearly  so)  area.  Next  round  this  is  a  smooth 
dome-like  area,  by  which  the  spiracle  is  raised  on  to  a  promi- 
nence, and  next  a  series  of  raised  ridges  varying  in  number 
and  form,  but  apparently  trying  to  be  circular,  but  forced  by 
the  wings  to  extend  themselves  as  trenches  along  the  wing 
border. 

The  effect  of  these  spiracles  on  the  associated  tubercles 
suggest  strongly  that  the  spiracles  have  been  forced  dorsally 
by  the  wings — a  circumstance  not  distinctly  suggested,  as  in 
many  similar  pupae,  by  the  form  of  the  circumvallate  ridges. 

The  dorsal  tubercle  I  is  generally  easily  seen,  but  II  cannot 
be  found  ;  III  is  situated  fairly  normally,  as  in  the  larva  on 
fifth,  sixth,  and  seventh  abdominal,  and  Ilia,  is  in  front  and 
above  the  spiracle.  On  fourth  abdominal,  III  and  Ilia,  are 
fairly  normal  in  direction  from  the  spiracle,  but  are  close  to  the 
cireumvallatory  ridges.  On  third,  however,  III  is  quite  as  much 
in  front  as  above  spiracle,  and  on  second  abdominal  segment  it 
is  quite  in  front  of  spiracle  ;  Ilia,  though  in  front  in  both 
cases,  is  rather  below  spiracle  in  third,  and  quite  so  on  second 
segment. 

At  first  view,  one  demands,  is  this  not  V,  in  a  situation  very 
usual  for  it  in  some    families,   but,  by   tracing  its  migration 


EARLIER   STAGES    OF    CATACLYSTA    LEMNATA.  41 

segment  by  segment,  as  above,  its  real  nature  is  not  open  to 
doubt ;  and  further  confirmation  comes  from  finding  IV  and  V 
close  together  a  considerable  way  below  the  spiracles  on  the 
following  segments  disposed  as  in  the  larva.  These  hairs  and 
tubercles  are  microscopic,  and  the  pupa  may  be  described  as 
quite  smooth,  as  that  idea  is  'usually  understood.  There  is  a 
pair  of  hairs  on  the  face,  but  there  seem  to  be  none  on  the 
thorax.  They  appear  to  have  become  obsolete,  like  II  on  the 
abdominal  segments. 

The  two  anal  spines  noted  by  Buckler  are  very  curious  ;  they 
are  on  the  tenth  abdominal  segment,  but  the  segmental  incisions 
are  so  obscure  that  in  some  views  they  seem  to  be  on  the  ninth. 
Their  situation  is  quite  dorsal,  dorsal  to  the  spiracular  level ; 
they  point  directly  outwards,  and  are  thin  and  flat,  so  that  even 
from  behind  they  appear  to  lie  almost  flat  on  the  surface. 

Noting  the  appendages  in  front,  there  is  a  well-marked 
labrum,  and  there  are  angles  of  the  face  below  it  that  may  be  the 
mandibles  ;  between  these  is  a  small  angular  space,  the  floor  of 
which  is  no  doubt  the  labial  palpi.  Between  the  eyes  and  the 
base  of  the  second  pair  of  legs  is  a  small  square  piece  abutting 
against  the  antenna.  I  believe  I  have  called  this  piece  the 
maxillary  palpus  in  some  pupae  similar  to  this  one,  and  I  am  not 
prepared  to  say  positively  that  it  is  not,  as  it  occupies  precisely 
the  position  that  the  end  of  the  palpus  occupies  in  all  those 
pupce  incomplete  in  which  its  nature  is  obvious.  Here,  however, 
on  dehiscence,  this  piece  remains  attached  not  to  the  maxilla, 
but  to  the  prothoracic  dorsal  piece,  and  it  seems  therefore  that 
it  really  is  a  portion  of  the  prothorax  visible  in  front  of  the 
antenna. 

The  pupa  possesses  a  primitive  feature  in  having  a  separate 
dorsal  head-piece,  to  which  the  eye-piece,  separated  from  the 
rest  of  the  face,  remains  attached  on  dehiscence.  The  maxillae 
reach  more  than  half-way  to  the  wing-tips,  and  then  disappear 
by  passing  under  the  second  pair  of  legs  ;  in  some  specimens 
there  is  an  appearance  as  if  the  extremity  came  to  the  surface 
just  at  the  wing-tips,  behind  the  free  portions  of  the  appendages. 
In  dehisced  specimens  the  applied  surfaces  of  the  hind  legs  in 
this  process  separate,  and  leave  an  angular  line  that  looks  some- 
times as  though  there  were  something  else  besides  the  hind  legs 
present ;  this  could  only  be  the  maxillae.  The  appearance  is, 
however,  due  merely  to  the  exposure  of  the  inner  aspect  of  the 
leg-case. 

Between  the  maxilla  and  first  leg  is  a  portion  of  the  first 
femur  (as  in  sphingids,  &c.)  ;  the  first  legs  are  cut  off  from  the 
face  (eye)  by  the  angular  portion  of  the  prothorax,  and  do  not 
extend  quite  as  far  as  where  the  maxillae  disappear.  The  second 
legs  and  antennae,  as  already  noted,  reach  a  little  beyond  the 
end  of  the  wings,  along  the  free  portion  of  the  third  leg-cases. 


42  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

It  is  noteworthy  that  in  the  female  they  hardly  reach  one-third 
of  the  length  of  the  spine  formed  by  the  third  leg-cases,  whilst 
in  the  male  they  reach  rather  more  than  two-thirds. 

The  wing  apices  are  long  and  pointed,  quite  different  to  those 
of  the  imago,  and  reach  inwards  behind  the  antennae  to  the 
second  pair  of  legs.  The  apex  of  the  hind  wing  also  appears 
here,  and  is  as  pointed,  and  a  little  longer  than  the  fore  wing. 

The  front  of  the  last  abdominal  segments  differ  in  the  two 
sexes  in  the  usual  way,  the  male  having  two  eminences  on  the 
ninth  abdominal  segment,  whilst  the  female  has  a  longitudinal 
impressed  line  on  the  eighth.  On  the  ninth,  however,  the  female 
structures  are  of  a  very  unusual  character.  There  are  nine  or 
ten  raised  ridges,  parallel  and  longitudinal,  and  the  sharp  edges 
of  the  ridges  are  of  dark  (dense  ?)  chitin.  Though  straight 
longitudinally,  they  have  an  antero-posterior  curvature,  such 
that  the  set  together  look  just  like  the  upright  iron  bars  placed 
to  protect  windows,  where  the  lower  portions  are  bent  outwards. 

It  may  be  well  to  recapitulate  that  the  larva  is  truly  aquatic, 
i.  e.  in  water  and  wetted  by  it,  in  the  first  instar.  Afterwards, 
though  under  water,  is  aerial,  i.  e.  surrounded  by  air  in  a  case. 
To  compare  it  with  the  allied  species,  A.niveus  and  N .  stratiotata 
appear  to  be  aquatic  throughout.  H.  stagnata  appears  to  be 
aerial  after  hybernation,  but  I  can  find  no  definite  statement  on 
the  point.  H.  nymphceata  is  aerial ;  I  do  not  find  any  definite 
statement  that  it  is  aquatic  in  first  instar.  It  is  the  species 
described  by  Reaumur,  and  often  since  as  filling  its  case  with 
air,  and  the  one  that  most  readily  occurs  to  us  in  thinking  of  the 
group.  At  top  of  p.  2  I  was  thinking  of  nymphceata  rather  than 
stagnata,  of  which  I  was  speaking. 


Explanation  of  Plate  I. 
Details  of  Cataclysta  lemnata. 

Fig.  1. — Eggs,  as  laid  under  a  leaf  of  Lemna  trisulca,  x  20.  The 
reproduction  of  photo  (by  A.  E.  Tonge,  Esq.)  fails  to  show  the  slight 
sculpturing,  but  gives  size,  and  shows  method  of  laying,  viz.  border 
to  border,  and  not  imbricated,  as  is  usual  in  this  sort  of  scale- like 
egg- 

Fig.  2. — Diagram  of  one  side  of  larva-skin,  from  medio-dorsal  to 
medio-ventral  line,  to  show  disposition  of  tubercles  from  first  thoracic 
to  third  abdominal  segments. 

Fig.  3. — One  mandible,  much  magnified,  to  show  marginal  teeth 
supplementing  the  usual  five,  and  forming  a  scoop  (  x  160). 

Fig.  4. — Side  view  of  pupa,  x  3f . 

Fig.  5. — Portion  of  dehisced  pupa,  x  10,  shows  : — 1.  Dorsal  head- 
piece, carrying  (2)  eye-cover.  3.  Prothoracic  cover,  carrying  (4)  ventral 
portion,  that  looks  in  pupa  like  maxillary  palpus.     5.  Mesothorax.     6. 


NOTES  ON  THE  WAVE  MOTHS.  43 

Antenna.  7.  Metathorax.  8,  9,  and  10.  First  three  abdominal  seg- 
ments.    11.  Fore  wing.     12.  Hind  wing. 

Fig.  6. — Another  portion  of  dehisced  pupa,  X  10,  showing  appen- 
dages. 1.  Face  piece.  2.  Labrum.  3.  A  rent  due  to  flattening  pre- 
paration. 4.  Antenna.  5.  Eye-cover  restored  to  natural  position  ;  it 
is  at  once  torn  from  here  if  in  handling  the  dorsal  and  ventral  portions 
of  pupa  are  separated,  as  happens  also  to  G.  Ventral  portion  of  pro- 
thorax,  really  probably  outer  end  of  dorsal  plate.  7.  Angle  where 
labial  palpi  would  form  floor  of  space.  8.  Maxilla.  9.  Femur  of 
first  leg.  10.  First  leg.  11.  Second  leg.  12.  Wing  ;  third  tarsi  are 
seen  beyond  second  leg.  The  main  sketch  is  female  ;  the  subsidiary 
addition  is  of  same  parts  in  male  pupa,  showing  relative  greater  length 
of  second  legs  and  of  antenna.  The  line  on  third  tarsi  shows  where 
their  opposed  faces  have  been  separated  (on  dehiscence),  and  not 
another  member  of  appendages. 

Fig.  7. — Ventral  aspect  of  last  four  segments  of  male  pupa,  x  10. 

Fig.  8.—  ,,  ,,  ,,  female  pupa,  X  10. 

Fig.  9. — Portion  of  same,  further  enlarged  ( x  20),  to  show  grid- 
like arrangement  on  ninth  segment. 


NOTES   ON  THE    WAVE   MOTHS  (GENUS   ACIDALIA, 

Auct.). 

By  Louis  B.  Prout,  F.E.S. 

(Concluded  from  p.  11.) 

But  although  an  "  Acidalia"  cannot  hybernate  otherwise 
than  as  a  larva,  it  does  not  by  any  means  follow  that  it  needs  to 
hybernate  at  all.  Some  of  the  species,  I  believe,  do  need,  and 
therefore  only  give  a  single  life-cycle  in  the  year.  But  others 
can  go  through  their  metamorphoses  quite  rapidly  in  the  warmer 
months,  being  only  checked  by  the  approach  of  winter,  so  that 
there  are  two,  or  even  three  or  more,  generations  of  the  imago 
in  a  single  summer,  the  lame  which  produce  the  later  broods 
necessarily  dispensing  with  any  hybernation.  Cases  of  such 
double-broodedness  occur,  in  the  South  of  England,  with  Ptycho- 
poda  dimidiata,  P.  subsericeata,  Leptomeris  marginepunctata,  and 
I  think  others,  in  all  excepting  the  most  backward  seasons ; 
whilst  the  abundant  little  P.  virgularia  has  probably  at  least  three 
generations  in  the  year.  Yet  a  third  (and  not  inconsiderable) 
class,  not  at  present  known  to  throw  a  second  brood  in  a  state  of 
nature,  can  readily  be  induced  to  do  so  in  artificial  breeding. 
Such  are  P.  inornata,  P.  rusiicata,  P.  trigeminata,  &c.  ;  and  at 
least  one  of  the  partially  double-brooded  ones,  P.  subsericeata, 
can  yield  a  third  brood  in  captivity.  Concerning  P.  trigeminata, 
let  me  relate  my  own  experience,  as  it  "  points  a  moral,"  not  to 
lepidopterists  only,  but  to  all  scientific  workers.     I  have  three 


44  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

times  tried  to  breed  it  from  the  egg,  and  each  time,  in  spite  of 
the  stimuli  of  abundant  warmth  and  abundant  food  freely  ad- 
ministered, the  larvae  have  persisted  in  hybernating ;  and  had  I 
had  only  my  own  experience  to  draw  upon,  I  should  by  this  time 
probably  be  dogmatically  asserting  that  this  was  one  of  the 
species  which  did  not  allow  of  artificial  "forcing."  But  Barrett 
writes  as  follows  ('  Lep.  Brit.'  viii.  p.  18) :  "  On  the  wing  in  May 
and  June,  and  as  a  partial  second  generation,  at  the  end  of  July 
and  in  August,  but  Mr.  A.  H.  Jones  records  that  if  fed  up  in 
moderate  warmth  the  second  generation  becomes  complete,  every 
moth  emerging  in  August  or  September."  Two  or  three  friends, 
whose  word  I  would  trust  as  implicitly  as  my  own,  have  confirmed 
this  last  statement  from  their  own  experience  ;  and  I  am  fain  to 
admit  that  mine  has  really  been  quite  exceptional,  albeit  thrice 
repeated.  My  moral  is  obvious.  Do  not  generalize  on  slender 
data.  By  all  means  record  personal  experiences,  but  use  them, 
not  as  a  basis  for  too  sweeping  deductions,  but  simply  as  one 
tiny  contribution  to  be  cast  upon  the  common  heap,  from  which, 
at  last,  sound  generalizations  may  be  made  practically  without 
fear  of  a  "  possibility  of  error." 

I  have  said  above  that  an  "  Acidalia"  "cannot  hybernate 
otherwise  than  as  a  larva."  One  would  not  be  surprised  there- 
fore to  hear  that  there  was  further  a  fixed  age,  or  larval  stadium, 
assigned  for  this  important  period  in  its  economy.  There  was  a 
good  deal  of  talk  in  our  entomological  circles  a  few  years  ago 
about  this  fixed  hybernating  stage  and  the  certainty  of  death  if 
the  stress  of  weather,  or  of  failure  of  food,  met  the  insect  at  any 
other  than  the  right  period.  But  some  data  are  already  to  hand 
showing  that  the  operation  of  natural  selection  is  not  always  so 
cruelly  rigid  as  this,  but — sometimes,  at  least — allows  of  a  little 
flexibility.  Thus  our  "  Wood  Argus  "  butterfly  and  our  common 
"  Brimstone  Moth  "  can  winter  either  as  larva  or  pupa;  Mr.  K. 
South  once  successfully  hybernated  four  larva  of  Coremia  uniden- 
taria,  a  species  which  almost  invariably  hybernates  as  pupa  ;  and 
in  the  Acidalice  I  have  certainly  had  P.  rusticata  and  almost 
certainly  also  P.  inornata  hybernate  in  two  different  larval  stadia. 

Where  Acidaliid  larvae  may  be  found — or  sought — I  have 
already  indicated  to  a  certain  extent.  They  are  all  low-plant 
feeders ;  few,  if  any,  are  specialized  to  a  particular  plant ;  and 
therefore,  theoretically,  they  might  occur  almost  everywhere. 
But  there  are  few  things  more  noticeable  than  their  extreme 
localization,  and  often  they  seem  almost  gregarious,  so  closely 
does  a  particular  colony  keep  to  a  particular  hedge  or  bank. 
There  was  a  little  bit  of  hedge  opposite  Highams  Park  Station 
where,  for  years,  the  imago  (and  therefore  of  course  the  larva, 
if  one  had  searched  closely  enough)  of  P.  interjectaria  posi- 
tively swarmed  ;  I  have  had  seven  in  my  net  at  once  when 
"dusking"  along  that  hedge.     And  most  entomologists   have 


NOTES  ON  THE  WAVE  MOTHS.  45 

had  some  similar  experiences  with  members  of  the  genus.  The 
wider  question  of"  Where—"  i.e.,  that  of  geographical  distribu- 
tion— deserves  separate  treatment  and  shall  be  passed  over  for 
the  moment. 

How  do  the  larva?  feed  '?  They  are  somewhat  specialized  in 
their  tastes,  notwithstanding  that  I  have  just  denied  their 
specialization  to  any  particular  plant.  Their  peculiarity  is  that, 
unlike  most  caterpillars,  they  have  a  strong  preference  for 
withered  or  even  mouldy  food.  We  may  be  interested  or  amused 
at  this  apparently  unnatural  taste  ;  but  let  not  those  of  you  who 
have  any  liking  for  "  high  game,"  or  for  certain  cheeses  which  I 
could  mention,  or  even  for  dried  vegetables  or  fruits,  "  cast  the 
first  stone."  P.  rusticata  likes  dead  and  mouldy  leaves,  and  is 
suspected  of  feeding,  in  a  state  of  nature,  on  fallen  elm,  haw- 
thorn, and  other  leaves  under  the  hedges  in  which  the  moth 
occurs.  P.  dimidiata  is  stated  to  be  "  even  well  pleased  with  a 
mouldy  slice  of  turnip  !  "  P.  lierbariata,  so  scarce  in  England, 
where  it  is  certainly  not  indigenous,  does  not  mind  how  dry  its 
food  is ;  indeed,  the  few  that  have  been  taken  in  this  country 
have  been  in  herbalists'  shops,  where,  doubtless,  the  larvae  had 
fed  up  ;  it  is  also  reputed  occasionally  to  attack  herbaria.  P. 
dilutaria,  better  known  as  holoserieata,  has  a  very  interesting 
habit ;  it  first  bites  nearly  through  the  leaf-stalk  of  its  chosen 
plant,  causing  the  leaf  to  droop  and  wither,  and  then  feeds  off 
the  delicacy  thus  prepared.  Sterrha  ochrata  will  not  touch  fresh 
leaves  when  withered  ones  are  at  hand  ;  yet  likes  to  have  the 
latter  sprinkled  with  water.  P.  virgularia  used  to  be  found 
freely  by  Rossler  feeding  on  brushwood  heaped  up  in  his  garden. 
I  rear  nearly  all  my  Acidaliae  with  withered  dandelion  leaves, 
and  with  a  generous  supply  of  these,  larger  and  liner  specimens 
may  often  be  reared  than  are  met  with  in  a  wild  state. 

How  are  the  larva?  protected  ?  They  are  mostly  of  a  very 
sober  brown  or  brown-grey  garb,  and  probably  most  of  them 
sufficiently  resemble  little  bits  of  curled-up  dead  leaf,  &c.  A 
few,  such  as  Leptomeris  strigilaria,  are  long,  thin  and  twig-like, 
and  rest  in  a  rigid  position  to  aid  this  resemblance.  But  these, 
or  at  least  the  one  just  named,  have  also  a  more  aggressively 
defensive  habit,  which  has  caused  me  a  good  deal  of  amusement. 
When  disturbed  they  throw  themselves  into  the  most  violent  and 
indescribable  contortions,  during  which  it  would  probably  be  as 
hard  for  any  small  enem}'  to  seize  them,  as  it  is  to  get  a  firm 
hold  of  the  proverbial  eel.  Curiously,  I  have,  during  the  past 
summer,  made  acquaintance  with  three  Geometrid  species  W'hich 
indulge  in  these  remarkable  acrobatic  performances,  which  I  had 
never  witnessed  in  any  prior  to  this  year,  though  of  course  I 
had  heard  of  them.  The  three  species  are  the  commoniJo/ii;/ni 
petraria  (whose  larva  I  had  never  found  simply  because  I  had 
never  searched  bracken  for  it  at  the  right  time),  the  much  scarcer 


46  THE    ENT0M0L0GI8T. 

Anticlea  cucullata,  and  heptomcris  strigilaria,  ova  of  which  Dr. 
Chapman  sent  me  from  Guethary  (Basses-Pyrenees)  this  summer. 
Mr.  Barrett  says  that  the  larva  of  L.  immorata,  another  of  the 
long,  thin,  rigid  species,  "if  touched, coils  up  almost  like  a  watch- 
spring."  Mr.  Bacot  reports  on  the  larva  of  L.  incanata — a  con- 
tinental species,  not  occurring  in  Britain,  hut  related  to  our 
marginepunctata — that  "  They  rest  either  in  an  extended  position 
or  with  a  partial  double  spiral  coil."  I  have  also  noticed  these 
singular  coils  in  others  of  the  slender  group  of  larvae — L. 
imitaria,  &c.  The  stout  species,  which  cannot  actually  coil 
themselves,  like  to  rest  in  slightly  curved  positions  or  sometimes 
quite  straight,  and  when  disturbed  bend  the  front  segments  in  to 
meet  or  approach  the  under  side  of  the  hinder,  making  a  form 
which  may  very  roughly  be  likened  to  a  figure  2 ;  whereas  the 
thin  larvae,  in  making  the  "  spiral,"  of  course  have  to  bring  the 
front  segments  round  beside  the  hinder. 

To  give,  in  a  paper  like  the  present,  the  technicalities  of  the 
larval  descriptions  which  Mr.  Bacot  has  kindly  prepared  on 
Leptomeris  incanata,  Ptychopoda  trigeminata,  and  a  Pyrenean 
species  P.  asellaria,  would  serve  no  useful  purpose ;  we  shall 
hope  to  make  scientific  use  of  them  when  a  larger  number  of 
species  have  been  studied  in  the  same  thorough  way.  I  have 
myself,  in  addition,  some  fairly  full  notes  on  certain  stages 
of  the  larvae  of  P.  virgidaria  and  L.  strigaria,  made  four  or  five 
years  ago,  and  some  on  the  newly-hatched  larva  of  P.  trigemi- 
nata; and  these  furnish  a  few  further  details  of  value  for  our 
studies,  as  do  also  some  very  good  notes  on  the  earliest  stages  of 
L.  emutaria  by  Mr.  A.  Sich  (Ent.  xxxvii.  p.  108).  I  will  only  now 
mention  one  or  two  general  points. 

So  far  as  I  know  personally,  all  the  Acidaliid  larvae  are,  on 
first  hatching,  distinctly  slender  in  proportion  to  their  length, 
though  probably  in  somewhat  varying  degree.  I  learn  from 
Van  Leeuwen's  account  in  Sepp's  'Nederlandsche  Insecten,'  that 
those  of  P.  humiliata  and  P.  interjectaria  are  stouter  than  most. 
I  find  from  my  notes  that  P.  trigeminata,  which  becomes  decidedly 
one  of  the  stumpy  ones  in  its  later  stages,  is  slender  at  first,  and 
so  is  P.  virgidaria,  which  is  of  medium  proportions  when  full 
grown,  as  well  as  such  larvae  as  L.  strigilaria,  strigaria,  &c, 
which  remain  slender  to  the  last.  The  arrangement  of  the 
tubercles  would  seem  to  be  fairly  constant.  The  setae  furnish 
some  interesting  structures,  and  I  fancy  will  yield  material  of 
some  classificatory  value.  Sometimes  they  are  fairly  normal, 
short,  stiff  hairs,  often  they  are  thickened  or  clubbed  at  the 
extremity,  sometimes  thickened  throughout,  sometimes  (as  in 
newly-hatched  P.  trigeminata,  or  in  P.  asellaria,  up  to  the  very 
last)  they  begin  thickening  rapidly  almost  from  the  base,  and 
make  either  a  flask-shaped  structure  or  something  approaching 
an  inverted  pyramid.     I  suspect  that  some  of  these  last-named 


NOTES    ON    THE    WAVE   MOTHS.  47 

structures  are  glandular,  and  I  cannot  help  wondering  whether 
they  are  akin  to  what  Mr.  Burrows  calls  "  battledore  processes  " 
in  the  larva?  of  the  "  Emeralds,"  though  I  understand  him  that 
these  are  not  homologous  to  the  true  larval  seta?.  Most,  if  not 
all,  of  the  Acidaliid  larva?  have  the  skin  decidedly  rugose  in 
appearance,  subsegmentation  distinctly  marked,  and  generally  a 
more  or  less  well-developed  lateral  flange. 

Earlier  in  my  paper  I  spoke  of  the  two  large  genera  into 
which — excluding  ochrata  and  perhaps  rusticata  and  fumata — 
Meyrick  and  others  find  our  imagines  divide  according  to  neura- 
tion  and  leg-structure  ;  and  I  have  stated  or  hinted  two  or  three 
times  in  its  course,  that  these  seem  to  be  roughly  correlated  with 
some  of  the  more  striking  larval  differences.  Ever  since  the 
Acidaliid  larva?  have  been  at  all  systematically  described — i.  e., 
since  the  time  when  Buckler  and  Hellins  were  at  work — it  has 
been  customary  to  speak  of  the  "  short  broad  Acidalia  type  "  and 
the  "  long  thin."  Now  it  is  noteworthy  that  the  larva?  of  all  the 
British  species  which  fall  under  Meyrick's  Leptomeris — namely, 
remutaria,  immutata,  marginepunctata,  ornata,  imitaria,  emutaria, 
strigilaria,immorata,  and  rubiginata — belong  most  distinctly  to  the 
"  long  thin"  group  ;  and  so  do  such  non-British  ones  of  the  same 
genus  as  I  have  had  under  observation  (incanata  and  strigaria), 
or  as  are  known  to  me  from  figures  and  descriptions  by  Milliere, 
&c.  The  least  unequivocal — to  judge  from  the  figures — is  that  of 
L.  ornata,  and  this,  with  its  allies,  has  been  placed  into  a  distinct 
section  by  Lederer,  on  account  of  the  indentations  of  the  margin 
of  the  hind  wing  between  veins  4  and  6,  and  would,  perhaps, 
form  the  type  of  a  natural  genus — Craspedia,  Hb.  There  are, 
of  course,  other  larval  characters  which  go  with  this  "long  thin" 
group,  such  as  the  nearly  cylindrical  form,  the  comparative  free- 
dom from  rugosities,  the  extremely  short  seta?  apparently  seldom 
developing,  in  the  later  stages,  into  the  clavate  forms,  &c. 

The  bulk  of  the  remaining  species  — Meyrick's  genus  Eois — 
have  quite  a  different  type  of  larva,  short  and  thickened  — 
'especially  posteriorly,  more  or  less  flattened,  very  rugose,  gene- 
rally comparatively  hairy,  the  hairs  often  knobbed  at  their 
extremity.  But  I  fancy  they  are  less  homogeneous  than  the 
Leptomeris.  group,  and  will  need  careful  revision.  A  few  seem 
almost  to  form  connecting  links  between  the  group  in  which  their 
imago  would  place  them  and  Leptomeris ;  P.  virgularia,  for 
instance,  has  not  very  much  of  the  typical  Ptycliopoda  character, 
and  even  P.  bisetata,  P.  straminata,  P.  subsericeata,  &c,  make 
some  approach  to  the  intermediate  form.  Still,  I  do  not  think 
any  of  them  are  capable  of  assuming  the  spiral  coil  characteris- 
tic of  true  Leptomeris*  and  they  all  show  some  approach  to  the 

"::  P.  virgularia  may  be  an  exception,  as  some  small,  but  by  no  means 
newly-hatched,  larvae  kindly  given  me  by  Mr.  South  since  this  paper  was 
written,  show  a  strong  predilection  for  the  Lejrtomeris  attitude. — L.  B.  P. 


48  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

flattening,  the  thickening.  &c.,  characteristic  of  their  conveners. 
By  the  way.  the  pupa-case  of  subsericcata  is  superficially  very 
different  from  ail  the  others  which  I  have,  whether  of  Leptomeris 
or  Ptychopoda  ;  but  I  have  made  no  close  examination  of  them. 

A  few  words  in  conclusion  as  to  the  distribution  of  the 
species  of  "  Aeidalia."  I  have  remarked,  in  connection  with 
the  larva?,  how  extremely  local  they  generally  are,  and  a  study 
of  our  British  species  will  afford  plenty  of  illustrations.  We 
have  one  species  confined,  in  these  islands,  to  Lewes,  one  to 
Freshwater  (Isle  of  Wight),  one  almost  to  Deal,  one  to  Folke- 
stone, one  to  the  "Breck  Sand*'  district  of  Norfolk  and  Suffolk, 
one  to  the  Isle  of  Portland,  while  others  are  only  a  little  less 
restricted  in  their  range— e.g.,  P.  rusticate  (which  has  colonies 
in  the  Isle  of  Portland  and  in  the  Northfleet-Gravesend  district, 
but  hardly  occurs  elsewhere1,  or  P.  eontiguaria,  which  is  confined 
to  the  mountains  of  Wales.  With  the  exception  of  this  last, 
and  possibly  the  Breck  Sands,  each  habitat  which  I  have  named 
may  reasonably  be  described  as  southern,  and  it  should  be  added 
that  a  few  of  the  other  species,  though  somewhat  more  widely  dis- 
tributed, are  distinctively  southern,  others  mainly  so,  while  very 
few  of  the  species  extend  into  Scotland.  Our  only  characteristic 
northern  species  of  the  group  is  Leptomeris  (Pylarge)  finnata. 
-  facta  shadow  forth  what  no  student  of  the  Pala?arctic 
m  brides  as  a  whole  can  fail  to  notice — namely,  that  the 
genus,  or  subfamily,  belong  more  to  southern  Europe  than  to 
northern.  It  has  been  my  good  fortune  to  have  brought  to  me  by 
my  kind  friend  Dr.Cnapman  four  collections  from  different  parts  of 
Spain,  and  one  <sonie  year-  a  from  Norway  ;  in  ail  the  former, 
Acidaliid  species  were  very  much  in  evidence,  generally  indeed 
forming  the  dominant  family;  whereas  in  the  Norwegian  collec- 
tion, amongst  a  large  number  of  species,  there  was  only  one  of 
them  [L.  fumata).  In  Staudinger  and  Rebel's  '  Catalogue  of  the 
Palsearctic  Lepidoptera,'  the  genus  is  credited  with  179  species, 
of  which  we  in  Britain  can  claim  27,  or  about  one-seventh.  The 
total  number  of  Geometrides  is  given  as  1229,  of  which  Britain 
yields  about  275,  or  well  over  one-fifth.  The  discrepancy  is 
fairly  marked,  and  would  be  still  greater  were  it  not  for  the 
number  of  species  which  just  maintain  themselves  in  one  spot 
in  our  southern  counties  (chiefly  on  the  coast).  These  species 
will  give  much  food  for  reflection  to  the  student  of  geographical 
distribution,  and  I  regret  that  I  have  no  definite  suggestions  to 
offer  on  the  subject.  I  trust  I  have  said  enough  this  evening  to 
show  that,  both  in  this  and  in  other  directions,  the  homely  little 
';wave  moths"  are  not  unworthy  of  the  attention  of  the  scientific 
naturalist. 


49 


AN  ABBREVIATED  LIST  OP  BUTTERFLIES  FROM  THE 
SOUTH  OF  FRANCE  AND  CORSICA. 

By  Albert  F.   Rosa,  M.D. 

The  following  are  a  few  notes  on  the  more  special  butterflies 
observed  during  three  visits  to  the  South  in  1902-3-4.  The  two 
first  occasions  included  Nimes  (Pont  du  Gard  and  Remoulins), 
Digne,  and  Hyeres ;  in  1902,  May  9th  to  20th,  and  in  1903, 
July  5th  to  14th.  Last  season,  ten  days,  from  July  9th  to  19th, 
were  spent  in  Corsica.  To  obviate  the  too  frequent  repetition  of 
full  dates,  it  will  be  noticed  by  the  foregoing  that  May  indicates 
May,  1902,  and  July  means  July,  1903,  unless  where  a  Corsican 
locality  is  given,  in  which  case  July,  1904,  is  understood. 

Papilio  alexanor,  Esp. — I  secured  one  on  the  afternoon  of  the 
day  of  arrival,  the  6th  of  July,  at  Digne,  ou  the  left  of  La  Colette, 
the  next  morning  two  on  the  ridge  at  the  other  side  of  the  Bleone,  and 
two  that  afternoon  on  Les  Dourbes  road.  After  this  it  was  more 
frequently  seen,  but  soon  began  to  show  signs  of  wear.  I  got  a 
series  of  nearly  a  dozen  perfect  specimens,  including  four  females. 
The  females  have  the  ground  colour  paler,  but  otherwise  there  seems 
to  be  very  little  variation  amongst  mine  excepting  in  size,  one  being 
abnormally  small. 

P.  hospiton,  Gene. — "We  arrived  in  Corsica  on  the  9th,  and  it  was 
the  13th  before  this  was  actually  taken.  Leaving  out  those  that  were 
only  seen  and  might  be  doubtful,  I  think  we  can  account  for  about 
eight  or  ten.  Our  records  are  as  follows  :  I  got  a  female  on  the  13th, 
a  perfectly  fresh  male  on  the  11th,  had  another  in  my  net  on  the  loth 
but  it  escaped,  another  female  on  the  16th,  liberated  because  imperfect, 
and  lastly,  a  perfect  male  on  the  18th.  Mr.  Tylecote  also  secured  a 
female  on  the  13th,  two,  I  think  males,  on  the  15th,  and  one  (or 
two)  on  the  16th  set  at  liberty.  Ail  of  these  in  the  neighbourhood  of 
Tattone.  There  is  some  little  variation  amongst  mine.  The  female 
is  much  darker  than  the  males,  the  characteristic  diffused  band  on  the 
hind  wings  and  other  black  markings  being  more  pronounced.  One 
male  and  the  female  have  only  five  marginal  yellow  lunules  on  the 
hind  wing,  the  one  next  the  costa  being  absent  ;  but  this  lunule  is 
developed  in  the  other  male. 

Pieris  doplidice,  L.,  var.  bellidice,  O. — One  taken  on  the  Dourbes 
road  at  Digne  on  May  12th,  and  another  at  Pont  du  Gard  a  few  days 
later. 

Euchloe  belia.  Cr. — Along  with  the  preceding,  living  at  the  more 
barren  parts  over  the  shaly  mounds. 

E.  eujjhmuides,  Stgr. — Only  a  short  series  obtained.  One  or  two 
at  Digne,  to  the  west  of  the  town,  on  May  13th,  and  a  few  at  Pont  du 
Gard  on  the  20th,  including  two  females.  Not  seen  at  Hyeres,  where 
I  was  from  the  16th  to  the  18th. 

Leptidia  duponcheli,  Stgr. — The  spring  brood  was  flying  at  Digne 
along  wTith  the  var.  lathyius  of  L.  sinaj-is,  and  both  were  taken  in  good 
condition  between  May  10th  and  13th. 

ENT03I. — FEBRUARY,    1905-  E 


50  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Colias  edusa,  Fab.,  var.  helice,  Hubn. — One  at  Digne,  July  9th,  and 
one  at  Corte,  July  18th.  C.  edusa  was  very  common  at  Tattone,  but  I 
did  not  see  any  of  this  variety  there. 

Gonepteryx  cleopatra,  L. — Common  at  Nimes,  Kemoulins,  and 
Pont  du  Gard  early  in  July,  but  rare  at  Digne.  Very  abundant 
and  fine  at  Hyeres  from  the  12th  to  the  14th  of  the  same  month. 
In  May  I  only  saw  one  or  two  at  Digne,  and  one  at  Hyeres  in  the 
grounds  of  the  Hotel  des  Palmiers. 

Charaxes  jasius,  L. — Three  seen  at  Hyeres  on  the  hills  north  of 
the  town,  on  the  12th  and  loth  July.  This  is  the  only  species  included 
in  the  list  of  which  a  specimen  was  not  obtained. 

Vanessa  urticte,  L.,  var.  ichnusa,  Bon. — One  taken,  newly  emerged, 
at  Tattone,  on  the  17th  July.  Also  some  larva?  from  nettles,  near  the 
Hotel  du  Monte  d'Oro,  at  Vizzavona,  which  pupated  in  Corsica  and 
during  the  return  journey.  Of  twenty- eight  pupa?,  seventeen  pro- 
duced single  ichneumons,  and  eleven  butterflies  emerged  after  I 
arrived  home,  three  being  cripples. 

Polygonia  egea,  Cr. — Three  taken  at  Digne,  on  the  9th  and  10th 
July,  about  the  beginning  of  the  Dourbes  road.  No  doubt  a  couple  of 
weeks  earlier  would  have  been  better  for  the  taking  of  this  species. 

Melitcca  aurinia,  Rott.,  var.  provincialis,  B. — A  few  at  Digne,  about 

the  middle  of  May,  on  the  '  Les  Dourbes'  road  and  adjacent  fields,  in 

company  with  M.  cinxia,  which  was  very  common  and  in  fine  condition. 

M.  parthenie,  Bkh. — Not  uncommon  at  Digne  in  July.     I  do  not 

remember  noticing  any  of  M.  athalia. 

Argynnis  daphne,  Schiff. — A  few  also  taken  at  Digne  in  July. 
A.  elisa,  Godt. — At  first  only  seen  occasionally,  but  became  very 
common,  towards  the  middle  of  July,  about  Tattone  and  Vizzavona, 
especially  in  the  fields  around  the  former  locality.  The  sexual  varia- 
tion at  the  extreme  is  very  distinct,  the  smaller  males  being  of  a  very 
ruddy  fulvous,  and  the  females,  besides  being  considerably  larger,  are 
very  much  duller  in  tone ;  although  a  few  members  of  the  sexes  run 
pretty  closely  alike  in  size  and  colour.  By  the  third  week  of  July  the 
males  especially  were  getting  worn. 

A.  paphia,  L.,  var.  immaculata,  Bell  (anargyra,  Stgr.). — All  the 
paphia,  which  were  very  common  in  the  forest  at  Vizzavona  and  at 
Tattone,  probably  incline  to  this  variety  ;  but  it  is  not  easy  to  get 
specimens  entirely  without  the  silver  fascia?.  The  violet  colour  seems 
to  be  associated  with  the  development  of  the  silver  markings,  because 
it  diminishes  in  equal  proportions  and  is  absent  in  well-marked 
specimens  of  anargyra. 

Ab.  ?  valesina,  Esp. — This  variety  was  frequently  observed  in  the 
forest  at  Vizzavona,  and,  as  might  be  expected,  has  the  same  tendency 
to  suppression  of  the  silver  markings.  One  is  valesina  above  and  imma- 
culata below,  the  under  side  of  the  hind  wing  being  a  very  vivid  green. 
A.  pandora,  Schiff. — Much  more  frequently  seen  than  taken,  and 
was  most  common  at  Tattone,  a  few  extending  as  far  as  Vizzavona 
station.  It  did  not  seem  to  occur  amongst  the  paphia  in  the  forest, 
but  two  were  observed  higher  up  on  La  Foce,  in  the  neighbourhood  of 
the  hotel.  One  or  two  were  also  seen  at  Corte.  I  got  six  males  and 
one  female,  having  taken,  after  the  first  day  or  two,  about  one  per  day, 
not  considering  those  discarded  at  the  time  when  imperfect.    One  male 


BUTTEBFLIES  FROM  THE  SOUTH  OF  FRANCE  AND  CORSICA.    51 

is  all  but  without  the  silvery  fasciae  on  under  side  hind  wing,  thus 
approaching  ab.  paupercula,  Ragusa,  only  one  small  crescent  next  the 
costal  margin  being  present. 

Melanargia  lachesis,  Hb. — Was  pretty  common  on  the  road  between 
Remoulins  and  Pont  du  Gard  on  July  oth.  I  got  a  series  of  males,  but 
only  one  female. 

M.  galatea,  L.,  var.  procida,  Hbst, — Common  at  Digne  early  in  July. 
They  vary  a  good  deal,  some  being  considerably  darker  than  others. 

M.  syllius,  Hbst. — Very  abundant  and  fine  at  Hyeres  in  the  Beau 
Vallon  and  terraced  garden  plots  behind  the  town.  Taken  from  the 
16th  to  the  18th  May. 

Erebia  evicts,  Godt. — Two  at  Digne  on  the  9th  and  11th  May. 

Satyrus  circe,  F. — Taken  at  Remoulins  and  Pont  du  Gard  on  5th 
July,  and  common  at  Digne  from  the  6th  onwards,  mostly  males. 
Females  more  common  later,  as  at  St.  Auban,  July  11th,  and  at 
Hyeres  about  the  14th.  Also  very  abundant  in  Corsica,  especially  in 
the  fields  around  Tattone. 

S.  semele,  L.,  var.  aristceus,  Bon. — Occasionally  in  Corsica,  on  the 
roads  at  Tattone,  Vizzavona,  &c.     Only  four  or  five  taken. 

S.  neomyris,  Godt. — Pretty  common,  mostly  on  the  roads  and 
occasionally  in  the  fields  around  Tattone,  Vizzavona,  Bocognano,  &c. 

8.  statilinus,  Hufn.,  var.  allionia,  Fab. — Two  taken  at  Hyeres  on  the 
13th  and  14th  July,  in  the  terraced  plots  to  the  right  behind  the  town. 

S.  Jidia,  L. — Flying  along  with  the  last  species,  which  it  closely 
resembles,  but  was  apparently  more  common,  judging  from  the 
number  taken. 

Pararge  megcera,  L.,  var.  tigelius,  Bon.  —  Nearly  every  locality 
visited  in  Corsica  produced  a  specimen  or  two  ;  never  common  and 
inclined  to  be  getting  past  its  best. 

Epinephele  jurtina,  L.,  var.  hispulla,  Hb. — The  best  specimens  were 
taken  at  Hyeres,  July  16th  and  18th.  In  Corsica  it  was  most  abun- 
dant though  not  so  large,  and  going  over  when  we  were  there. 

E.  ida,  Esp. — One  male  at  Remoulins,  and  a  few  at  Digne  early  in 
July  ;  but  most  at  Hyeres  towards  the  middle  of  the  month,  where  the 
females  also  were  obtainable.     Also  occasionally  in  Corsica. 

E.  pasipha'e,  Esp. — Just  about  as  abundant  and  in  as  fine  condition 
as  31.  syllius  at  Hyeres  16th  to  18th  May.  One  or  two  were  also  seen 
at  Pont  du  Gard  on  the  19th  and  20th.  Worn  specimens  were  also 
noted  in  July. 

Ccenonympha  dorus,  Esp.— Digne,  July  6th  and  onwrards,  common 
at  some  parts,  as  also  was  C.  arcania,  both  in  good  condition.  C.  dorus 
was  also  taken  at  Remoulins  on  the  5th. 

C.  eorinna,  Hb. — Very  abundant  on  the  Vivario  road,  between 
Vizzavona  and  Tattone,  and  also  at  La  Foce  de  Vizzavona. 

C.  pamphilus,  L.,  var.  lyilus,  Esp.: — A  few  taken  in  cut  hay-fields 
about  Tattone. 

Laosopis  roboris,  Esp. — On  6th,  7th,  and  8th  July,  at  Digue,  flying 
around  pollard  oak.  The  same  tree  was  occasionally  visited,  perhaps 
eight  or  ten  being  seen  altogether,  sometimes  a  pair  at  a  time.  I  got 
two  males  and  one  female,  all  freshly  emerged  and  perfect. 

Thecla  ilicis,   Esp.,   var.   cerri,  Hb. — This  variety  was   common, 

e  2 


52  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

along  with  T.  spini,  in  a  quarry  at  Rernoulins,  and  they  both  also 
occurred  at  Digne. 

T.  acacia,  Fab. — One  undoubted  female  at  Digne  on  July  9tb,  and 
five  other  specimens  from  Rernoulins  and  Digne  which  are  not  so  certain. 
The  latter  have  a  row  of  orange  spots,  six  in  number,  on  the  under  side 
of  the  hind  wing,  almost  reaching  the  costal  margin  (Kane  gives  two 
or  three  in  the  male  and  three  or  four  in  the  female)  ;  at  anal  angle 
there  is  little  or  no  blue,  and  the  nest  spot  is  not  marked  with  a  black 
dot  outside.  The  upper  sides,  however,  correspond  most  closely  with 
this  species. 

Chrysophanus  phlceas,  L.,  var.  eleus,  Fab. — Common  at  Ajaccio,  also  at 
Tattone  aud  Corte.    The  date  was  apparently  rather  late  for  this  brood. 

Lampides  telicanus,  Lang. — Tattone,  two  in  copula,  but  rather 
poor  specimens. 

Lycama  argiades,  Pall.,  ab.  coretas,  0. — One  on  May  11th  at  Digne, 
on  the  mountains  in  Les  Dourbes  direction  at  considerable  elevatiou. 

L.  argns,  L.  (agon),  var.  Corsica,  Bell. — Rather  common  on  the 
bracken  at  La  Foce  de  Vizzavona,  and  also  frequently  at  Tattone. 

L.  astrarche,  Bgstr.,  var.  calida,  Bell. — Some  very  bright;  Tattone, 
Ajaccio,  Vizzavona,  Corte,  pretty  common. 

L.  meleager,  Esp. — A  few  at  Digne,  at  the  other  side  of  the  Bleone 
and  Les  Dourbes  road,  including  one  fine  blue  female.  Just  emerging 
about  July  7th. 

L.  admetus,  Esp.,  var.  ripartii,  Frr. — Three  at  Digne  on  July  9th, 
beside  the  river  on  the  road  to  the  thermal  springs.     Just  emerging. 

L.  sebrus,  B. — Two  at  Digne  on  May  10th,  Les  Dourbes  direction, 
where  the  road  ascends  the  side  of  the  mountain. 

L.  cyllarus,  Rott. — Common  towards  the  middle  of  May  at  Digne,  but 
going  over.    I  got,  however,  a  fairly  good  series,  including  some  females. 

L.  melanops,  Boisd. — Not  nearly  so  common  as  the  last-named  and 
more  worn.     Half-a-dozen  fair  specimens,  being  all  obtainable, 

Cyaniris  argiolus,  L.,  gen.  aest.  parvipuncta,  Fuchs  (ex  Corsica). — 
Common  at  sunny  corners  on  the  Vivario  road,  both  in  the  forest 
above  Vizzavona  and  in  the  open  towards  Tattone. 

28,  Pitt  Street,  Edinburgh. 


A     NEW     GENUS     OF     CULICID^E. 
By  Fred.  V.  Theobald,  M.A. 

Genus  Anisocheleomyia,  nov.  gen. 
Head  clothed  with  flat  scales  rather  loosely  applied  to  surface  of 
head,  and  which  form  a  more  or  less  projecting  mass  between  the  eyes 
in  front.  Antennae  densely  pilose  in  the  male.  Proboscis  swollen 
apically.  Palpi  very  short  in  both  sexes.  Thorax  with  narrow-curved 
scales  in  the  middle,  and  with  broad  spindle-shaped  ones  around  the 
front  and  sides  ;  scntellum  with  small  flat  scales  rather  loosely  applied, 
very  distinctly  trilobed.  Wings  ornamented.  Ungues  of  male  not 
very  unequal  in  length  but  differing  in  breadth,  one  on  each  leg  broad 
and  leaf-like.     Fork-cells  short,  as  in  UranoUmia, 


A    NEW    GENUS    OF    CULICID^. 


53 


Closely  related  to  Uranotania,  but  differing  in  the  non- 
plumose  male  antennae  and  peculiar  ungues,  also  in  the  absence 
of  flat  thoracic  scales  and  more  rugged  appearance  of  the  head 
and  scutellum. 

I  cannot  detect  the  genitalia,  but  the  perfect  specimens  are 
evidently  all  three  males.  The  ungues  are  the  most  marked 
characters,  and  can  only  be  seen  by  breaking  up  the  types.  The 
two  species  are  undoubtedly  connected  by  squamose  characters 
as  well  as  the  quaint  ungues.  Although  the  ungues  are  unequal, 
as  in  all  male  Culicids,  they  are  not  very  unequal  in  length,  but 
are  in  breadth,  and  differ  in  form.  As  no  genitalia  can  be 
detected,  I  can  only  assume  them  to  be  all  males  from  the 
abnormal  ungues.  A  female  sent  was  all  destroyed  but  the 
head  and  thorax,  so  no  details  can  be  given.  The  antennae  are 
less  pilose  than  in  the  male. 


Anisocheleomyia  nivipes,  nov.  sp. 

Head  creamy-white.  Thorax  rich  brown  in  the  middle,  creamy- 
white  around  the  dark  area;  pleurae  creamy-white.  Abdomen  deep 
brown  with  apical  white  bands.  Legs  deep  brown,  with  pale  reflections 
apically,  last  two  hind  tarsi  white.  Wings  ornamented  ;  costa  dark, 
veins  pale-scaled  except  for  a  dark  area  spread  across  at  the  base  of 
the  fork-cells ;  a  noticeable  pale  spot  on  the  dark  costal  area  not 
reaching  the  costa. 

3  .  Head  brown,  clothed  with  rather  loosely  applied  creamy- white 
flat  scales  ;  antennae  deep  brown,  basal  segment  deep  reddish-brown; 
clypeus  brown  ;  palpi  clothed  with  deep  brown  scales  and  with  a  few 
long  black  chaetae;  proboscis  deep  brown 
with  bronzy  reflections  swollen  apically, 
hairy.  Thorax  bright  brown ;  the  middle 
of  the  mesothorax  with  narrow-curved 
bronzy-brown  scales,  and  three  rows  of 
black  chaetae,  the  dark  scaled  area  sur- 
rounded by  thicker  creamy-white  curved 
scales,  forming  a  well-contrasted  whitish 
area,  which  is  indented  into  the  dark 
area  on  each  side  in  front  before  the 
base  of  the  wings ;  scutellum  with  small 
flat  dark  brown  scales  and  black  border- 
bristles,  four  to  the  mid-lobe ;  meta- 
notum  bright  chestnut-brown  ;  pleurae 
clothed  with  dense  creamy-white  scales 
continuous  with  the  pale  areas  around 
the  mesothorax.  Abdomen  deep  brown, 
with  deep  brown  scales  and  creamy- 
white  scaled  apical  borders  ;  the  apical 
segment  all  pale-scaled  ;  border-bristles 
pale.  Legs  deep  brown  ;  coxae  and  tro- 
chanters pale,  last  two  and  apex  of  the  antepenultimate  hind  tarsi 
white;  the  fore  and  mid  tarsi  pale  beneath;  ungues  unequal  iu  size, 


Ungues  of  Anisocheleomyia  nivipes, 

n.  sp. 

(i.Fore;  ii.  Mid;  iii.  Posterior.) 


54  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

but  the  posterior  of  nearly  equal  length,  the  larger  very  broad  and  thick, 
the  smaller  abruptly  curved  basally.  Wings  ornamented  ;  costa  black 
and  spiny  ;  first  long  vein  black-scaled  with  a  large  white  area  over 
the  cross-veins,  and  a  white  apex ;  a  dark  area  on  the  stem  of  the  first 
submarginal  cell,  a  small  dark  area  beneath  it  on  the  third,  most  of 
the  stem  of  the  second  fork-cell  dark,  also  a  dark  area  in  the  middle  of 
the  upper  branch  of  the  fifth  and  at  the  apex  of  the  lower  branch  ;  the 
whole  forming  a  dusky  band  across  the  otherwise  pale- scaled  wing; 
first  submarginal  cell  about  two-thirds  the  size  of  the  second  posterior 
cell,  its  stem  twice  as  long  as  the  cell ;  stem  of  the  second  posterior 
slightly  longer  than  the  cell ;  posterior  cross-vein  longer  than  the 
mid,  and  nearly  twice  its  own  length  distant  from  it,  situated  close 
to  the  base  of  the  upper  branch  of  the  fifth  vein.  Lateral  scales 
on  the  fork-cells  and  the  third  long  vein  large  and  lanceolate,  a  few 
very  similar  ones  on  the  apex  of  the  upper  branch  of  the  fifth  ;  median 
vein-scales  small  and  dark  on  the  fork-cells,  third  vein  and  middle  of 
the  upper  branch  of  the  fifth  and  the  apex  of  the  lower  branch ;  those 
on  the  stem  of  the  first  fork-cell  dark,  and  some  of  almost  Etiorleptio- 
niyian- form  (i.  e.  heart-shaped),  but  more  elongate.  Halteres  with  pale 
testaceous  stem  and  fuscous  knob.     Length  25  mm. 

Habitat.     Queensland  (Dr.  Bancroft). 

Observations. — Described  from  two  perfect  specimens  ;  Dr. 
Bancroft  bred  the  specimens,  which  live,  he  says,  in  association 
with  Uranotcenia  pygmcea,  Theob.  Although  very  distinct,  they 
cannot  be  told  from  pygmcea  until  boxed.  This  species  differs 
from  all  other  related  iEdinaB,  except  the  next  species  described 
here,  in  having  distinctly  ornamented  wings.  The  thoracic 
ornamentation  is  also  very  marked,  the  indent  of  white  scales 
into  the  dark  area  of  the  mesonotum  in  front  being  very  charac- 
teristic, and  the  general  sharply  defined  light  and  dark  areas 
of  the  mesothorax  make  it  very  conspicuous.  The  tarsi  show 
paleness  on  all  the  legs  in  certain  lights,  and  all  are  evidently 
pale  beneath,  but  the  hind  legs  only  have  the  last  two  creamy 
white  above.  The  ungues  are  not  drawn  from  a  microscopic 
preparation,  so  only  the  general  form  is  shown. 

I  have  placed  the  type  in  the  British  Museum  collection. 

Anisocheleomyia  alboannulata,  nov.  sp. 

Head  black,  with  a  narrow  white  line  around  the  eyes  with  very 
long  white  projecting  scales  in  front  between  them  ;  proboscis  black, 
with  a  white  patch  above  near  the  apex  and  another  large  white  patch 
near  the  base.  Thorax  deep  brown,  with  a  narrow  silvery-white  line 
around  the  end  of  the  mesonotum  up  to  the  base  of  the  wings,  and 
another  more  irregular  one  on  the  brown  pleurae.  Abdomen  black  and 
snow-white,  ornamented  with  median  white  areas  and  white  segments. 
Legs  black,  the  hind  pair  with  broad  apical  white  bands,  and  the  last 
two  segments  white ;  femora  of  all  with  white  spots.  Wings  orna- 
mented, costal  border  black,  veins  white- scaled  with  two  broad  dusky 
bands  running  across  them. 


A    NEW    GENUS    OF    CULICID^E.  55 

$  .    Head  black,  clothed  with  small  flat  black  scales,  and  a  border 
of  similar  white  ones  around  the  eyes,  which  show  pale-blue  reflec- 
tions in  certain  lights  under  the  frd  power,  in  front  between  the  eyes 
projects  a  tuft  of  very  long  white  scales, 
there  are  also  scattered  small  upright 
black  forked  scales  and  a  small  basal 
medial  blue  patch ;  antennae  deep  brown, 
basal  segment  black,  base  of  second  seg- 
ment reddish-brown  ;    palpi  very  small 
black-scaled;    proboscis  black,  a  large 
silvery-white   patch   towards  the  base, 
and  a  smaller  one  on  the  dorsum  nearer     Fore  ungues  of  AnisocheUomyia 
the  apex.      Thorax  deep  brown,  with  alboannulata,  n.  sp. 

narrow-curved  bronzy  scales,  a  narrow 

white  border  around  the  front  and  sides  of  the  mesonotum  composed 
of  broad  curved  scales,  which  appear  pale-blue  in  certain  lights,  ending 
about  the  roots  of  the  wings ;  scutellum  deep  brown,  clothed  with 
small  flat  deep  brown  scales,  very  distinctly  trilobed,  the  mid-lobe 
large  with  four  border-bristles ;  chsetre  of  mesothorax  and  scutellum 
black ;  metanotum  black ;  pleurae  brown,  with  a  narrow  wavy  white- 
scaled  line  running  along  it  from  the  base  of  the  abdomen  to  the  head, 
and  a  few  white  puncta  near  the  base  of  the  legs.  Abdomen  black 
and  silvery-white,  the  first  segment  mostly  white-scaled,  the  second 
and  third  with  a  white  median  patch,  the  fourth  all  white,  the  fifth 
black  with  a  few  apical  white  scales,  the  sixth  all  white,  the  apical  one 
black  and  white.  Fore  legs  deep  brown  with  a  white  spot  at  the  apex 
of  the  femora  and  a  trace  at  the  apex  of  the  tibire  ;  mid  legs  with  two 
white  femoral  spots  and  silvery-white  venter  to  femora ;  hind  legs 
with  femoral  spots  more  pronounced ;  tibiae  with  broad  white  median 
and  apical  bauds  ;  metatarsi  and  tarsi  with  broad  white  apical  bands 
except  the  last  two  tarsi,  which  are  all  white  ;  ungues  unequal,  one 
on  each  fore  and  mid  leg  very  broad  and  curved,  a  thin  web-like 
membrane  between  the  curved  outer  portion  ;  hind  not  examined, 
wings  ornamented  with  black  and  white  scales  much  as  in  the  former 
species,  but  there  are  two  dusky  areas  across  the  surface.  The  stem 
of  the  second  long  vein  close  to  the  first,  almost  fused  with  it ;  stem 
of  the  first  posterior  cell  nearly  three  times  as  long  as  the  cell ;  stem 
of  the  second  not  quite  twice  as  long  ;  scales  on  the  stem  of  the  fourth 
rather  long  and  broad,  longer  than  in  the  former  species  ;  posterior 
cross-vein  longer  than  the  mid,  about  one  and  a  half  times  its  own 
length  distant  from  it.  Black  scales  on  the  stem  of  the  first  fork-cell,  on 
the  basal  half  of  the  third,  some  on  the  base  of  the  stem  of  the  second 
fork-cell,  on  the  greater  part  of  the  upper  branch  of  the  fifth,  a  few  at 
the  apex  of  the  lower  branch,  and  a  batch  near  the  base,  also  some 
near  the  base  of  the  fourth.  Halteres  with  testaceous  stem  and  fuscous 
knob.     Length  2-5  mm. 

Habitat.     India  (Capt.  James,  I.M.S.). 

Observations. — Described  from  a  single  specimen.  The  species 
is  a  very  beautiful  and  marked  one,  and  cannot  be  confused  with 
any   other    mosquito.       The    structure    of   the    ungues   is   very 


56  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

peculiar.  The  specimen  is  a  male  certainly.  The  fore  leg  re- 
moved to  show  by  microscopic  examination  the  ungues,  which 
seem  to  be  exactly  the  same  in  the  mid  leg.  This  type  is  also 
sent  to  the  British  Museum  collection. 


CURRENT    NOTES. 
By  G.  W.  Kirkaldy. 

(Continued  from  vol.  xxxvii.,  p.  305.) 


11.  Jas.  G.  Needham  and  others:  "  Aquatic  Insects  in  New 
York  State  "  (Bui.  68  N.  York  State  Mus.  (Entom.  18),  pp.  199- 
517,  pis.  1-52,  text-figs.  1-26  (1903) ). 

12.  Walter  W.  Froggatt :  "Locusts  and  Grasshoppers"  (Agr. 
Gazette  N.  S.  Wales,  xiv.  pp.  1102-10,  coloured  plate)  (1903). 

13.  Benj.  D.  Walsh:  "First  Ann.  Rep.  on  the  Noxious 
Insects  of  the  State  of  Illinois  (1867)"  (reprinted  1903  by  S.  A. 
Forbes  as  a  Special  Publication  of  the  Illinois  State  Lab.  of  Nat. 
Hist.),  pp.  1-140,  1  plate. 

14.  '  Zoologischer  Anzeiger'  (Dec.  8,  1903),  xxvii.  pp.  113- 
144. 

15.  '  Allgemeine  Zeitschrift  fur  Entomologie  '  (Nov.  1, 
1903),  viii.  nos.  20-1,  pp.  389-436. 

16.  J.  C.  Koningsberger  :  "  Ziekten  van  Rijst,  Tabak,  Thee 
en  andere  Cultuurgewassen,  die  door  Insecten  worden  veroor- 
zaakt  (Meded.  uit  's  lands  plantentiun  "  lxiv.  pp.  1-109,  pis.  1- 
5  (first  three  coloured)  (1903)  ). 

Dr.  Needham,  with  three  collaborators,  has  given  us  a  valuable 
second  instalment  of  his  investigations  upon  the  aquatic  life  of 
New  York  State  (11).  The  first  instalment  *  treated  of  the 
aquatic  fauna  of  the  Adirondacks  ;  the  second  deals  with  that  of 
Ithaca,  and  consists  of  a  preface  by  Dr.  Felt  (p.  199)  ;  "  Station 
Work  of  the  Summer  of  1901  "  (pp.  200-4)  ;  "  Food  of  Brook 
Trout  in  Bone  Pond  "  (pp.  204-17)  ;  "  Life  Histories  of  Odonata, 
suborder  Zygoptera  "  (pp.  218-79)  ;  "  Some  New  Life  Histories 
of  Diptera  "  (pp.  279-87)— all  by  J.  G.  Needham  ;  "  Aquatic 
Chrysornelidas  and  a  Table  of  the  Families  of  Coleopterous 
Larvae  "  (pp.  288-327)  by  A.  D.  MacGillivray  ;  "  Aquatic  Nema- 
tocerous  Diptera  "  (pp.  328-441)  by  O.  A.  Johannsen  ;  "  Sialididae 
of  North  and  South  America"  (pp.  442-86)  by  K.  C.  Davis; 
explanation  of  plates,  index,  &c.  (pp.  487-517). 

The  Entomologie  Field  Station  formerly  at  Saranac  Inn  was 
made  in  1901  to  Ithaca  with  advantage.  As  was  to  be  expected 
considerable  space  is  occupied  by  the  consideration  of  the  meta- 
morphoses of  zygopterous  dragonfiies,  and  this  is  elucidated  by 

•::  See  '  Entomologist,'  xxxv.  p.  295  (1902). 


CURRENT    NOTES.  57 

2  coloured  and  8  plain  plates,  as  well  as  numerous  text-figures. 
Next  in  extent  comes  the  monograph  of  American  Sialidae, 
illustrated  by  2  plates  and  numerous  text-figures,  and  the  paper 
on  aquatic  Chrysonielidae,  accompanied  by  11  plates.  The  most 
extensive  contribution,  however,  and  in  some  ways  the  most 
important,  is  the  section  devoted  to  Nematocera,  amounting  to 
114  pages  and  supplemented  by  18  plates.  As  very  many  of 
the  forms  delineated  and  described  are  either  also  British  or  very 
closely  allied  to  British  forms,  this  bulletin  should  prove  indis- 
pensable to  British  students  ;  the  price  is  nominal.  Mention 
should  also  be  made  of  the  seven  pleasing  views  of  some  of  the 
collecting  grounds. 

Froggatt  (12)  discusses,  with  a  coloured  plate  of  six  of  the 
species,  the  short-horned  grasshoppers  of  Australia,  which  is 
very  rich  in  species  of  that  fauna.  Eleven  species  are  described 
in  this  part.  Entomologists  will  be  grateful  to  Dr.  Forbes  for 
the  timely  reprint  of  Walsh's  Classic  "  First  Illinois  Report " 
(13),  which  has  long  been  out  of  print  and  difficult  to  obtain. 

The  December  number  of  the  '  Zoologischer  Anzeiger '  is 
devoted  almost  entirely  to  Insects  (14),  and  contains  the  following 
papers  : — 

R.  von  Ihering  :  "On  the  Origin  of  the  Formation  of  Societies 
in  the  Social  Hymenoptera  "  (pp.  113-8). 

N.  Cholodkovsky  :  "  Aphidological  Contributions,  No.  20,  on 
a  Species  of  Phylloxera  destructive  to  Pear-trees  "  (pp.  118-9; 
text-figs.  1-2)  ;  and  "On  the  Morphology  of  the  Pediculidae" 
(pp.  120-5,  text-figs.  1-6).  The  author  agrees  with  Melnikov 
that  the  Mallophaga  and  the  Pediculidae  should  be  placed  close 
together,  but  considers  that  they  are  connected  with  the 
'  Pseudoneuroptera '  rather  than  with  the  Rhynchota,  deeming 
it  better  to  found  a  special  order  for  the  Pediculidae,  which  he 
names  "  Pseudorhynchota,"  ignoring  the  already  well-established 
"  Anoplura." 

A.  Thienemann  :  "Anal  Branchiae  in  the  Larvae  of  Glossosoma 
boltoni,  Curt,  and  someHydropsychidae"  (pp.  125-9,  text-figs.  1-3). 

G.  Enderlein  :  "On  the  Position  of  Leptella,  Reut.,  and 
Reaterella,  nov.  gen.)*  the  representatives  of  two  new  European 
subfamilies  of  Copeognatha  (Psocidae)  (pp.  131-4). 

H.  Stitz  :  "On  the  Genital  Apparatus  of  Lepidoptera " 
(pp.  135-7,  1  text-fig.). 

A.  C.  Oudemans  :  "  Symbiosis  of  Coptortkosoma  and  Greenia. 
A  question  of  priority"  (pp.  157-9). 

The  Allg.  Zeitschrift  (15)  as  usual  contains  a  large  amount 
of  interesting  notices,  among  which  may  be  cited :  — 

P.  Bachmetjev  :  "  On  the  Variability  in  the  Length  of  the 
Wings  of  Aporia  cratcegi  in  Sophia  [Lepid.] "  (pp.  389-95). 

G.    Ulmer  :    "  On   the    Trichopterous    Fauna    of    Hesse  " 

';:  Too  near  Rcntcriella,  Signoret,  1880. 


58  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

(pp.  397-406,  text-figs.  1-3),  from  which  seventy-three  species 
are  recorded. 

L.  Reb  continues  his  paper  "On  European  Coccidae  " 
(pp.  407-19),  dealing  with  twenty-one  species  of  "Lecanium." 

Dr.  Koningsberger  has  continued  his  researches  upon  the 
economic  entomology  of  Java  hy  his  recent  consideration  (16)  of 
the  insect  enemies  of  rice,  tobacco,  tea,  coffee,  india-rubber, 
and  other  plants.  The  metamorphoses,  so  far  as  known,  are 
described  as  well  as  the  nature  of  the  damages.  The  five  plates 
contain  over  one  hundred  figures  of  all  orders. 


ON    A  SMALL    COLLECTION    OF   ANTHOPHORID   BEES 
FROM  COLORADO. 

By  T.  D.  A.  Cockerell. 

The  Anthophorids  are  swift-flying  bees,  not  easily  caught, 
and  on  this  account  have  not  usually  been  obtained  by  col- 
lectors of  miscellaneous  insects.  Some  of  them  fly  only  in  the 
spring,  and  have  disappeared  before  the  usual  advent  of  the 
visiting  entomologist.  Thus  it  has  happened  that  several  large 
and  conspicuous  forms,  which  are  probably  widely  distributed 
and  not  uncommon,  have  been  overlooked  until  quite  recently. 
A  small  collection  of  these  insects  received  from  the  Colorado 
Agricultural  College  brings  out  a  number  of  new  facts  which 
are  given  below.  The  species  represented  may  be  separated  as 
follows : — 

Females. 

Hair  of  thorax  appearing  grey,  from  a  mixture  of 

black  and  white  ......  1. 

Hair  of  thorax  not  so  ;  more  or  less  yellowish  or 

red 2. 

1.  Size  larger  ;  length  about  16  mm.,  very  robust 

Anthophora  portent,  Ckll. 
Smaller;  length  about  13  mm.  .         .         .  Anthophora  euops,  Ckll. 

2.  A  patch  of  black  hair  in  middle  of  thorax  ;   outer 

side  of  hind  tibiae  with  orange  hair 

Emphoropsis  mucida  var.  johnsoni,  n.v. 
No  patch  of  black  hair  in  middle  of  thorax  .  3. 

3.  First  three  abdominal    segments    covered  with 

hair,  which  is  usually  red  ;  hair  on  outer 
side  of  hind  tibiaa  black 

Anthophora  bomboides  subsp.  neomexicana,  Ckll. 
Only  the  first  abdominal  segment  covered  with 
hair,  which  is  not  very  red ;  hair  on  outer 
side  of  hind  tibiae  yellowish-white 

Anthophora  montana,  Cresson. 


ANTHOrilORID    BEKS    FROM    COLORADO.  59 

Males. 

Basal  joint  of  hind  tarsus  toothed  .         .         .         .  1. 

Basal  joint  of  hind  tarsus  not  toothed     ...  2. 

1.  Basal  joint  with  a  large  tooth  ;  pubescence  often 

red  .  .  .  .  A.  bomboides  subsp.  ncomexicana,  Ckll. 

Basal  joint  with  a  small  tooth ;  pubescence  never 

red .  .....         Anthophora  gohrmance,  Ckll. 

2.  Middle  tarsus  with  copious  red  hair;  face-marks 

light-yellow,  a  heavy  black  band  on   each 

side  of  clypeus     ......         A.  euops,  Ckll. 

Middle  tarsus  without  red  hair  ...  3. 

3.  Abdomen  fasciate ;    thoracic    pubescence    often 

red;  face-marks  light  yellow        .         .      A.  montana,  Cresson. 
Abdomen    not    fasciate ;     thoracic    pubescence 

never  red     .......  4. 

4.  Face-marks  white       .        .    Emphoropsis  mucida  var.  johnsoni,  n.  v. 
Larger ;  face-marks  light  yellow         .         Anthophora  porteree,  Ckll. 

(1.)  Emphoropsis  mucida  (Cresson)  var.  johnsoni,  n.  var. 

?  (type ;  Fort  Collins  district,  1903)  differs  from  E.  mucida 
by  having  a  patch  of  black  hair  in  middle  of  dorsum ;  hair  on 
outer  side  of  hind  tibiae  shining  reddish-orange,  conspicuously 
plumose  ;  first  recurrent  nervnre  joining  second  submarginal  cell 
a  little  distance  from  its  end  (meeting  second  transverso-cubital 
in  mucida) ;  hair  of  middle  of  fifth  abdominal  segment  light 
brown,  at  sides  white. 

$  .  Pubescence  of  hind  legs  black  on  femora,  white  on 
outer  side  of  tibiae  and  tarsi ;  abdomen  with  the  first  two 
segments  with  yellowish-white  hair,  segments  beyond  with 
black,  except  extreme  sides  and  the  apical  segment. 

The  type  was  taken  by  Mr.  S.  A.  Johnson  in  the  foothills 
near  Horsetooth  Mountain,  flying  over  a  patch  of  larkspur. 
The  bees  were  very  shy,  swift  flyers,  Mr.  Johnson  reports. 
The  actual  label  on  the  specimen  gives  the  date,  May  12,  1903, 
and  the  locality  "Fort  Collins."  I  presume,  therefore,  that 
other  such  labels  are  to  be  understood  to  refer  to  the  region 
about  Fort  Collins,  but  not  necessarily  to  the  place  itself. 
This  is  important,  because  the  foothills  fauna  certainty 
differs  in  many  respects  from  that  of  the  town.  Other  speci- 
mens, males,  are  from  Fort  Collins,  May  10,  1901,  and  Lamar, 
Colorado,  collected  by  Prof.  C.  P.  Gillette. 

This  may  be  a  valid  species.  I  have  not  seen  typical 
mucida,  but  Mr.  Viereck  kindly  examined  for  me  Cresson's  type, 
and  reports  that  it  has  no  black  hairs  on  the  thoracic  dorsum ; 
and  the  hair  on  outer  side  of  hind  tibiae  is  whitish  straw- 
coloured,  and  not  at  all  conspicuously  plumose.  From  Cresson's 
descriptions,  I  inferred  that  mucida  (female)  and  morrisoni  (male) 
were  the  sexes  of  one  species,  and  Mr.  Viereck,  after  comparing 
the  types,  is  of  the  same  opinion. 


60  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

(2.)  Antkophora  gohrmance,  Ckll. — Denver,  Colo.,  May  2, 1902 
(S.  A.  Johnson,  465) ;  Montrose,  May  5, 1901  ;  Grand  Junction, 
May  8,  1901.  New  to  Colorado;  previously  known  only  by  a 
single  specimen  found  in  New  Mexico. 

(3.)  A.  bomboides  subsp.  neomexicana,  Ckll. — Fort  Collins, 
May  29,  1901  ;  Denver,  May  24,  1902  (S.  A.  Johnson,  221) ; 
Parker,  May  10,  1902  (S.  A.  Johnson,  475).  Mr.  Johnson  writes 
that  the  Parker  specimens  were  bred  from  cells  collected  from 
adobe  banks  along  Cherry  Creek,  four  miles  north  of  Parker. 
From  this  group  of  cells  he  bred  the  meloid  beetle  Leonidia 
neomexicana  (Ckll.). 

(4.)  A.  motitana,  Cresson. — Denver,  July  15,  1899 ;  Fort 
Collins  (P.  K.  Blynn)  ;  Livermore  (E.  D.  Varney);  foothills  near 
Horsetooth  Mountain,  at  larkspur,  along  with  Emphoropsis 
miicida  johnsoni,  one  male  (S.  A.  Johnson).  The  male,  which 
has  not  previously  been  described,  is  distinguished  by  the  linear 
abdominal  bands. 

(5.)  A.  porterce,  Ckll.— Golden,  May  3,  1902  (S.  A.  Johnson, 
477) ;  Montrose,  May  5,  1901.     New  to  Colorado. 

(6.)  A.  enops,  Ckll.— Palisade,  May  7,  1901 ;  Fort  Collins, 
June  12,  1898 ;  Boulder,  May  17,  1902  (S.  A.  Johnson,  481) ; 
Denver,  May  2,  1902  (S.  A.  Johnson,  469). 

Boulder,  Colorado,  U.S.A. :  Dec.  6,  1904. 


NOTES     AND     OBSERVATIONS. 

Pararge  achine  on  the  Mendel. — I  trust  I  was  justified  in  draw- 
ing attention  to  the  peculiarity  I  noticed  in  the  Mendel  specimens  of 
P.  achine.  The  more  so  that  Riilh  says:  '•  It  is  a  usually  constant 
species  which  has  little  or  no  tendency  to  variation — as  a  matter  of 
fact,  I  find  among  more  than  one  hundred  examples  before  me  not  a 
single  anomalous  form  "  p.  583.  I  think  the  following  additional 
notes,  if  you  can  find  room  for  them,  will  show  that,  though  my  sug- 
gestion that  the  Mendel  form  might  be  a  local  race  cannot  be  main- 
tained, yet  the  form  is  worthy  of  a  distinguishing  name,  and  appears 
to  be  the  form  of  Tyrol  and  eastwards,  with,  of  course,  intermediates. 
But  none  of  my  correspondents  record  it  from  Switzerland  or  France, 
though  probably  it  will  be  proved  to  be  everywhere  an  occasional 
aberration.  I  am  much  obliged  to  Mr.  Rowland-Brown  for  his  exami- 
nation of  collections  beyond  my  reach.  The  sum  of  his  investigations 
(Entom.  xxxvii.  p.  322)  I  take  to  be  this:  that  Mr.  Lemann's  specimens 
of  achine  from  the  South  Tyrol  are  of  the  form  I  have  called  "  mendel- 
ensis,"  with  an  intermediate  example  from  Zurich.  Dr.  Lang,  from  a 
series  of  seventeen  specimens,  describes  the  white  band  as  broadest,  and 
embracing  both  sides  of  all  spots,  in  an  individual  from  Podalia  (I  have 
specimens  from  Aigle  and  Freiburg  in  Baden  agreeing  with  the  Podalia 
specimen).  Dr.  Lang's  examples  from  Amur,  Switzerland,  and  Dres- 
den have  the  band  reduced  in  varying  degrees,  till  some  from  Dresden 


NOTES    AND    OBSERVATIONS.  61 

appear  to  agree  entirely  with  my  Mendel  specimens.  Mr.  Tutt,  in 
reply  to  a  letter  of  enquiry,  writes  :  "I  have  examples  of  achine  I  took 
myself  at  Mendel  Pass  in  1895  ;  some  others  taken  in  the  same 
district  at  Pejo  by  Chapman  ;  and  some  examples  I  got  at  Fontaine- 
bleau.  Only  two  real  Switzers,  though.  These  Mendel  and  Pejo 
specimens  are  extra  dark  on  the  under  sides.  The  Fontainebleau 
examples  are  much  larger  and  paler,  the  under  sides  with  very  much 
white."  Later,  Mr.  Rowland-Brown  writes  :  "  I  have  since  examined 
a  fairly  long  series  of  achine  in  Miss  Fountaine's  beautiful  collection 
at  Bath.  Specimens  from  Switzerland  (mostly  Glion)  are  type,  but  in 
the  Buda-Pest  specimens  I  find  very  much  the  same  tendency  of  the 
broad  band  to  break  up  with  light  wavy  interior,  and  leaving  the 
ocellated  spots,  as  noted  by  you,  in  the  ground  colour  of  the  wings." 
Mons.  L.  Dupont  says  :  "  I  was  interested  with  this  new  var.  of 
P.  achine,  as  I  had  never  seen  it.  I  have  just  looked  at  my  specimens. 
They  are  from  Pont  de  l'Aube  (Eure)  and  from  Angouleme  (Charente), 
and  I  have  also  one  from  Japan  ;  they  all  have  the  white  fascia."  The 
evidence  collected  then  by  Mr.  Rowland-Brown  and  myself  "  seems  to 
suggest  that  the  peculiarities  noted  in  the  Mendel  series  are  not 
necessarily  constant  or  distinctive  of  this  particular  locality,"  to  quote 
Mr.  Rowland-Brown.  Ouly  it  does  not  yet  appear  that  we  have  the 
type  from  the  Tyrol,  nor  "  mevdelensis"  from  France  or  Switzerland  ; 
but  in  Austria,  and  Hungary,  and  perhaps  Eastern  Germany,  this 
latter  form  is  the  prevailing  one. — Frank  E.  Lowe;  Guernsey, 
Dec.  20th,  1904. 

The  National  Collection  of  British  Lepidoptera. — Mr.  Porritt, 
of  Huddersfield,  has  contributed  a  number  of  species,  chiefly  from  his 
district ;  also  some  beautiful  specimens  of  Ayrotis  ashworthii  reared  from 
larvae  obtained  in  Wales  in  1904. 

Melanic  Aspilates  gilvaria.  —  On  July  25th  last,  while  netting 
specimens  of  Aspilates  gilvaria  in  the  Warren  at  Folkestone,  I  took  a 
female  very  strongly  affected  with  melanism.  On  the  upper  surface 
the  fore  wings  are  of  a  smoky  brown,  with  a  slight  ochreous  tint, 
the  transverse  bar  scarcely  visible,  and  the  central  luuule  completely 
lost  in  the  ground  colour.  The  hind  wings  are  smoky  white,  clouded 
with  brown  towards  the  hind  margin.  The  only  part  of  the  insect 
which  is  at  all  of  the  normal  colour  is  the  collar  of  the  thorax.  On 
the  under  side  the  transverse  bar  on  the  fore  wings  is  rather  more 
distinct  and  the  lunule  is  also  visible,  but  the  hind  wings  are  exceed- 
ingly striking,  as  they  are  dark  brown  (darker  than  on  any  other  part 
of  the  insect),  but  inclining  towards  white  at  the  base.  As  this  is  an 
insect  fairly  constant  in  its  markings  and  colour,  it  occasioned  me  con- 
siderable surprise  to  meet  with  such  a  variation,  especially  in  so 
southern  a  locality  as  Folkestone.  All  the  other  specimens  I  took 
were  males,  and  strictly  typical.  The  species  appeared  to  be  just  out, 
and  all  I  obtained,  including  the  insect  above  described,  were  in 
excellent  condition. — Hugh  J.  Vinall,  3,  Priory  Terrace,  Lewes. 

The  Entomological  Club.  —  The  meeting  of  this  old-established 
association  held  at  the  Holborn  Restaurant  on  Jan.  17th  last  was  by  far 
the  largest  that  even  Mr.  Verrall,  the  chairman  and  host  of  the  evening, 


62  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

had  presided  over.  The  number  we  understand  was  eighty-four,  in- 
cluding all  but  one  of  the  eight  members  of  the  club. 

In  proposing  "  The  prosperity  of  the  Club,"  the  chairman  expressed 
his  pleasure  at  seeing  so  many  entomological  friends  but,  he  remarked, 
although  the  number  present  exceeded  that  at  any  previous  meeting, 
he  should  not  be  quite  satisfied  until  the  total  reached  three  figures. 

We  believe  that  the  toast  just  referred  to  is  not  proposed  at  other 
assemblings  of  the  club,  and  there  seems  to  be  one  especially  excellent 
reason  that  this  should  be  reserved  as  a  feature  of  the  first  meeting  of 
the  year,  practically  the  "Annual"  of  the  club.  At  one  time  this 
venerable  institution,  flourishing  as  it  now  is,  came  dangerously  near 
extinction,  and  there  is  little  doubt  that  had  it  not  been  for  Mr. 
Verrall's  strenuous,  and  eventually  successful,  efforts  in  the  direction  of 
obtaining  a  full  complement  of  members,  it  would  have  collapsed  some 
years  ago.  Other  associations  of  a  similar  character  might  have 
arisen  (even  now  the  meetings  of  the  Entomological  Club  are  no 
longer  unique),  but  the  long  line  of  these  social  reunions,  connecting 
the  past  with  the  present,  would  have  been  severed,  and  this  would 
have  been  regrettable  from  a  sentimental  point  of  view  if  for  no  other 
reason. 


CAPTURES  AND  FIELD  REPORTS. 

Limenitis  sibylla  in  August  ?. — Mr.  Gerard  H.  Gurney  (Entom. 
xxxvii.  324)  states  that  in  the  middle  of  August  L,  sibylla  literally 
swarmed  in  forests  near  Boulogne.  It  would  be  interesting  to  hear 
whether  Mr.  Gurney  can  give  any  reason  why  this  species  should  be 
out  about  two  months  later  there  than  at  the  other  side  of  the 
Channel.  In  the  lower  part  of  the  Jura  this  year  L.  sybilla  was  out 
from  June  13th  to  23rd,  I  having  a  number  of  specimens  taken  by 
friends  between  those  dates,  which  is  about  the  time  the  species  would 
probably  be  out  in  England. — E.  E.  Bentall  ;  The  Towers,  Heybridge, 
Essex,  Dec.  29th,  1904. 

Late  Appearance  of  Pyrameis  atalanta.  —  Mr.  Frohawk  [ante, 
p.  25)  notes  the  late  appearance  of  P.  atalanta.  On  Dec.  3rd  last  I 
saw  one  basking  in  the  sun  (which  was  very  strong),  on  ivy,  in 
Chiswick  Mall,  London ;  it  was  very  fresh,  and  had  the  appearance  of 
having  only  recently  emerged.  Being  so  late  I  had  no  box  with  me, 
or  its  capture  would  have  been  quite  easy.  I  may  here  say  that  I 
have  records  of  having  seen  P.  atalanta,  V.  pulychloros,  and  V.  urtica 
in  October,  November,  December,  January  and  February  ;  of  course 
such  cases  cover  a  number  of  years,  and  they  were  hybernated  speci- 
mens, enticed  abroad  by  unusually  genial  weather.  But  the  one  seen 
last  month  was  without  doubt  a  very  recent  emergence  and  in  faultless 
condition. — W.  T.  Page  ;  6,  Rylett  Crescent,  Shepherd's  Bush.  W., 
Jan.  6th,  1905. 

Pyg.kra  pigra  in  Surrey. — In  reference  to  your  note  on  Pygara 
piyra  in  Surrey  (ante,  p.  27),  it  may  be  of  interest  to  mention  that 
larva3  of   this  species  were  taken  plentifully   near  Dormansland,  on 


CAPTURES    AND    FIELD    REPORTS.  63 

dwarf   sallow,  in  the  first  week  in   September. — Cuthbert  Jeddere- 
Fisher  ;  Apsleytown,  East  Grinstead,  10th  January,  1905. 

A  Few  Captures  from  Wyre  Forest  in  1904. — During  a  week  of 
bad  weather  in  the  middle  of  August,  the  following,  amongst  others, 
were  taken: — Heiiophobus  popularis,  Luperina  cespitis,  Vanessa  c-album, 
Agrotis  suffusa,  Noctua  dahlii,  abundant ;  N.  neglecta,  abundant ; 
IV.  glareosa,  Amphipyra  pyramidea,  Sotodonta  dromedarius,  Minoa 
euphorbiata.  Amongst  larva?  taken  were :  Dicramira  bifida,  D.  furcida, 
Platypteryx  falcida,  Demas  coryli,  Pcecilocampa  populi,  Cymatophora  or, 
C.  ocularis,  Halias  prasinana,  Orygia  gonostigma, — W.  A.  Rollason  ; 
The  White  House,  Truro,  Cornwall. 

The  Season  of  1904. — My  work  at  Dorking  this  year  compares 
favourably  with  that  of  1903  ;  several  species  were  unusually  abun- 
dant, and  I  took  no  less  than  seventeen  that  were  new  to  me,  as  far 
as  this  locality  is  concerned.  The  first  noteworthy  entry  in  my  diary 
is  for  April  4th,  from  which  date  until  the  14th  Amphidasys  strataria 
was  very  abundant  on  the  lamps,  though  not  a  single  female  was 
observed.  On  May  14th  I  took  Euchloe  cardamines  for  the  first  time, 
and  this  species  swarmed  until  well  into  June.  A  single  specimen 
of  Lycana  argiolus  was  taken  on  May  14th,  the  only  one  I  have 
seen  in  this  neighbourhood  for  two  years.  Nemeobius  lucina  made  its 
appearance  on  May  18th,  and  from  then  until  the  first  week  in  June  it 
was  extremely  abundant,  its  range  on  Ranmore  and  elsewhere  appear- 
ing to  have  extended  more  widely  than  during  previous  years.  Pararge 
egeria  occurred  sparingly  from  May  18th  onwards,  and  Syrichthus 
malvce  was  not  nearly  so  abundant  as  in  1903.  I  took  a  nice  series  of 
Phytometra  viridaria  on  May  19th  and  23rd,  and  on  the  latter  date  a 
very  large  specimen  of  Notodonta  dictaa  from  a  lamp.  On  June  1st 
Eupithecia  satyrata  was  abundant,  and  on  the  2nd  I  observed  Lycana 
adonis  for  the  first  time,  though  this  species  was  not  nearly  so  plentiful 
as  it  has  been  in  former  years.  On  June  3rd  I  was  fortunate  enough 
to  take  five  examples  of  Agrotis  cinerea  from  one  lamp,  but  they  were 
all  males  ;  and  on  June  5th  I  took  Notodonta  trepida  from  the  same 
lamp.  On  this  date  also  a  nice  brood  of  Mamestra  persicarm  began  to 
emerge  ;  I  had  fed  the  lame  during  the  autumn  of  1903,  on  geranium. 
Lithosia  sororcula  was  taken  from  a  lamp  on  June  11th,  and  the  first 
Lycana  minima  was  observed  on  the  17th.  On  the  following  day 
Eurymene  dolabraria  was  beaten  out  of  a  blackberry-bush  on  Ranmore, 
and  on  the  27th  a  nice  series  of  Setina  irrorella  was  taken  from  long 
grass.  On  the  30th  Acontia  luctuosa  was  taken  on  the  same  ground, 
and  a  female  deposited  about  fifty  ova  in  the  pill-box  on  the  way 
home.  Emmelesia  alchemillata  was  taken  from  a  lamp  on  July  1st,  and 
on  the  2nd  a  fine  specimen  of  Sesia  myopaiformis  was  taken,  just  after 
it  had  emerged  from  an  old  apple-tree  in  my  garden  early  in  the 
morning.  Though  I  watched  the  tree  carefully,  however,  I  never  saw 
another,  and  I  only  took  one  specimen  from  the  same  tree  in  1903. 
On  July  6th  Anarta  myrtilli  was  taken  on  Ranmore,  and  Cidaria  ful- 
vata  was  flying  out  of  almost  every  bush.  On  the  8th  some  larva?  of 
Smerinthus  populi  went  down  to  pupate,  and  the  imagines  emerged  and 
died  during  my  absence  from  home  in  August,  as  also  did  one  speci- 
men of  S.  ocellatus,  which  had  gone  down  to  pupate  on  July  15th. 


64  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

This  is  the  second  time  I  have  bred  both  these  species  in  the  late 
summer,  the  first  having  been  already  recorded  in  the  '  Entomologist ' 
(vol.  xxxiv.  pp.  229  and  258),  and  I  was  very  much  interested  to  read 
Mr.  Richard  Garratt's  note  in  this  month's  issue  (vol.  xxxvii.  p.  323) 
on  the  same  subject,  indicating  that  the  two  broods  occur  wild  as  well 
as  in  confinement.  On  July  12th  Aventia  flexula  was  beaten  out,  and 
on  the  14th  and  20th  Plusia  moneta  was  taken  from  the  lamps. 
Acronycta  aceris  was  taken  on  the  18th,  and  Triphana  ianthina  on  the 
23rd.  Larvje  of  Smerinthus  tilia,  went  down  to  pupate  on  the  25th, 
but  neither  this  year,  nor  previously,  have  the  imagines  appeared  the 
same  year.  On  the  25th  also,  a  rather  striking  light  variety  of 
Abraxas  grossulariata  flew  into  my  study  window  ;  and  on  the  27th 
and  30th  Hesperia  comma  was  to  be  seen  in  great  numbers  on  Ranmore. 
On  these  dates  also,  I  beat  Lithosia  deplana  and  Anticlea  cucullata,  both 
of  which  were  new  to  me.  Also,  on  the  27th,  I  took  a  bleached  speci- 
men of  Epinephele  ianira,  the  under  side  being  especially  light.  From 
this  time  until  the  middle  of  September  I  was  away  from  Dorking,  and 
so  my  next  entry  for  this  locality  is  Sept.  17th,  when  a  brood  of  larva? 
of  Iladena  oleracea  begun  to  go  down  ;  they  had  been  feeding  since 
July  26th.  I  did  nothing  of  note  during  the  rest  of  the  year,  except 
an  occasional  visit  to  the  lamps,  when  I  took  Xanthia  citrago  on  Oct. 
11th,  and  Xonagria  arundinis  on  Oct.  12th.  On  Dec.  1st  Paicilocampa 
populi  was  fairly  abundant. 

The  new  species  taken  by  me  in  this  locality  this  year  are : — 
Lithosia  deplana,  Drepana  falcataria,  Asphalia  flavicornis,  Leucania 
Hthargyrict,  Nonagria  arundinis,  Xanthia  citrago,  Anarta  myrtUli,  Eury- 
ii/cite  dolabraria,  Zonosoma  pendularia,  Asthena  luteata,  Bapta  taminata, 
Emmelesia  alchemillata,  Eupithecia  scabiosata,  E.  lariciata,  E.  sobrinata, 
Melanippe  procellata,  and  Anticlea  cucullata.  Some  of  these,  of  course, 
are  quite  common  things,  but  I  had  not  taken  them  here  before. — 
F.  A.  Oldaker  ;  Parsonage  House,  Dorking,  Dec.  30th,  1904. 

Lepidoptera  at  Light  in  Reigate  and  Redhill,  1904.  — During 
the  past  season  I  have  worked  the  street-lamps  in  this  district  for 
Lepidoptera  very  regularly,  and  I  think  perhaps  the  following  list  of 
my  captures  may  be  of  interest  to  some  of  my  fellow-collectors.  The 
electric  arc  lamps  in  the  market-places  of  both  towns  were  especially 
productive,  Staiiropus  fagi,  Pheosia  dictaoides  (fertilized  female),  Noto- 
donta  trepida,  and  Ennomos  fuscantaria  (37)  being  taken  flying  around 
these.  I  must  add  that  I  am  indebted  to  Mr.  Tonge,  of  Reigate,  for 
the  identification  of  many  of  the  species.  The  date  given  is  for  the 
first  specimen  taken.  Sphinx  ligustri,  July  5th.  Chcerocampa  elpenor, 
June  20th.  C.  porcellus,  July  8th.  Smerinthus  tilia,  May  23rd.  S. 
ocellatus,  June  27th.  S.  populi,  July  5th.  Tuo  statices,  July  27th. 
Arctia  caia,  July  27th.  Phragmatobia  (Spilosovia)  fuliginosa,  July  6th. 
Spilosoma  lubricipeda,  May  16th.  S.  menthastri,  May  26th.  Hepialus 
hamuli,  July  7th.  H .  hectus,  July  1st.  H .  hipulinus,  May  30th.  Cossus 
ligniperda,  June  30th.  Zeuzera  pyrina,  July  27.  Porthesia  similis, 
June  28th.  Stilpnotia  (Leucoma)  salicis,  July  8th.  Dasychira  pudibunda , 
June  6th.  Pcecilocampa  populi,  Nov.  14th.  Malacosoma  neustria,  July 
27th.  Lasiocampa  quercifolia,  July  27th.  Cilix  glaucata,  June  3rd. 
Dicranura  vinvla,  May  11th.      Stauropus  fagi,  July  27th.     Pterostoma 


CAPTURES  AND  FIELD  REPORTS.  65 

palpina,  Aug.  9th.  Lophopterycc  camelina,  July  5th.  Pheosia  (Noto- 
donta)  dictcea,  May  11th.  P.  (X.)  dictaoides,  May  18th.  A7,  ziczac, 
May  14th.  IV*.  trepida,  May  17th.  Phalera  bucephcda,  June  28th. 
Thyatira  derasa,  June  28th.  Bryophila  perla,  June  30th.  Acronyeta 
psi,  June  30th.  A.  aceris,  June  28th.  A.  megacephala,  June  29th. 
Diloba  ccBruleocephala,  Oct.  10th.  Leucania  conigera,  July  29th.  P. 
comma,  June  30th.  L.  lithargyria,  July  8th.  P.  impura,  June  30th. 
P.  pollens,  July  8th.  Gortyna  ochracea,  Sept.  28th.  Hydrcecia  nicti- 
tans,  Sept.  2nd.  P/.  micacea,  Sept.  30th.  Axylia  putris,  July  27th. 
Xylophasia  monoglypha,  June  15th.  A',  lithoxylea,  July  5th.  A".  sr<6- 
lustris,  July  29th.  Xeuronia  popularis,  Sept.  28th.  Cerigo  matura, 
Sept.  3rd.  Luperina  testacea,  Sept.  8th.  Mamestra  brassica,  May  18th. 
M.  persicaria,  June  30th.  Apamea gemina,  June  28th.  J.  didyma,  June 
11th.  Miana  strigilis,  July  4th.  Grammesia  trigrammica,  June  8th. 
Caradrina  quadripunctata,  Sept.  19th.  Agrotis  puta,  Sept.  7th.  J. 
sujfusa,  Oct.  11th.  ^4.  segetum,  Aug.  8th.  ^4.  exclamationis,  July  8th.  J. 
strigula,  June  21st.  Noctaa  plecta,  July  5th.  A.  c-nigrum,  Sept.  22nd. 
A.  brunnea,  June  28th.  A.  xanthographa,  Sept.  8th.  Triphcena  ian- 
thina,  Sept.  2nd.  T.  fimbria,  Nov.  1st.  T.  orbona,  July  6th.  T.pro- 
nuba,  June  24th.  Amphipyra  tragopogonis,  July  4th.  Mania  typica, 
June  24th.  M.  maura,  June  8th.  Panolis  piniperda,  April  30th. 
Pachnobia  rubricosa,  April  4th.  Tmniocampa  gothica,  March  24th. 
r.  instabilis,  April  9th.  71.  stabilis,  March  31st.  7\  pulverulenta,  April 
4th.  Orthosia  macilenta,  Nov.  1st.  O.  litura,  Sept.  13th.  A.  pistacina, 
Sept.  19th.  J.  lunosa,  Sept.  14th.  Cerastis  vaccinii,  March  7th.  Ualym- 
nia  trapezina,  Sept.  29th.  Scopelosoma  satellitia,  Oct.  17th.  Xanthia 
fulvago,  Sept.  12th.  X  flavago,  Sept.  27th.  A.  citrago,  Aug.  17th. 
X.  gilvago,  Sept.  8th.  A",  anrago,  Sept.  23rd.  X.  circellaris,  Sept. 
15th.  Cirrhadia  xerampelina,  Aug.  30th.  Epunda  lutulenta,  Sept. 
28th.  Miselia  oxyacantha,  Sept.  12th.  Euplexia  lucipara,  June  24th. 
Phlngophora  meticulosa,  Sept.  14th.  Hadena  oleracea,  July  5th.  i?. 
genista,  July  29th.  Xylocampa  areola,  April  7th.  Asteroscopus  sphinx, 
Nov.  29th.  Cueullia  umbratica,  June  29th.  Gonoptera  libatrix,  Sept. 
11th.  Abrostola  tripartita,  May  29th.  Plusia  chrysitis,  June  29th. 
P.  moneta,  July  5th.  P.  t'ota,  June  27th.  P.  gamma,  May  27th. 
Acontia  luctuosa,  July  27th.  Hypena  proboscidalis,  July  2nd.  P/o- 
pteryx  sambucaria,  June  30th.  Rumia  luteolata,  May  12th.  Metro- 
campa  margaritaria,  June  27th.  Ellopia  prosapiaria,  July  30th. 
Pericallia  syringaria,  June  28th.  Selenia  bilunaria,  April  16th.  <9. 
tetralunaria,  June  14th.  Odontopera  bidentata,  May  26th.  Crocallis 
elinguaria,  Aug.  5th.  Ennomos  alniaria,  Aug.  8th.  P.  erosaria,  Aug. 
22nd.  E.  fuscantaria,  Aug.  9th.  P.  quercinaria,  Aug.  16th.  Himera 
pennaria,  Oct.  18th.  Phigalia  pedaria,  Jan.  11th.  Biston  hirtaria, 
May  10th.  Amphidasys  strataria,  March  21st.  A.betularia,  May  14th. 
Var.  doubledayaria,  July  3rd.  Hemerophila  abruptaria,  May  1st. 
Poarmia  repandata,  July  1st.  P.  rhomboidaria,  June  28th.  Pseudo- 
terpna  pruinata,  July  5th.  Geometra  vernaria,  July  6th.  Thalera  (Iodis) 
lactearia,  June  16th. 

Many  species  were  taken  belonging  to  the  Ephyridre,  AcidaliidiB, 
&c,  but  these,  I  fear,  are  not  yet  accurately  identified,  all  my  time 
being  taken  with  the  larger  species  enumerated. 

ENTOM. — FEBRUARY.    1905.  F 


66  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

A  few  further  notes  on  some  of  the  species  may  perhaps  be 
useful: — N,  trepida,  three  were  taken  between  May  17th  and  23rd. 
P.  dictaoides,  eight  were  taken  May  15th  and  21st.  8.  fagi,  one 
only,  July  27th.  X.  aurago,  three  between  Sept.  23rd  and  27th. 
X.  gilvago,  eight  during  September.  C.  xerampelina,  twenty-seven 
were  captured  between  Aug.  30th  and  Sept.  23rd,  but  many  of  the 
latest  specimens  were  very  worn,  and  few  were  in  good  condition. 
E.  erosaria,  one  only,  Aug.  22nd.  E.  fuscantaria,  abundant  from 
Aug.  9th  to  Sept.  8th,  and  a  few  were  taken  even  later  in  good  con- 
dition.—A.  J.  Wightman  ;  28,  Station  Koad,  Redhill. 

A  List  of  Captures  at  Light,  in  Clapham,  1904. — Every  species 
mentioned  in  the  following  list  has  been  taken  by  myself,  on  shop 
windows  within  twenty  yards  of  Stockwell  Station,  City  and  South 
London  Eailway  . — Smerinthus  oeellatus,  several  specimens,  June  and 
July.  S.  populi,  common,  June  and  July.  S.  tilice,  rather  scarce, 
June.  Earias  chlorana,  six  specimens,  May  11th  to  16th.  Arctia  caia, 
one  female,  July  3rd.  Spilosoma  lubricepeda,  exceedingly  common, 
June.  S.  menthastri,  very  common,  June  and  July.  Hepialus  hecius, 
two  dwarf  specimens,  June  11th.  Cossus  ligniperda,  fairly  common, 
July.  Zeuzera  pyrina,  males  common,  females  scarce,  July  2nd  to 
24th.  Stilpnotia  salieis,  a  few  specimens,  August.  Dicranura  vinula, 
two  males,  June  3rd  and  7th.  Centra  bifida,  two  specimens,  June  3rd, 
1903.  Phalera  bucephala,  very  common,  May  and  June.  Cymatophora 
duplaris,  one  female,  June  7th.  Bryophila  perla,  several  specimens, 
May,  June,  July.  Acronycta  psi,  very  common,  June.  A.  aceris,  very 
common,  June  to  July.  A.  megacephala,  very  common,  June  and  July. 
Leucania  pattern,  common,  June.  L.  impura,  slightly  scarcer  than 
former  species,  June.  Hydrcecia  nictitans,  two  specimens,  July  17th. 
Axylia  putris,  common  throughout  June  and  July.  Xylopihasia  rurea, 
one  female,  June  9th.  X.  polyodon,  very  common,  June  to  August. 
Apamea  basilinea,  two  specimens,  June  15th  and  17th.  Mamestra 
brassiccB,  one  specimen,  August  5th,  usually  common.  M.  persicariee, 
common,  June  and  July.  Miana  strigilis,  fairly  common,  June. 
M.  fasciuncula,  eight  specimens,  June  15th  to  20th.  (Jaradrina 
morpheas,  common,  July  1st  to  18th.  G.  quadripunctata,  common, 
June  and  July.  Agrotis  exclamationis,  very  common,  July  to  Sep- 
tember. A.  nigricans,  rather  scarce,  July.  Noctua  plecta,  very  common, 
June  to  August.  N.  triangulum,  one  specimen,  July  9th.  N.  brunnea, 
a  few  specimens  in  June.  N.  festiva,  one  male,  July  7th.  N.  xantho- 
grapha,  common,  August  to  September.  Triphana  fimbria,  three, 
common  yellow  form,  July.  T.  ianthina,  common,  August  1st  to  29th. 
T.  interjecta,  one  male,  August  3rd.  T.  orbona,  occasional  specimens 
throughout  August.  T.  pronuba,  fairly  common,  June  to  August  23rd. 
Mania  typica,  common,  August.  M.  maura,  a  few  to  light,  but 
commonest  inside  streets.  Galymnia  trapezina,  one  female,  July  18th. 
C.  affinis,  one,  August  1st.  Hecatera  serena,  four  specimens,  July. 
Euplexia  lucipara,  very  common,  July  to  September.  Hadena  cheno- 
podii,  common,  August  1st  to  8th.  H.  oleracea,  very  common,  June 
and  July.  Abrostola  triplasia,  one  specimen,  August  5th,  usually 
common.  Plusia  chrysitis,  fairly  common,  August.  Uropteryx  sam- 
bucata,  common,  July  15th  to  29th.     Rumia  cratmgata,  very  common, 


SOCIETIES.  67 

May  16th  to  July  3rd.  Etmomos  angularia,  one  or  two  males,  August 
10th  to  12th.  E.  fuscantaria,  one  male,  August  29th.  Amphidasys 
betularia,  males  common,  females  rare,  June  to  August ;  var. 
doubledayaria,  rather  scarce,  July.  Hemerophila  abruptaria,  one  dwarf 
specimen,  July  11th.  Boarmia  rhomboidaria,  males  common,  July 
10th  to  28th.  Acidalia  aversata,  scarce,  June  and  July.  A.  incanaria, 
fairly  common  throughout  July.  Abraxas  grossulariata,  common, 
July.  Hybemia  defoliaria,  three  males,  November  13th,  14th  and 
15th.  Ckeimatobia  brumata,  one  male,  December  18th.  Eupithecia 
vulgata,  common,  June  and  July.  E.  centaureata,  three  specimens, 
June.  Hypsipetes  elutata,  fairly  common,  July.  Melanippe  Jiuctuata, 
very  common,  June  to  August. 

This  list  is  by  no  means  exhaustive  as  regards  all  my  London 
captures  ;  it  is  simply  a  list  of  specimens  obtained  at  light  during 
last  year.  Many  species  mentioned  in  it  as  rare  are  to  be  captured 
commonly  by  other  methods;  as,  for  instance,  H.  abrupt-aria,  of  which 
I  have  only  once  taken  a  specimen  at  light,  I  find  commonly  on  fences 
and  walls.  B.  hirtaria  still  seems  as  common  as  ever  on  the  trunks  of 
the  limes,  and  appears  not  to  change  its  position  for  sun  or  wind ;  in 
fact,  the  only  species  of  the  seventy-one  above  mentioned  that  seems 
to  get  scarcer  is  E.  centaureata.  Ten  years  ago  it  would  have  been  an 
easy  matter  to  have  taken  twenty  or  thirty  specimens  by  a  cursory 
examination  of  the  garden  wall ;  gradually,  however,  it  became 
scarcer,  and  at  last  seemed  to  die  out.  In  fact,  the  three  specimens 
recorded  above  are  the  only  examples  I  have  seen  here  for  five  years. 
I  should  be  very  grateful  to  any  London  entomologists  who  would 
inform  me  of  captures  of  any  species  not  mentioned  in  the  above 
list. — B.  Stonell,  25,  Studley  Road,  Clapham,  S.W. 


SOCIETIES. 


Entomological  Society  of  London. — Wednesday,  Jan.  18th,  1905. 
— The  71st  Annual  Meeting,  Professor  Edward  B.  Poulton,  D.Sc, 
F.R.S.,  the  President,  in  the  chair. — After  an  abstract  of  the  Trea- 
surer's accounts,  showing  a  good  balance  in  the  Society's  favour,  had 
been  read  by  Mr.  R.  W.  Lloyd,  one  of  the  Auditors,  Mr.  Herbert  Goss, 
one  of  the  Secretaries,  read  the  Report  of  the  Council.  It  was  then 
announced  that  the  following  had  been  elected  Officers  and  Council 
for  the  Session  1905-1906  :-t-  President,  Mr.  Frederic  Merrifield; 
Treasurer,  Mr.  Albert  H.  Jones;  Secretaries,  Mr.  H.  Rowland-Brown, 
M.A.,  and  Commander  James  J.  Walker,  R.N.,  F.L.S. ;  Librarian, 
Mr.  George  C.  Champion,  F.Z.S. ;  and  as  other  Members  of  Council, 
Mr.  Gilbert  J.  Arrow,  Lieut. -Colonel  Charles  Bingham,  F.Z.S.,  Br. 
Thomas  A.  Chapman,  F.Z.S.,  Mr.  Janies  Edward  Collin,  Dr.  Frede- 
rick A.  Dixey,  M.A.,  Mr.  Hamilton  H.  C.  J.  Druce,  F.Z.S.,  Mr.  Herbert 
Goss,  F.L.S. ,  Mr.  William  John  Lucas,  B.A.,  Professor  Edward  B. 
Poulton,  D.Sc,  F.R.S.,  Mr.  Louis  B.  Prout,  Mr.  Edward  Saunders, 
F.R.S.,  F.L.S.,  and  Colonel  John  W.  Yerbury,  R.A.,  F.Z.S.  The 
President  referred  to  the  loss  sustained  by  the  Society  by  the  deaths  of 
the  Treasurer,  Mr.  Robert  McLachlan,  F.R.S.,  Mr.  Charles  G.  Barrett, 


68  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

and  other  entomologists.  He  then  delivered  an  address,  in  which  he 
discussed  the  part  played  by  the  study  of  insects  in  the  great  contro- 
versy on  the  question,  "Are  acquired  characters  hereditary?"  He 
argued  that  the  decision  whether  Lamarck's  theory  of  the  causes  of 
evolution  is  or  is  not  founded  on  a  mistaken  assumption  largely 
depends  upon  evidence  supplied  by  the  insect  world,  and  finally  con- 
cluded that  the  whole  body  of  facts  strongly  supports  Weismann's 
conclusions.  At  the  end  of  his  address  the  President  urged  that  the 
study  of  insects  is  essential  for  the  elucidation  and  solution  of 
problems  of  the  widest  interest  and  the  deepest  significance.  Professor 
Meldola,  F.R.S.,  proposed  a  vote  of  thanks  to  the  President  and  other 
officers.  This  was  seconded  by  Mr.  Verrall  and  carried.  Prof.  Poulton, 
Mr.  Goss,  Mr.  Rowland-Brown,  and  Mr.  Jones  replied. — H.  Goss, 
Hon.  Secretary. 

South  London  Entomological  and  Natural  History  Society. — 
December  8th,  1904. — Mr.  Step  in  the  chair. — Mr.  Grosvenor,  of  Red  Hill, 
Surrey,  was  elected  a  member. — Mr.  Tonge  exhibited  some  thirty-five 
species  of  British  Lepidoptera,  which  he  gave  to  the  Society's  collec- 
tions.— Mr.  Main,  Orthoptera  from  Borneo  and  the  Cape. — Mr.  West, 
a  specimen  of  the  extremely  rare  coleopteron,  Tropideres  sepicola,  taken 
by  him  in  the  New  Forest  in  the  summer  of  1901. — Mr.  Edwards,  the 
parasitical  bee,  Ccelioxys  elongata,  from  Blackheatb,  and  read  notes  on 
its  habits.  — ■  Mr.  Dobson,  series  of  Geometra  vernaria  and  At/lossa 
cuprealis,  which  had  come  to  light  at  dusk  around  his  house  at 
Maldon  ;  the  former  sitting  on  leaves,  and  the  latter  resting  in  the 
curtains.  Plusia  chrysitis  had  also  been  seen  at  light  in  the  neigh- 
bourhood.— The  remainder  of  the  evening  was  devoted  to  an  exhibition 
of  lantern-slides  by  Messrs.  Tonge  (ova  of  Lepidoptera),  Lucas  (bio- 
logical and  botanical  subjects),  Goulton  (lepidopterous  larvae),  Step 
(lepidopterous  larvae),  Main  (resting  positions  of  larvae  and  imagines  of 
Lepidoptera),  and  Dennis  (flowering  and  seeding  of  trees  and  shrubs). 
Hy.  J.  Turner,  Hon.  Rep.  Sec. 

Lancashire  and  Cheshire  Entomological  Society. — The  Annual 
Meeting  was  held  in  the  Royal  Institution,  Liverpool,  on  December 
19th,  1901,  Mr.  Robt.  Tait,  Junr.,  Vice-President,  in  the  chair. 
Messrs.  A.  Bury  (Newburgh),  I.  W.  Horton  (Mawdesley),  and  W.  A. 
Rhodes  (Liverpool),  were  elected  members.  Mr.  Sopp,  one  of  the 
Secretaries,  read  the  Report  of  the  Council,  which  showed  that  the 
past  session  had  been  one  of  the  most  successful  in  the  history  of  the 
Society,  and  that  the  membership  had  increased  by  thirty-three.  The 
Treasurer's  Balance-sheet,  presented  by  Dr.  Cotton,  showed  a  credit- 
balance  at  the  bank  and  in  the  hands  of  the  Treasurer  of  £12  13s.  7d. 
Certain  alterations  in  the  rules  having  been  adopted,  the  following 
officers  were  elected  to  serve  during  1905  : — President :  Saml.  James 
Capper,  F.E.S.  Vice-Presidents  :  Professor  T.  Hudson  Beare,  B.Sc, 
F.E.S.,  F.R.S.E.;  H.  St.  J.  K.  Domsthorpe,  F.Z.S.,  F.E.S. ;  Richard 
Wilding;  F.  C.  Thompson ;  J.  R.  Charnley,  F.Z.S.,  F.E.S.  Trea- 
surer: J.  Cotton,  M.R.C.S.,  F.E.S.  Secretaries:  E.  J.  B.  Sopp, 
F.R.Met.S.,  F.E.S. ;  J.  R.  le  B.  Tomlin,  M.A.,  F.E.S. ;  W.  Delamere 
Harrison,  Librarian:  F.  N.  Pierce,  F.E.S.  Council:  B.  H.  Crabtree, 
F.E.S.;    J.   F.  Dutton;    Wm.  Mansbridge,  F.E.S.;    F.  R.  Dixon- 


SOCIETIES.  69 

Nuttall,  F.R.M.S.;  C  E.  Stott ;  H.  R.  Sweeting,  M.A. ;  R.  Tait, 
Junr. ;  A.  Tippins ;  W.  A.  Tyerman,  aucl  W.  Webster,  M.R.S.A.I. 
The  following  were  appointed  Recorders  : — Messrs.  J.  R.  le  B.  Tomlin, 
M.A.  (Coleoptera);  Edwd.  Saunders,  F.R.S.,  P.L.S.,  F.E.S.  (Hymeno- 
ptera)  ;  F.  N.  Pierce  (Lepidoptera)  ;  C.  R.  Billups,  M.R.C.S.,  and 
E.  E.  Lowe,  P.L.S.  (Dipfcera) ;  W.  J.  Lucas,  B.A.,  F.E.S.  (Neuro- 
ptera) ;  E.  J.  B.  Sopp  (Orfchoptera),  and  Oscar  Whittaker  (Hemiptera). 
Mr.  R.  Tait,  Junr.,  delivered  an  exhaustive  address  on  "  The  Season 
1904  lepidopterologically  considered"  ;  after  which  the  undermentioned 
exhibits  were  shown  : — Boarmia  repandata  (Penmaenmawr),  Aplecta 
advena,  Nyssia  lapponaria  (Rannoch),  &c„  by  Mr.  Tait;  Deilephila 
euphorbia,  by  Mr.  J.  Roxburgh  ;  Amara  rufocincta  (Crosby),  by  Mr.  R. 
Wilding;  Xletcccus  paradoxus,  Melandry a  caraboides  (Winlaton),  Steno- 
stola  ferrea  (Gibside),  Chrysomela  orichalcia  var.  hobsoni  fS.  Hylton), 
&c,  by  Mr.  R.  S.  Bagnall;  Licrona  cccndea,  L.  (Grange),  by  Mr.  0. 
Whittaker;  a  live  specimen  of  Acridium  agypticum  (Italy),  by  Mr. 
C.  B.  Williams;  Labidura  riparia  (Liverpool),  Nyctibora  holosericea 
(Kew),  Sclustocerca  peregrina  (Birkenhead),  and  B melius pisi and  B.  rufh- 
manus  (Liverpool),  by  Mr.  Sopp. — E.  J.  B.  Sopp  and  J.  R.  le  B. 
Tomlin,  Hon.  Secretaries. 

Birmingham  Entomological  Society.  —  October  11th,  1904.  —  Mr. 
S.  T.  Bethune-Baker,  President,  in  the  chair. — Mr.  J.  T.  Fountain 
showed  Callimorpha  dominula,  L.,  from  Devonshire  larvae,  and  men- 
tioned his  difficulties  in  breeding  them.  He  found  that  whatever 
treatment  he  adopted,  more  than  half  were  cripples.  He  also  showed 
Lasiocampa  quercus,  L.,  bred  from  larvae  taken  in  Sutton  Park  in  March 
and  April.  They  included  light  and  dark  forms,  the  latter  apparently 
var.  cailunm,  Dalm.  Amongst  the  dark  ones  were  two  which  were  very 
diaphanous,  though  the  wings  were  perfect  and  the  cilia?  unbroken, 
the  outer  third  of  each  wing  looked  as  if  rubbed,  owing  to  deficient 
scaling. — Mr.  H.  W.  Ellis  exhibited  a  collection  of  the  Rhyncophora 
and  allies  ;  he  gave  a  general  account  of  the  group,  and  then  mentioned 
the  local  species,  which  included  many  that  were  rare,  and  numbered 
about  308  out  of  the  540  occurring  in  Britain.  —  Mr.  R.  C.  Bradley 
shewed  Thriplocera  bicolor,  Meg.,  three  specimens  bred  from  larvae  of 
Lasiocampa  quercus,  L.,  from  Sutton  Park,  taken  in  1904  by  Mr. 
W.  H.  Wilkinson. 

November  21st,  1904. — Mr.  G.  T.  Bethune-Baker,  President,  in  the 
chair.  —  Mr.  A.  H.  Martineau  exhibited  for  Mr.  H.  Stone  a  collective 
cocoon  made  by  some  lepidopterous  larvae.  Information  was  lacking 
as  to  its  place  of  origin  and  the  species  which  had  caused  it.  It  con- 
sisted of  one  large  cocoon  like  a  great  brown  nut,  about  6  in.  x  4  in., 
with  a  thick  hard  integument,  containing  a  considerable  number  of 
ordinary  brown  cocoons  massed  together  inside.  The  pupae  were 
empty,  but  there  was  no  obvious  means  of  exit,  and  the  interior  was 
closely  packed  with  the  material  of  the  cocoons,  so  that  it  was  not 
easy  to  judge  how  the  moths  had  emerged. — Mr.  R.  S.  Searle  showed 
various  Lepidoptera  and  foreign  Coleoptera.  —  Rev.  C.  F.  Thornewill 
read  a  paper  upon  "  The  Genus  Eupithecia,  especially  in  relation  to 
Breeding  them  from  the  Larva?."  He  had  reared  a  considerable 
number  of  the  species,  and  gave  a  general  account  of  the  larvae,  their 


70  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

life-history,  and  a  number  of  useful  hints  as  to  methods  to  be  followed 
to  find  and  rear  the  larvae  of  various  species.  Mr.  G.  T.  Bethune- 
Baker  showed  a  number  of  British  and  continental  specimens  of  the 
genus  in  illustration  of  the  paper. — Colbran  J.  Wainwright,  Hon.  Sec. 

Manchester  Entomological  Society. — In  the  Manchester  Museum, 
Owens  College,  on  October  5th,  1904.  —  The  President  and  Vice- 
President  being  unavoidably  absent,  the  chair  was  occupied  by  Mr. 
B.  Tait,  Junr. — A  paper  was  read  by  Mr.  G.  Kearey,  entitled  "  Pupae 
Digging  and  Collecting."  —  The  following  exhibits  were  shown  by  the 
members: — Mr.  R.  Brauer,  Indian  moths  (family  Chalcosiidae).  Mr. 
G.  Kearey,  larvae  of  A.  cava.  Mr.  L.  Krah,  Lepidoptera,  selected; 
specimens  bred  from  continental  ova — L.  dispar  (from  Locarno),  S. 
menthastri,  P.  pigra,  0.  gonostigma,  P.  anachoreta  (from  Bex),  P.  rubri- 
cosa,  P.  trifolii  (from  Bex),  S.  populi  (British).  Mr.  C.  F.  Johnson, 
Lepidoptera  from  Torquay,  North  Wales,  and  Staffordshire — L.  ccesiata, 
T.  opinio,,  A.  lunigera,  and  B.  muralis.  Mr.  A.  Binns,  specimen  of 
A.  atropos  taken  at  Clayton,  near  Manchester,  on  Sept.  17th,  1904. 
Mr.  W.  Buckley,  specimen  of  A.  ashivorthii,  emerged  Oct.  oth,  1904. 

November  2nd,  1904. — Mr.  R.  Tait,  Junr.,  presided  in  the  absence  of 
the  President. — The  meeting  took  the  form  of  an  exhibit  evening,  and 
the  following  specimens  were  shown  by  the  members : — Mr.  L.  Krah, 
case  containing  exotic  silk  spinners,  and  including  P.  cecrapia,  C.  j>ro- 
methea,  A.  Ixina,  T.  poLyphemns  (North  America),  C.  regalis  (South 
America),  A.  pernyi  (China),  A.  mylitta,  A.  cynthia  (India),  C.  regina 
(Japan).  Mr.  C.  E.  Bailey,  the  following  silk  moths  (with  cocoons 
and  pupae) :  S.  pyH,  T.  poiyphemus,  and  A.  cynthia;  Vanessa  antiopa, 
with  pupa3  (Austrian  form);  Thecla  rubi,  male  and  female  (Isle  of 
Wight),  Mania  maura  (Marple,  Cheshire);  Kuclidia  mi  (Isle  of  Wight); 
Arctia  villica,  bred  from  larvae  taken  at  Eastbourne.  Mr.  J.  Ray  Hardy, 
larvae,  pupae,  and  imagos  of  Calandria  palmaria.  Mr.  R.  J.  Wigels- 
worth,  illustrations  of  larvae  and  insect  life.  Mr.  R.  Brauer,  Coleoptera 
from  West  Africa  of  the  genus  Goliath,  Ceratorhina,  &c. ;  Coleoptera 
from  Transvaal  and  East  Africa — Cetoniinae,  Elateridae,  Scarabaeidae, 
&c. ;  also  Lepidoptera — Apatura  iris  var.  iole,  V.  antiopa  var.  hygicea, 
V.  chelmys,  and  Satyridae  (various)  from  Europe  and  Asia.  Mr.  W. 
Warren  Kinsey,  case  containing  preserved  larvae  of  British  moths ; 
cocoons  of  E.  lanestris ;  larvae  and  ichneumon  cocoons  of  M.  typica. 
Mr.  R.  Tait,  Junr.,  A.  galatea,  T.  pruni,  C.  fulvata,  ill.  rubiginata, 
P.  bajularia,  T.  albicillata,  from  Monkswood,  1904  ;  A.  agathina,  a 
grand  series,  including  some  fine  rosy  forms,  bred  from  Welsh  larvae, 
1904  ;   /<;.  lichenea,  from  Welsh  larvae,  1904. 

December  5th,  1904. — A  very  successful  Conversazione  was  held  in 
the  Manchester  Museum,  Owens  College,  on  the  above  date.  Upwards 
of  three  hundred  invitations  were  issued,  the  majority  of  which  were 
accepted.  Representatives  from  scientific  and  other  societies  in  Man- 
chester, Liverpool,  Chester,  and  other  towns,  were  present  during  the 
evening.  Dr.  W.  E.  Hoyle,  addressing  the  company,  extended  to 
them  a  very  hearty  welcome.  He  was  not  only  the  Director  of  the 
Manchester  Museum,  but  esteemed  it  a  great  honour  to  be  the  first 
President  of  the  Society,  the  history  of  which  was  then  briefly  traced, 
from  the  first  meeting  in  the  Municipal  School  of  Technology,  Man- 
chester, to  the  present  occasion.     The  object  and  aims  of  the  Society 


RECENT    LITERATURE.  71 

were  explained  ;  also  the  advantages  and  privileges  enjoyed  by  the 
members,  some  of  which  were,  access  to  entomological  collections,  and 
use  of  the  library.  The  Lepidoptera  exhibited  during  the  evening  had 
been  specially  selected  and  laid  out  for  inspection  by  Mr.  J.  Bay 
Hardy  (who  has  the  charge  of  the  Natural  History  Department).  He 
explained  the  more  interesting  details  of  the  insects,  of  which  upwards 
of  seven  thousand  specimens  were  on  view,  the  Manchester  Museum, 
possessing  one  of  the  finest  and  most  valuable  public  collections  of  Lepi- 
doptera outside  London.  During  the  evening  light  refreshments  were 
served ;  afterwards  the  visitors  appreciated,  to  the  fullest  extent,  all 
that  had  been  prepared  for  their  benefit  and  enjoyment.  The  follow- 
ing is  the  list  of  Lepidoptera  exhibited  (principally  from  the  well- 
known  "  Schill  "  collection): — Ornithoptera  crcesus  (Batyan),  O.  para- 
diseus  (North  Guinea),  showing  sexual  differences.  Papilio  antimachus 
(Africa),  P.  sesostris  (South  America),  sexual  differences.  P.  ascanius 
(Brazil),  P.  coon  (Java),  &c.  P.  blumei,  P.  joesa,  P.  paranthus,  &c. 
P.  homerus  (Jamaica).  P.  androcles  (Celebes)  &c,  showing  development 
of  hinder  wing  prolongations  or  "tails."  Teinopalpus imperial™  (India), 
Armandia  lidderdalii,  and  their  allies,  showing  the  great  difference  in  sex. 
The  genus  Prioneris.  The  genus  Dismorphia :  New  World  species  of 
extraordinary  coloration.  The  genus  Morpho :  mostly  New  World 
insects  of  great  size  and  brilliancy.  The  genus  Acraa:  nauseous 
insects.  The  genus  Kallima  ("Leaf-butterflies ").  The  genus  Callicore 
(the  "  88  "  butterfly).  The  genus  Callithea :  a  New  World  group  of 
perfectly  opaque  butterflies.  Palasarctic  Lepidoptera :  Parnassiidre  and 
Coliadre. — Bobert  J.  Wigelsworth,  Hon.  Secretary. 


BECENT     LITERATURE. 

1.  New  Braqonfly  Nymphs  in  the  United  States  National  Museum.     Proc. 

U.S.  National  Mus.,  vol.  xxvii.  pp.  685-720.     11  figs,  and  7  pis. 
J.  G.  Needham.     Washington,  1904. 
A  valuable  addition  to  the  excellent  work  done  by  Mr.  Needham  in 
this  long  neglected  field  of  Entomology. 

2.  The  Labium  of  the  Odonata.     Trans.  Am.  Ent.  Soc.  xxx.  pp.  111-133. 

7  plates.     Hortense  Butler.     1904. 
A  most  useful  addition  to  our  knowledge  of  the  highly  specialised 
labium  of  the  dragonfly  nymph.  The  seven  plates  of  details  are  excellent. 

3.  The  Skeivuess  of  the  Thorax  in  the  Odonata.      Journal  of  the  New 

York  Entom.  Soc.     Sept.,  1903.     J.  G.  Needham  and  Maude  H. 
Anthony.     Pp.  117-125,  with  a  plate. 

4.  The  Phasmidce,  or  Walkin<)-sticks  of  the   United  States.     Proc.  U.S. 

National  Mus.     Vol.    xxvi.     Pp.    863-885.     4    plates.     A.    N. 

Caudell.    Washington,  1903. 
Another  of  the  useful  monographs  of  groups  of  American  insects 
that  appear  from  time  to  time.     The  Phasmids,  of  which  we  have  no 
single  representative  in  Britain,  are  not  numerous  in  the  United  States. 

5.  An  Orthopterous  Leaf-roller.   Proc.  Ent.  Soc.  Wash.    Vol.  vi.    No.  1. 

A.  N.  Caudell. 


72  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

6.  Oviposition  and  Carnivorous  Habits  of  the  Meadow  Green  Grasshopper 

(Orchelimum  glaberrinium).    Psyche.    Vol.  xi.     Pp.  69-71,  with 
one  plate.     J.  L.  Hancock.     1904. 

7.  The  Leaf-hopper   of    the    Sugar-cane.     Bulletin    No.   1.      Board  of 

Commissioners  of  Agriculture  and  Forestry ;  territory  of  Hawaii. 
R.  C.  L.  Perkins.     Pp.  38.     Honolulu,  1903. 
A  full  account  of  the  insect  and  its  natural  enemies. 

8.  Suppression  and  Control  of  the  Plague  of  Buffalo-gnats  in  the  Valley 

of  the  Lower  Mississippi  Ulcer.     Proc.  25th  Ann.  Meeting  of  Soc. 
for  Promotion  of  Agrie.   Sci.     Pp.  53-72  ;  7  figures  and  dia- 
grams.    F.  M.  Webster.     1904. 
An  account  of  the  insect  and  a  review  of  its  occurrence  in  the 
district.  W   J   L 

The   Common  Mosquitoes  of    New  Jersey.     By   John    B.  Smith.     New 

Jersey  Agricultural  Experiment  Stations.    Bulletin  171.    Pp.40. 

Plates  11,  and  other  figures  in  the  text. 

Of  the  thirty-three  species  of  Culicidns  occurring  in  the  State  of  New 

Jersey,  only  three  are  unable  to  bite.     Several  others  are  confined  to 

limited  areas,  and  for  one  reason  or  another  the  number  of  noxious 

species  considered  of  sufficient  economic  importance  to  be  noticed  in 

this  bulletin  is  reduced  to  thirteen  ;  three  of  these  are  members  of  the 

malaria-transmitting  genus  Anopheles 

Who's  Who?  pp.  1796;  Who's  Who  Year-book,  pp.  128;  and  The  English- 
woman's Year-book.  pp.  368.     London  :  Adam  &  Charles  Black. 
1905. 
Each  of  the  above-mentioned  annuals  will  be  found  of  great  interest 
to  all  whom  they  may  concern,  and  this  means  a  large  section  of  the 
general  public.     The  chief  volume,  Who's  Who  ?  comprises  short  bio- 
graphies of  many  biologists,  including  specialists  in  various  branches  of 
Entomology  whose  names  are  familiar  to  most,  if  not  all,  of  our  readers. 

We  have  also  received  the  following : — 

Analytische  Uebersicht  der paldarktischen  Lepidopterenfamilien.  Von  C.  v. 
Hormuzaki.  Pp.  68,  with  45  figures  in  the  text.  Berlin :  R.  Fried- 
lander  &  Sohn.     1904. 

Ants  and  some  other  Insects.   By  Dr.  August  Forel.    Pp.  49.    Chicago  : 
The  Open  Court  Publishing  Company.     London  :  Kegan  Paul, 
Trench,  Triibner  &  Co.  Ltd.     1904. 
An   inquiry   into  the  psychic  powers  of  these  animals,  with  an 

appendix  on  the  peculiarities  of  their  olfactory  sense.      Translated 

from  the  German  by  Prof.  William  Morton  Wheeler. 

A  Treatise  on  the  Acarina,  or  Mites.  By  Nathan  Banks.  Pp.  114, 
with  numerous  text-figures.  ( Smithsonian  Institution.  United 
States  National  Museum).  Washington  :  Government  Printing 
Office.     1904. 

Entomologisches  Jahrbuch.  Kalender  fur  alle  Insekten-Sammlcr  auf  das 
Jahr  1905.  Von  Dr.  Oskar  Krancher.  Pp.  240,  with  one 
coloured  plate.     Leipzig  :  Frankenstein  &  Wagner.     1905. 


W  ATKINS     &     DONCAS'lt"'* 

Naturalists  and  Manufacturers  of  Entomological  Apparatus  and  Cabinets, 
f  lain  King  Nets,  wire  or  cane,  including  Stick,  Is.  3d.,  2s. ,  2s.  6d.  Folding  Nets, 
8s.  6d.,  4s.  Urnln-ella  Nets  (self-aoting),  7s.  Pocket  Boxes,  (id.,  9d.,  Is.,  Is.  6d. 
Zinc  Relaxing  Boxes,  (Jd.,  Is.,  Is.  6d.,  2s.  Nested  Chip  Boxes,  7d.  per  four  dozen. 
Entomological  Pins,  assorted  or  mixed,  Is.,  Is.  6d.  per  oz.  Pocket  Lanterns,  2s.  6d. 
to  8s.  Sugaring  Tin,  with  brush,  Is.  6d.,  2s.  Sugaring  Mixture,  ready  for  use, 
Is.  9d.  per  tin.  Store  Boxes,  with  camphor  cells,  2s.  (3d.,  4s.,  5s.,  6s.  Setting 
Boards,  flat  or  oval,  1  in.,  6d. ;  1  i  in.,  8d. ;  2  in.,  lOd. ;  2^  in.,  Is. ;  3i  in.,  Is.  4d. ; 
4  in.,  Is.  6d. ;  5  in.,  Is.  lOd. ;  Complete  Set  of  fourteen  Boards,  10s.  (id.  Setting 
Houses,  9s.  6d.,  lis.  (id.;  corked  back,  14s.  Zinc  Larva  Boxes,  9d.,  Is.,  Is.  6d. 
Breeding  Cage,  2s.  6d.,  4s.,  5s.,  7s.  6d.  Ooleoptenst's  Collecting  Bottle,  with  tube, 
Is.  6d.,  Is.  8d.  Botanical  Cases,  japanned,  double  tin,  Is.  6d.,  2s.  9d.,  3s.  6d.,  4s.  6(1. 
Botanical  Paper,  Is.  Id.,  Is.  4d.,  Is.  9d.,  2s.  2d.,  per  quire.  Insect  Glazed  Cases, 
2s.  Gd.  to  lis.  Cement  for  replaciug  Autenna?,  4d.  per  bottle.  Steel  Forceps, 
Is.  6d.,  2s.,  2s.  6d.  per  pair.  Cabinet  Cork,  7  by  3£,  best  quality,  is.  4d.  per  dozen 
sheets.  Brass  Chloroform  Bottle,  2s.  6d.  Insect  Lens,  Is.  to  8s.  Glass-top  and 
Glass-bottomed  Boxes  from  Is.  per  dozen.  Zinc  Killing  Box,  9d.,  Is.  Pupa 
Digger,  in  leather  sheath,  Is.  9d.  Taxidermist's  Companion,  containing  most 
neoessary  implements 'for  skinning,  10s.  6d.  Scalpels,  Is.  3d.;  Scissors,  2s.  per 
pair;  Egg-drills,  2d.,  3d.,  9.1;  Blowpipes,  4d.,  Gd. ;  Artificial  Eyes  for  Birds  and 
Animals  ;  Label-lists  of  British  Butterflies,  2d. ;  ditto  of  Birds'  Eggs,  2d.,  3d.,  6d. ; 
ditto  of  Land  and  Fresh-water  Shells,  2d.;  Useful  Books  ou  Insects,  Eggs,  &o. 

The  WAND  TELESCOPIC  NET— An  innovation  in  Butterfly  Nets.— We  beg 
to  call  your  attention  to  our  new  Telescopic  Handle  for  Butterfly  Nets.  It  is 
made  entirely  in  brass,  and  is  light  aud  strong;  and  moreover  it  can  be  shut  up  to 
carry  in  small  compass,  A  very  compact  pattern;  effecting  great  saving  of  weight 
and  bulk.  Prices. — With  two  joints.  8s.  6d.  ;  with  three  joints,  9s.  Gd.  ;  with  four 
joints,  10s.  6d.  Complete  with  improved  Cane  Folding  Ring,  and  Bag.  We  shall 
be  pleased  to  send  on  approval. 

SHOW       ROOM       FOR       CABINETS 

Of  every  description  for  Inskcts,  Bikus'  Egos,  Coins,  Microscopical  Objects, 
Fossils,  &c.    Catalogue  (96  pp.)  sent  on  application,  post  free. 

A    LARGE     STOCK    OF    INSECTS    AND     BIRDS'    EGGS 

(BRITISH,    EUROPEAN,    AND    EXOTIC). 

Birds,  Mammals,  dc,  Preserved  and  Mounted  by  First-class  Workmen. 

Only  Address  :  — 

36  STHAND,  W.C.,  LONDON  (5  doors  from  Charing  Cross). 

HERBERT    W,    MARSDEN, 

NATURAL     HISTORY     AGENT     AND     BOOKSELLER, 
40,    TRIANGLE   West,  CLIFTON,   BRISTOL. 

Moderate  Prices. 
Cabinets  and  Apparatus  for  Entomologists,  Oologists,  Ornithologists,  Botanists,  Ac. 
Botanical  Cases,  Drying  Paper,  *c- British  &  Exotic  Shells. 
The  most  reliable  Stock  of  BIRDS'  SKINS  and  BIRDS'  EGGS  is  Bhitain. 
New  and  Second-hand  Books.  — Exchange  and  Label  Lists. 
Ornithological  Catalogue,  1905,  now  ready;  also  Shell  Catalogue. 
N.B. — Mr    Marsden's  large  Slock  of  Insects  has  now  been  made  up  into  numerous 
useful  lots;  also  many  lots  of  Birds'  Skins  and  Eggs,  all  of  which  are  offered  at  excep- 
tionally low  prices.    Lists  on  application. 

THOS.  SALVAGE,  Arlington,  Berwick,  Sussex, 

Has  for  Sale  Exota  Fine  Avion,  Ichrieuniiformis,  Musciforims,  Gfritinipmictaj 

l'vtrijlcata,  and  very  many  other  fine,  well-yet  Imagos.  Healthy  Pupa-  of 
Orion,  Lit/itstri,  Tjcporina,  Or,  Asteris,  Ckaonia  i  Abbotswood),  Reclusa,  Pul- 
veraria.  Consortaria,  Bidentata  (dark  Northern),  Lsoi/iawniata,  Sec.  Also  a 
large  quantity  of  Ova,  all  very  cheap. 

For  Prices  apply  to   above  ;    all  sent  on  Appli'cdtii 
T.  S.  will  work  Cornwall  for  the  Season  (six  months)  on    Subscription.     A 
limited-  number  of  Subscribers  required  at  £5  each.     Apply  as  above. 


CONTENTS. 

^e  American  Halictyie  Bees  in  the  British  Museum,  T.  D.  A.  Cocherell,  33. 
The  Earlier  Stages  of  Cataelysta  lemnata,  L.  (concluded),  T.  A.  Chapman  38. 
Notes  on  the  Wave  Moths  (Genus  Acidalia,  Auct.)  (concluded),  Louis  B.  Prout, 
43.  An  Abbreviated  List  of  Butterflies  from  the  South  of  France  and  Corsica, 
Albert  F.  Bosa,  49.  A  New  Genus  of  Culicidse,  Fred.  V.  Theobald,  52. 
Current  Notes  (continued),  G.  W.  Kirhaldy,  56.  On  a  Small  Collection  of 
Anthophorid  Bees  from  Colorado,  T.  D.  A.  Cockerell,  58. 

Notes  and  Observations. — Pararge  achine  on  the  Mendel,  Frank  K.  Lowe,  60. 
The  National  Collection  of  British  Lepidoptera,  61.  Melanic  Aspilates  gilvaria, 
Hugh  J.  Vinall,  61.     The  Entomological  Club,  61. 

Captures  and  Field  Reports. — Limenitis  sibylla  in  August  ?,  E.  E.  Bentall,  62. 
Late  Appearance  of  Pyrameis  atalanta.  W.  T.  Page,  62.  Pygsera  pigra  in 
Surrey.  Cuthbert  Jedatpe-Fisher,  i')'l.  A  Few  Captures  from  Wyre  Forest  in 
1904,  W.  A.  Bollason.  63.  The  Season  of  1904,  F.  A.  Oldaker,  63.  Lepido- 
ptera at  Light  in  Beigate  and  Bedhill,  1901.  A.  J.  Might  man,  64.  A  List  of 
Captures  at  Light,  in  Clapham,  1904,  B.  Sto>iell,  66. 

Societies. — Entomological  Society  of  London,  67.  South  London  Entomological 
and  Natural  History  Society,  68.  Lancashire  and  Cheshire  Entomological 
Society,  68.  Birmingham  Entomological  Society,  69.  Manchester  Entomo- 
logical Society,  70. 

Recent  Literature,  71. 

DR.  STAUDINGER  &  BANG-HAAS,  Blasewitz- Dresden,  in  their 
new  Price  List,  No.  XLVIII.  for  1905,  offer  more  than  16,000  Species  of 
well-named  LEPIDOPTERA,  set  or  in  papers,  from  all  parts  of  the  world,  in 
finest  condition;  1400  kinds  of  PREPARED  LARVAE ;  numerous  LIVING 
PUPjE,  &c.  Separate  Price  Lists  for  COLEOPTERA  (22,000  species),  for 
HYMENOPTERA  (3-200  species),  DIPTERA  (2400),  HEMIPTERA  (2200), 
ORTHOPTERA  (1100),  NEUROPTERA  (600),  BIOLOGICAL  OBJECTS  (265). 
Discount  for  Cash-orders.     Prices  low. 

BASTIN  BROTHERS,  The  Hatherley  Rooms,  Reading. 

Plain  Nets,  1/3  and  2/6.     Folding  Nets,  2/-  to  4/6.    Umbrella  Nets,  7/-.     Water  and 

Sweeping  Nets,  2,G  and  4/6.      Pocket  Boxes,  6d.,  9d.,  1/-,  1  6.      Zinc  Relaxing  Boxes, 

9d.,  1  -.     Entomological  Pins,  1/-  and  1/6  per  ounce,  mixed.     Killing  Bottles 

(empty),  4d.  to  1/-.     Sugaring  Lanterns,  2/6  to  8/-.     Zinc  Killing  Boxes,  9d.  and  1/-. 

Sugaring  Tins,  1/6  and  2  /-.     Sugaring  Mixture,  1/9  per  tin.     Store  Boxes  with  Camphor 

Cells,  2/6,  4/-,  5/-,  6/-.     Setting  Boards,  14  sizes,  from  6d.  to  1/10 ;  complete  set,  one 

of  each  size,  10/6.    Setting  Houses,  9/6,  11/6,  (with  store  box  back)  14/-.     Zinc  Larva 

3,  9d.  and  1/-.    Breeding  Cages,  2/6  to  7/6.    Japanned  Collecting  Box,  with  strap, 

Glass  top  and  bottom  Boxes,  from  1/4  per  dozen.     Purple  Shouldered  Boxes  (best 

),  nested,  4  dozen,  1/3.     "Chip"  Boxes,  nested,  4  dozen,  7d.     Glass  Tubes,  per 

dozen,  6d.  to  3/-.    Split  Cork,  1/-  to  2/8  per  dozen  sheets.     Pupse  diggers,  1/9. 

All  kinds  of  Entomological  Apparatus  kept  in  Stock.     Lists  free. 
The   YOUNG   ENTOMOLOGIST'S   COMPANION,   comprising  Net,  Killing  Bottle, 
Setting  Boards,  Pocket,  Store,  and  Zinc  Boxes,  Pins,  &c,  post  free,  10/6. 

A    very   large   stock    of    EXOTIC    LEPIDOPTERA,    COLEOPTERA,    and    other 
ntereating  Insects  is  always  available.    Lists  free.     Correspondence  incited. 

BASTIN    BROTHERS,   The   Hatherley   Rooms,   READING. 

JAMES     GARDNER, 

MANUFACTURER  of  ALL  KINDS  of  ENTOMOLOGICAL  APPARATUS, 

29  (late  426),  OXFORD    STREET 
(Nearly    opposite    Tottenham    Court    Road). 

PRICED  L18T8   ON    APPLICATION. 

All  Articles  Guaranteed ;  exchanged  if  not  approved  of.     Friends  and  Customers 
are  reuuested  to  note  the  Address,  as  mistakes  occur  daily. 


SUBSCRIPTIONS    FOR    1905    ARE    NOW    DUE. 

Subscription  6s.,  post  free,  including  double  numbers,  should  be  sent  to 

West,  Newman  &  Co. 


Vol.   XXXVIII.]  MARCH.     1905. 


[Nov  502. 


THE  , 


;OHiK^ 


ENTOMOLOGIST 


|Ilustnrtcb  journal 


GENEKAL     ENTOMOLOGY 


EDITED     BY     RICHARD     SOUTH,     F.E.S 


WITH    TUK    ASSISTANCE    OF 


I 


ROBERT   ADKIN,  F.E.S. 
W.  L.  DISTANT,  F.E.S.,  &c. 
EDWARD  A.  FITCH,  F.L.S.,  F.E.S. 
F.  W.FROHAWK,  F.E.S.,  M.B.O.U. 
MARTIN  JACOBY,  F.E.S. 


W.  F.  KIRBY,  F.L.S.,  F.E.S. 
G.  W.  KIRKALDY,  F.E^S. 
W.  J.  LUCAS,  B.A.,  F.E.S. 
Dit.  D.  SHARP,  F.R.S.,  F.E.S.,  At 
G.  H.   VERRALL,  F.E.S. 


"  By  mutual  confidence  and  mutual  aid 
Great  deeds  are  done  and  great  discoveries  niade.!' 


LONDON : 

WEST,    NEWMAN    &    CO.,    54.    HATTON    GARDEN; 
SBIPK1N,   MARSHALL,   HAMILTON,   KENT   &   CO.,   Limited. 


Price  Sixpence. 


J.    &    W.    DAVIS  (r^o^'^s1) 

MANUFACTURERS     OF     ENTOMOLOGICAL    APPARATUS    AND 
NATURALISTS'   REQUISITES,  &c, 

31  &  33,  Hythe  Street,  DARTFORD,  Kent. 

Telegrams:     "  DAVIS,  NATURALISTS,  DARTFORD."  National  Telephone  :     "  108  DARTFORD." 

LOCALITY       LABELS. 
2  0  per  I.OOO.     4  to  10  sorts,  equal  numbers,  any  wording,   sec  specimens  below:— 

Smith.  Smith,  Smith, 

Darcnth  Wood.  New  F  Kent.  It.imioeh. 

WO  190  190  1IX) 

Neatly  printed  similar  to  the  above.      We  have  supplied   these  Labels  to  Entomologists  in  all  parts  of  1 

Britain. 

"Data"   Blanks  for   Plants.  Birds'   Eggs,  Nests,  and  Skins,   from  8d   per  100 

"  Data"  Labels,  with  Collector's  Name  and   Locality  printed  in,  from  1/6  per  100 

50  British  Butterflies,  all  different,  named.  5s.     Setting-house,  good  condition.  6s.  6d. 

Larvae  Collector's  Guide  and  Calendar,  Illustrated.  Is.     Birdstuffing  and  Mounting. 

Illustrated,  Is.     Animal,  Fish,  ami  Reptile  Stuffing,  Illustrated,  Is.  6d.     Label  List, 

British  Macro-Lepidoptera,  6d. 
Naturalists'  Diary  and  Year  Book,  Is.     Our  Country's  Butterflies  and  Moths,  1000 

Coloured  Specimens,  6s. 
FERTILE  OVA.-  ^Vc  doz. — Antigua  "2d.     Dispatj  Pyramidea,  Tragopogonis.  3d. 
Monacha,  Tiliaria,  Aiigularia,  Autumn oxia,  Nupta,  -kl.     Fuscaiuaria,  (id.     Erosaria.  8d. 
Crtssmea,  Is.  3d.    Silkworms'  Eggs  4d.  per  100. 

HEALTHY  PUPsE. —Each  —  Versicolor,  Chaonia,  Ju  laria,  Cuculla,  5d.  Calluna?. 
Carpini,  Ocellatus,  Zonaria.  kl.  Li>_'ustri,  Populi,  Advenaria,  Chlorana,  :!d.  Dolabraria, 
6d.  Dict.ca,  Ziezac,  Tetralunaria.  2id.  Vinula,  Pisi,  Batis,  Falcula,  Pigra,  Canielina, 
Albicillata,  Prasinana.  Verbasci,  2d.  Illunaria,  Bidentata,  Hirtaria,  Badiata,  Ferrugata, 
"Jnidenraria.  1  ,'.d. 

BRITISH  LEPIDOPTERA.-One  liundred   named   Specimens,  all  different,  os. 
P*  free.     See  our  New  List  and  discounts. 

HYAXOTIC    BUTTERFLIES.— We  have  some   thousands  of  these  as  received  in 
ORTJ  assorted  dozens,  fid.,  Is.,  and  Is.  6d. 
Discr  RAL  HISTORY   BOOKS  -New,  at  Reduced  Prices— 

nan's  Butterflies  mid  Math*  (-25s.),  10s.  Gd.     Browne's  Taxidermy  and  Modelling 
-*"~"liis.  tJd.     YarreU's  British  Bird  Bird* — Somerset  (7s.  6d.),  5s.     Birds— 

Be  (7s.  6d.),  ;">s.  Birds — Lanca  hire  (10s.  6d.),  6s.  Notes  <>n  Sportand  Ornithology 
.),  r>s.  ;d.  Mammals  of  India  (12b.  (><l.\,  58.  Aquarium  Naturalist  (18&.),  4s.  &d.  Send 
reduced  Price  List. 

GENUINE     BRITISH     "WILD"    STOCK. 

CHEAPEST  HOUSE  IN  THE  TRADE. 

OVA.  —  Per  doe, — Antiqua,   Rubricosa,   Gothica,    Stabilis,   Cruda,   Vaccinii, 

Satellitia,    Chi,    Oxyacantlue,    Leucophasaria,    Pedaria,    Dilutata,  3d.       Monacha. 

Pyramidea,  Gracilis.  Munda,  Flavocincta,  Aprilina.  Areola,  Rhizolitha,  Parthenias, 

i  omaria,  Angularia,  4d.     P.  Populi,  Miniosa,  Nupta,  Autunmaria,  ^Egeria,  5d. 

Petrificata,  9d.. 

LARViE. — Per  doz. — Brunnea,  Xauthographa,  Orbona,  9d.  Oxyaeanthse, 
Variata,  Is.  Fimbria,  Nebulosa,  Sarnbucata,  Repandata,  Is.  Od.  Porphyrea, 
Neglecta,  Fasciaria,  Plumaria,  2s.    Lichenaria,  Belgiaria,  2s.  6d.    Glabraria,  3s.  6d. 

PUP.E. — Each.  —  .lacobau',  Illunaria,  Hirtaria,  Stabilis,  l|d.  Pudibunda, 
Canielina,  Reelusa,  Gothica,  Bidentata.  Piniaria,  Prasinana,  2d.  Popnli,  Derasa, 
Batis,  lllustraria,  Betularia,  Extersaria,  Albicillata,  3d.  Tiliie,  Rubricollis,  Coryli. 
Dolabraria,  Prodroinaria,  Consortaria,  -Id.  Aureola,  Orion,  Elpenor,  5d.  Porcellus, 
7d.     Asella,  8d . 

Apartments  for  Entomological  Visitors  to  the  New  Forest.     Expeditions 
arranged  and  accompanied. 

MORRIS  &  WEIR,  ENTOMOLOGISTS.  BROCKENHURST,  NEW  FOREST. 

OVA,     LARV/E,     AND     PUP/E, 

A  Large  Assortment  always  on  hand.     Send  for  Price  List  to 

H.    W.    HEAD,    Entomologist,    SCARBOROUGH, 

The  Largest  Breeder  of  LEPIDOPTEUA  in  the  British  Isles. 
Full    List   of  IiEPIDOPTERA,  Apparatus,  Cabinets,  &c,  sent  on   application. 


THE    ENTOMOLOGIST 


Vol.  XXXVIII]  MARCH,     1905.  [No.  502. 

CRYPTIC  FORM  and  COLOURING  in  MELITMA  LARVAE. 
By  T.  A.  Chapman,  M.D. 


The  larvae  of  Melitaa  cinxia  and  M.  athalia  when  full  grown 
are  usually  very  conspicuous,  still  it  has  often  struck  me  that, 
obvious  as  they  are  when  you  look  for  them — i.  e.  if  they  are 
not  hidden  away — you  may  easily  pass  by  without  seeing  them, 
even  though  looking  where  they  are,  if  not  thinking  of  them. 
These  larvse  considerably  resemble  the  heads  of  Plantago ;  but 
this  is  still  more  the  case  with  MeliUea  didyma,  whose  yellow 
and  brown  markings  make  it  very  like  a  plantain-head  with 
yellow  stamens  and  brown  scales. 

This  resemblance  is  brought  out  very  well  in  the  above 
reproduction  of  a  photograph  taken  by  Mr.  H.  Main  of  a  larva 
of  M.  didyma — remarkably  so  since  the  assistance  given  by 
coloration  is  left  out. 

ENTOM. — MARCH,    1905.  G 


74  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

A     NEW    SPECIES     OF     NOD  ARIA     FROM     JAPAN 
AND     COEEA. 

NODARIA    LEECHI,    Sp.  n. 

Antennae  of  male  knotted  and  contorted  about  the  middle.  Pri- 
maries grey-brown  tinged  with  lilacine,  and  with  four  transverse  brown 
markings ;  antemedial  and  postmedial  lines,  the  former  slightly  un- 
dulated, the  latter  rather  wavy  and  curved  round  the  end  of  cell ;  medial 
line  broad,  band-like,  with  a  darker  discal  mark  on  it ;  submarginal 
line  undulated,  outwardly  edged  with  whitish.  Secondaries  similar  in 
colour  to  primaries  and  with  two  darker  transverse  lines,  the  outer  one 
angled  and  outwardly  edged  with  whitish  below  the  middle.  Expanse 
24-26  millim. 

Somewhat  similar  to  Nodaria  fentoni,  Butl.,  but  in  the  male 
separable  therefrom  by  the  knotted  antennas,  and  in  both  sexes 
by  the  different  shape  of  the  postmedial  line.  The  secondaries 
also  are  darker  in  colour. 

Described  from  a  male  specimen  from  Fusan  in  the  National 
Collection  at  South  Kensington,  where  also  are  a  female  specimen 
from  Fusan  and  another  from  Gensan,  one  example  of  each  sex 
from  Tsuruga,  and  two  males  from  Nagahama.  All  these  were 
formerly  in  the  Leech  Coll.,  and  were  erroneously  referred  to 
Nodaria  fentoni,  Butl. 

Richard  South. 


DESCRIPTIONS  of  THREE   NEW  BEETLES  FROM  THE 
GOLD  COAST,  AND  ANGOLA,  WEST  AFRICA. 

By  E.  A.  Heath,  M.D.,  F.L.S. 

ZOGRAPHUS    LANEI,    Sp.  11.    (fig.    1). 

Shining  black  ;  pronotum  transversely  striate,  in  alternate  bands 
of  pale  ochraceous  pubescence,  and  shining  black.  The  head  is 
shining  black,  rugose,  with  two  curved  lines  of  pale  ochraceous  pube- 
scence on  each  side,  the  one  at  the  base  being  much  shorter  than  the 
anterior  line.  The  antennae  are  very  slightly  longer  than  the  body  ; 
the  basal  joint  is  stoutest,  and  shorter  than  the  head,  rather  coarsely 
granulated,  the  second  joint  being  smoother,  and  nearly  three  times 
as  long  as  the  first  joint ;  the  remaining  joints  are  shorter  than  the 
second,  and  about  equal  in  length  ;  the  segments  are  bluish  grey  at 
their  basal  insertion,  and  black  at  the  apical  end.  The  elytra  are 
thickly  and  coarsely  punctured  and  sparsely  pilose  ;  the  humeral 
angles  are  slightly  produced  forward ;  a  broad  band  of  pale  ochraceous 
hair  on  each  elytron  about  the  centre  reaching  from  the  lateral  margin 
to  near  the  suture,  a  short  narrow  pale  ochraceous  transverse  fascia 
on  each  side  of  suture,  half-way  between  the  white  pale  band  and 
the  base,  and  in  a  line  with  these  on  each  side  are  irregular  pale 
ochraceous  marks  at   margin  of  elytra ;    near  the  apical  margin  of 


THREE    NEW    BEETLES    FROM    THE    GOLD    COAST,    ETC. 


75 


each  elytron  is  a  short  longitudinal  fascia  of  pale  ocliraceous  hair,  and 
from  the  centre  to  apex  are  small  irregular  dots  of  the  same  colour ; 
the  apices  of  the  elytra  are  fringed  with  black  hair.  The  body  beneath 
and  the  legs  and  tarsi  are  black,  with  pale  ocliraceous  hairs.  Long. 
8  lines,  max.  lat.  3  lines. 

Hab.     Angola. 

Prosopocera  biplagiata,  sp.  n.  (fig.  3). 
Shining  brown,  densely  covered  with  pale  brown  pubescence.    The 
pronotum  is  roughly  sculptured,  and  has  a  tooth  on  each  side,  and  the 


posterior  margin  transversely  striated.  The  scutellum  is  rounded, 
tongue-shaped.  The  head,  legs,  and  antennas  are  the  same  brown 
colour;  the  latter  are  longer  than  the  body  ;  the  basal  joint  stoutest, 
and  twice  as  long  as  the  head,  rather  rougher  than  the  second  joint, 
which  is  nearly  twice  as  long  as  the  first ;  the  third  joint  is  not  quite 
as  long  as  second  joint,  and  rather  longer  than  the  fourth  joint;  the 
remaining  joints  are  of  equal  length.  The  elytra  are  rather  coarsely 
punctured,  and  densely  shortly  pilose  ;  the  humeral  angles  are 
slightly  raised,  and  near  them  the  basal  area  is  blackly  tuberculate  ; 
an  irregular  triangular  white  spot  about  the  centre,  broader  at  the 
lateral  margin,  which  it  does  not  quite  touch,  and  its  apex  reaching  to 

g2 


76  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

near  the  suture.  The  body  beneath  is  of  the  same  brown  colour, 
densely  pilose,  with  a  long  white  lateral  fascia  reaching  from  the  base 
of  the  head,  where  it  is  broadest  to  the  base  of  the  mesosternum, 
where  it  is  pointed ;  in  some  specimens  this  mark  is  only  on  the  meso- 
sternum, in  others  it  is  absent.     Long.  12  lines,  max.  lat.  3|  lines. 

Hab.     Angola. 

Plectrogaster  jordani,  sp.  n.  (fig.  2). 
Elytra  brownish  black,  piceous,  coarsely  and  thickly  punctured,  and 
having  on  each  elytron  four  longitudinal  carinate  lines,  which  terminate 
2  lines  from  the  apex.  The  scutellum  is  rounded,  tongue-shaped.  Pro- 
notum  densely  pilose ;  in  the  centre  is  a  brownish  black  longitudinal 
fascia  reaching  from  the  head  to  the  scutellum ;  on  each  side  of  this  is  a 
rich  reddish  fascia,  also  reaching  from  the  head  to  the  elytra,  and  on 
each  side  of  this  red  mark  is  another  brownish  black  one  reaching  from 
the  head  to  just  below  the  pronotal  tooth,  which  is  reflexed  backward. 
The  head  is  red,  pilose.  The  antennae  are  blackish  brown,  beautifully 
pectinate  ;  the  basal  joint  is  red,  small  at  its  insertion  and  thickened 
at  its  apex,  which  is  blackish  ;  the  lamellae,  nine  in  number,  arise 
from  the  joints  of  the  antennae  and  are  nearly  equal  in  length  (3  lines), 
except  the  first,  which  is  a  little  shorter ;  the  joints  of  the  lamellae 
form  a  serrature  on  the  under  side  of  antennae.  The  body  beneath  and 
the  legs  are  light  shining  reddish  brown  ;  the  joints  of  legs  are  blackish. 
The  middle  and  hind  femora  are  pubescent,  and  the  hind  femur  has 
a  longitudinal  groove  underneath  ;  the  tarsi  are  blackish  brown.  Long. 
20  lines,  max.  lat.  6  lines. 

Hab.     Gold  Coast. 

This  insect  conies  very  near  to  P.  pectinicornis,  Waterhouse, 
a  female  of  which  is  figured  in  his  '  Aid  ' ;  but  it  differs  in  some 
important  respects.  P.  pectinicornis  has  blacker  elytra,  and  the 
pronotum  and  head  are  wholly  black ;  the  femora  are  yellow, 
and  black  at  their  insertion,  with  black  tibiae  and  tarsi.  The 
elytra  and  pygidimn  are  pilose. 

I  am  indebted  to  Mr.  Horace  Knight  for  the  wonderfully  fine 
drawings  for  the  figures  of  the  three  beetles  above  described. 


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL    NOTES    ON    THE    HEMIPTERA. 

No.  4. 

By  G.  W.  Kirkaldy. 

General  Notes. 

1.  Schauta's '  Bericht '  gives  the  dates  of  the  nineteenth  Band 
of  Herrich-Schaeffer's  '  Wanzenartigen  Insecten  '  as  follows  : — 
Heft  1,  1849  ;  hefte  2-6,  1850;  heft  7  (Index),  1853. 

2.  In  a  review  in  '  Nature,'  W.  T.  Blanford  (Dec.  31st,  1903, 
vol.  69,  pp.  199-201)  objected  to  my  new  name  for  the  bed-bug, 
viz.  Klinophilos,  one  of  the  grounds  being  that  it  was  already 


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL    NOTES    ON    THE    HEMIPTERA.  77 

the  type  of  the  Linnean  genus  Gimex.  To  this  I  replied,  in  the 
same  journal  (March  17th,  p.  464),  that  the  type  of  the  Linnean 
Gimex  could  never  be  lectularius,  as  (1)  Linnaeus  stated  no  types; 

(2)  lectularius  does  not  agree  with  the  diagnosis  of  Cimex ;  and 

(3)  another  type  for  the  latter  genus  was  duly  selected  by 
Fabricius  later  on.  Blanford  replied  on  the  same  and  following 
pages,  stating  that  types  of  certain  genera  were  fixed  by  Linne. 
As  the  information  was,  in  part,  new  to  me  and  several  of  my 
correspondents,  I  abstract  it  now.  It  would  have  been  answered 
long  ago  had  I  not  had  a  very  bad  accident  while  horse-riding, 
rendering  me  a  cripple  for  over  eight  months  (with  the  prospect 
of  several  more),  and  necessitating  operations  under  chloroform 
(one  more  in  a  few  days).*  Under  these  circumstances  all  my 
work  has  been  greatly  retarded,  and  I  was  unable  to  visit 
the  only  house  in  which  '  Nature  '  was  to  be  found  {then)  in 
Honolulu. 

The  "  rules  of  Linnaeus  "  were,  according  to  Blanford,  printed 
in  his  '  Philosophia  Botanica,'  a  work  not  accessible  to  me  now. 
Of  these,  Nos.  242  and  246  are  quoted  by  Blanford : — 

"  242.  Nomen  genericum  Antiquum  antiquo  generi  convenit. 

"  246.  Si  genus  receptum,  secundum  jus  natures  et  artis  in  plura 
dirimi  debet,  turn  nomen  antea  commune  manebit  vulgatissimse  et 
officinali  plantce." 

There  are  several  comments  to  be  made  on  this  : — 

(1)  The  1758  edition  of  the  '  Systema  Naturae '  is  universally 
regarded  as  the  foundation  of  entomological  nomenclature,  and 
there  is  nothing  there  of  such  rules,  nor  is  there  any  mention, 
in  the  Introduction,  of  the  '  Philosophia  Botanica.' 

(2)  Even  admitting  these  rules  for  Vertebrata,  it  is  well 
known  that  many  of  the  insects  known  to  the  ancients  are 
incorrectly  identified  at  the  present  day.  Linne  himself  fell, 
apparently,  into  gross  error  ;  for  example,  Chermes,  Ichneumon 
(not  an  insect),  Empis,  Tipula,  Aphis,  &c.  ;  and,  personally,  I 
would  be  very  sorry  to  attempt  to  affix  the  types  of  any  Linnean 
genera  by  those  "  rules." 

There  are,  I  believe,  only  two  generic  names  which  can  be 
settled  in  this  manner,  viz.  Apis  (mellifera)  and  Cimex  ;  but 
here  another  (and,  as  I  believe,  superior)  factor  comes  into  play 
— lectularius  cannot  be  the  type,  because  it  is  antagonistic  to  the 
generic  diagnosis. 

It  is  curious  that  not  one,  so  far  as  I  can  trace,  of  Linne's 
entomological  pupils  paid  any  attention  to  this  (impossible)  rule 
of  "  commonest  species,"  and  that  the  best  known,  i.  e.  Fabricius, 
deliberately  fixed  on  bidens  as  the  type  of  Cimex. 

As  to  Clinocoris,  1829,  which  I  restored  in  place  of  Klino- 
philos,    I  am  aware  that  the   "  substitution    of   one    name    for 

[*  The  present  article  was  received  on  January  9th,  1905. — Ed.] 


78  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

another  on  the  score  of  convenience  is  absolutely  in  defiance  of 
the  'rule  of  priority,'"  but  when  the  earlier  name  is  found  to 
have  been  wrongly  accepted  up  to  the  present,  it  is,  I  think, 
obvious  that  such  a  substitution  is  not  only  convenient,  but 
obligatory. 

3.  It  may  be  noted,  with  reference  to  recent  discussions, 
that  Sherborn  ('  Index  Animalium,'  1902)  accepts  Geoffroy's 
1762  genera. 

Fam.  Cocctdje. 

1.  Fernald  Cat.,  p.  54.  Lecaniodiaspis  ;  the  original  spelling 
of  this  was  Lecanodiaspis,  and  the  type  is  sardoa,  not  dendrobii, 
as  stated. 

2.  A  species  omitted  in  Fernald  Cat.  (apparently)  is  Coccus 
pruni,  Burmeister  (May  28th,  1849),  in  Zeit.  fur  Zoologie,  p.  177, 
on  Primus  domestica,  Germany. 

The  diagnosis  is  as  follows  : — 

"  $  viridi-griseus,  albo  farinosus,  alis  albidis  ;  scutello  parvo, 
binodoso  ;  antennis  pubescentibus,  pedibus  nudis  gracilibus  ; 
abdominis  segmento  penultimo  et  antepenultimo  bisetoso.  Long, 
flin. 

"  2  elliptica,  viridigrisea,  albo  farinosa,  capite  magno  in 
prothoracem  postice  producto  ;  abdominis  lateribus  paululam 
depressis,  segmentis  duobus  ultimis  utrinque  pilosis.  Long. 
1  lin." 

This  is  followed  by  a  long  description,  in  German. 

3.  The  references  to  many  of  the  Zehntnerian  species  are  in- 
correct, being  taken  from  separately  paged  reprints.  At  the 
present  moment  I  can  supply  a  correct  reference  only  to  the 
following  : — 

Axpidiotus  saccharicaidis,  Zehntner  (July  loth,  1897),  '  Archief 
voor  de  Java-Suikerindustrie,'  v.  p.  735-44,  pi.  viii. 

Fam.  Cimicidje. 
In  the  'Entomologist '  (August,  1903,  p.  215),  I  stated  that 
I  had  not  seen  the  description  of  Philia,  Schiodte.  I  have  now 
been  able  to  secure  Kroyer's  '  Naturhistorisk  Tidskrift,'  Bind  iv. 
(1842-3),  and  find  that  Philia  is  not  a  valid  genus.  In  the 
'  Bevisio  critica  specierum  generis  Tetyrae  Fabricii,  qvarum 
exstant  in  Museo  Regio  Hafniensi  exempla  typica '  (pp.  279-312), 
"Philia  ?/j."  is  simply  placed  at  the  head  of  the  descriptions  of 
several  species  below  the  Fabrician  nomenclature.  On  p.  281, 
Schiodte  states  that  Calliphara  and  Callidea  (sic)  are  preoccupied 
by  Calliphora,  Macquart,  1835,  and  Calleida,  Dejean,  Latr., 
1829,  and  that  they  form  only  one  genus.  On  pp.  315-60  are 
the  "  Forhandingler  i  det  skandinaviske  entomologiske  Selskab," 
in  which  (on  pp.  346-8)  Schiodte  discusses  his  own  paper,  and 
definitely  states  that  Philia  is  proposed  as  a  new  name  for  the 
above  mentioned  genera.     As  neither  Calliphara  nor  Calidea  is 


LEPIDOPTERA    OF    THE    LINCOLNSHIRE    COAST.  79 

preoccupied,  and  as  they  form  good  genera,  Philia  cannot  stand, 
and  for  "Philia,  Stal  nee  Schiodte,"  I  propose  "  Schioedtia,  nn., 
type  senator  (Fabr.)." 

2.  To  the  same  entry  in  the  'Entomologist '  (1903,  p.  215) 
add : — 

Schiodte,  1842-3,  Naturh.  Tidskr.  iv.  p.  330.  (8)  Cepha- 
loctenus,  unnecessary  "  emendation  "  for  Cephalocteus,  Dufour, 
1834. 

3.  The  reference  to  Legnotus,  Lethierry  and  Severin  (Cat.  i. 
p.  78),  is  Kroyer's  Naturh.  Tidskr.  (2),  ii.  p.  464. 

Fam.  Naucorid^:  (?). 
1.  Sherborn  ('  Index  Animalium,'  1902,  p.  647)  cites  a  hemi- 
pterous  genus,  Naucorinus,  Meuschen,  1778,  Mus.  Gronov.  p.  69, 
with  apparently  (see  p.  1146)  no  species  mentioned.  I  have  not 
seen  the  work  recently,  but  believe  the  form  is  only  used  in  the 
plural,  and  is  rather  of  a  tribal  or  sectional  value.  I  would  be 
grateful  for  any  information. 

ERRATA    (Entom.  xxx.). 

"Bibliographical  and  Nomenclatorial  Notes  on  the 

Hemiptbra. — No.  3." 

Page  280,  Fam.  Pyrrhocoridae,  delete  "  Probergrothius,,,  n.n., 
for  Odontopits.     The  latter  is  apparently  not  validly  preoccupied. 

Page  281,  line  18,  for  "techii"  read  t.  echii ;  line  23,  for 
"1903"  read  1803  ;  lines  24  and  26,  delete  Macrothyreus  and 
Macrocephalus ;  line  6  from  bottom,  for  Dakulosphaira  read 
Daktulosphaira ;  line  3  from  bottom,  for  Embolophora  read  Em- 
bolophpora ;  line  2  from  bottom,  for  Gonionotus  read  Gonia- 
notus ;  transpose  marks  to  footnotes. 

Page  282.  The  footnote  refers  to  the  spelling  of  Phlceo- 
phthiridium  and  Rhizophthiridium. 


LEPIDOPTERA    OF    THE    LINCOLNSHIRE    COAST. 

By  A.  E.  Gibbs,  F.L.S. 

I  had  the  good  fortune  to  spend  the  month  of  July,  1904,  at 
Theddlethorpe  St.  Helen,  a  little-frequented  spot  on  the  Lincoln- 
shire coast.  Our  bungalow  was  situated  on  the  top  of  the  sand- 
hills, which  are  of  considerable  height,  and  have  been  raised  to 
protect  the  low-lying  distriet  eastwards  of  the  wolds  from  the 
ravages  of  the  sea.  These  sandhills,  upon  which  most  of  my 
collecting  took  place,  are  covered  with  scrub,  consisting  chiefly 
of  sea-buckthorn,  dwarf  elder,  whitethorn,  bramble,  and  similar 


80  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

low  bushes,  the  first  named  so  greatly  predominating  that  one 
soon  became  painfully  familiar  with  its  prickly  spines.  The 
seaward  face  of  the  sandhills  is  clothed  with  lyme-grass,  marram, 
and  other  plants,  which  serve  to  bind  the  sand  and  keep  it  from 
being  blown  or  washed  away.  Tapinostola  elymi  was  here  to  be 
found  in  almost  unlimited  numbers,  while  by  searching  among 
the  lower-growing  grasses  a  plentiful  supply  of  Nudaria  senex 
was  obtainable.  My  lamp,  however,  attracted  the  attention  of 
the  coast-guard  officers,  who  warned  me  that  a  moving  light  on 
this  flat  coast  was  apt  to  be  attended  with  danger  to  shipping, 
and  courteously  requested  me  to  keep  on  the  other  side  of  the 
hills.  Long  series  of  both  the  species  mentioned  were  secured, 
but  in  the  case  of  T.  elymi  the  specimens  were  for  the  most  part 
rather  worn,  owing  doubtless  to  their  habit  of  clinging  to  the 
swaying  heads  of  the  lyme-grass,  and  so  getting  blown  against 
the  surrounding  herbage.  On  the  day  of  arrival  at  the  bungalow 
the  first  consideration  was  to  find  a  suitable  spot  for  sugaring. 
The  district  being  almost  treeless,  advantage  had  to  be  taken  of 
the  posts  of  the  wire  fence  which  surrounded  our  little  enclosure, 
and  of  the  thicker  stems  of  the  buckthorn  and  other  shrubs, 
while  some  clumps  of  thistles  just  coming  into  flower  proved 
excellent  objects  on  which  to  spread  the  alluring  sweets.  Among 
the  moths  obtained  in  limited  numbers  at  sugar  were  Lithosia 
complana,  Axylia  putris,  Xylophasia  sublustris,  Neuria  reticulata, 
Mamestra  albicolon,  Agrotis  vestigialis,  A.  aquili?ia,  Triphcena 
interjecta,  Plusia  festucce,  P.  iota,  while  any  number  of  specimens 
of  Acronycta  rumicis,  Cerigo  matara,  Miana  literosa,  Agrotis  tri- 
tici,  and  Hadena  pisi  could  have  been  obtained.  Dusking  yielded 
fair  results.  The  most  plentiful  Geometer  was  Acidalia  imitaria, 
which  flew  among  the  scrubs  in  considerable  abundance,  in 
company  with  A.  immutata.  Some  elder-bushes  in  front  of  the 
bungalow  appeared  to  have  attraction  for  Cleora  lichenaria  and 
Larentia  viridaria,  the  latter  species  greatly  predominating. 
Light  did  not  prove  the  success  which  was  anticipated.  A  bril- 
liantly illuminated  sheet,  placed  in  what  appeared  to  be  an 
excellent  position,  brought  nothing  but  a  few  T.  elymi  and 
L.  viridaria,  and  this  method  of  working  was  therefore  aban- 
doned. The  lights  of  the  house,  however,  to  some  extent  made 
up  for  the  disappointment,  and  on  several  evenings  the  net  was 
kept  busy  by  the  insects  which  came  in  at  the  open  door.  The 
most  noteworthy  visitor,  so  far,  at  any  rate,  as  size  was  con- 
cerned, was  Odonestis  potatoria,  of  which  there  were  often 
several  males  flying  about  at  the  same  time.  This  is  one  of  the 
familiar  insects  of  the  sandhills — the  males  at  light  and  the 
females  ovipositing  among  the  long  grass.  On  one  particular 
evening,  Saturday,  July  16th,  the  bungalow  was  visited  by  a 
swarm  of  Leucania  impura,  which  were  flying  about  in  large 
numbers,  but  curiously  enough  the  experience  was  confined  to 


LEPIDOPTERA    OF    THE    LINCOLNSHIRE    COAST. 


81 


that  particular  night,  though  the  insect  was  fairly  common  at 
sugar  on  other  occasions.  Several  days  were  spent  investigating 
the  large  woods  a  few  miles  inland,  but  so  far  as  Lepidoptera 
were  concerned  the  result  was  not  very  cheering.  Burwell 
woods  yielded  only  Charceas  graminis,  Aeidalia  bisetata,  Hypsi- 
petes  sordidata,  Nomophila  noctuella,  and  Sphaleroptera  ictericana. 
A  visit  to  the  "  Greasy  Field,"  near  Louth,  in  company  with 
Mr.  C.  S.  Carter  and  Mr.  Vincent  Crow,  two  local  entomologists, 
in  search  of  Melitcea  aurinia,  which  is  recorded  to  occur  there, 
and  from  which  the  field  takes  its  name,  proved  fruitless,  no 
signs  of  the  presence  of  that  insect  being  discernible,  nor  was  a 
second  attempt  on  a  subsequent  day  any  more  profitable.  A 
chalk-pit  near  by  was  carpeted  with  the  yellow  blossoms  of 
Hypericum  perforatum,  from  which  Catoptera  hypericana  was 
beaten  out  in  considerable  numbers.  The  following  is  a  list  of 
the  Lepidoptera  observed  at  Theddlethorpe  between  July  1st  and 
August  3rd  : — 


Nndaria  senex. 
Lithosia  lurideola. 
L.  complana. 
Euchelia  jacobcw. 
Hepialus  humuli. 
Odonestis  potatoria. 
Thyatira  derasa. 
Cymatophoraoctogesima. 
Acronycta  psi. 
A.  riimicis. 
Lcucania  lithargyria. 
L.  comma. 
L.  impura. 

Calamia  phragm  itidis. 
Tapinostola  elymi. 
Axylia  putris. 
Xylophasia  rurea. 
X.  lithoxylea. 
X.  sublustris. 
Neuria  reticulata. 
Cerigo  matura. 
Mamestra  sordida. 
M.  albicolon. 
M.  brassicaz. 
Apamea  basilinea. 
A.  gemina. 
A.  didyma. 
Miana  strigilis. 
M.  fasciuncula. 
M.  liteiosa. 
M.  bicoloria. 


M.  arcuosa. 

Co radrina  morpheas. 

C.  alsines. 

C.  taraxaci. 

C.  quad  rip  unctata. 

Rusina  teuebrosa. 

Agrotis  vestigialis. 

A.  sitffusa. 

A.  segetum. 

A.  exclamationis. 

A.  corticea. 

A.  tritici. 

A.  aquilina. 

Xoctua  augur. 

N.  festiva. 

N.  rubi. 

Triph a nu  inter jecta . 

T.  orbona. 

T.  pronuba. 

Mania  typica. 

Euplexia  lucipara. 

Aplecta  advena. 

Hadena  oleracea. 

H.  pi d. 

Plusia  chrysitis. 

P.  festucee. 

P.  iota. 

P.  gamma. 

Cleora  lichenaria. 

A  cidalia  dimidia  ta . 

A.  dilutaria. 


A.  immutata. 

A.  imitaria. 
A.  emarginata. 
Caber  a  pusaria. 
Larentia  didymata. 
L.  viridaria. 
Eupithecia  subful  rata . 
Melanthia  ocellata. 
M.  albicillata. 
Melanippe  sociata. 
M.  montanata . 
M.  Jiuctuata. 
Cidaria  dotata. 
Pelurya  comitata. 
Aglossa  pinyuinalis. 
Pyralis  glaucinalis. 
Scoparia  mercurella. 
Herbula  cespitalis. 
Scopula  olivalis. 
S.  prunalis. 
Cr ambus  tristellus. 
Homceosoma  nimbella. 
H.  nebulella. 
Dictyopteryx  kejiingiana. 
Aspis  udmanniana. 
Sericoris  lacunana. 
Sciaphila  conspersana. 
S.  virgaureana. 
Sphaleroptera  ictericana. 
Catoptria  hypericana. 
Eupccciiia  atricapitana. 


82  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

SUPPLEMENTARY    LIST  OF    THE  LEPIDOPTERA    OF 
THE    ISLAND    OF    CAPRI.— No.  2. 

By  C.  Seymour  Browne. 

In  my  previous  supplementary  list  (Entom.  xxxvii.  pp.  186- 
188)  twenty  additions  were  enumerated.  I  now  give  twenty-two 
others. 

NoTODONTIDiE. 

791.   Hoplitis  milhauseri,  F. 

Noctuid^;. 

1787.  Polia  canescens,  Dup. 

20056.  Caradrina  selini,  B.,  var.  et  ab  noctivaga,  Bell. 

"2068.  Tamiocampa  stabilis,  View. 

2183.  Xylomyges  conspicillaris,  L.,  ab.  Melaleuca,  View. 

2199.   Calophasia  lunula,  Hufn. 

2221.   Cucullia  verbasci,  L. 

2391.  Kublemma  suava,  Hb. 

2417.  Thalpochares  polygramma,  Dup. 

Geometric^;. 

2953.   Acidalia  dimidiata,  Hufn. 
3003.  A.  extersaria,  H.-S. 
3008.  A.  ochroleucata,  H.-S. 
3020.   A.  herbariata,  F. 
3886.  Boarmia  umbraria,  Hb. 
4.009.   Thamnonoma  semicanaria,  Frr. 

NoLID/E. 

4110.  Nula  chlamitulalis,  Hb. 

Arctiad.e. 

4203«.  Arctia  villica,  L.,  ab.  (et  var.)  angelica,  B. 
42036.  A.  villica  var.  konewkai,  Frr. 

CoSSID-E. 

4685.  Hypopta  castrum,  Hb. 

Pyralid^e. 
700.  Dioryctria  abietella,  F. 
1242.    Pyrausta  sanguinaiis,  L. 

Tortricid.k. 
2055.  Notocelia  uddmanniana,  L. 


83 


NEW    SPECIES    OF    HYMENOPTERA    (ACULEATA,  ICH- 
NEUMONID.E,    AND    BRACONIDiE)    FROM    INDIA. 

By  P.  Cameron. 

ACULEATA. 
DlODONTUS  RETICULATUS,  Sp.  110V. 

Niger,  mandibulis  late  flavis  ;  geniculis,  tibiis  tarsisque  anticis 
flavis ;  alis  liyalinis,  nervis  stigmateque  nigris.  ? .  Long,  fere 
5  mm. 

Hab.     Deesa  (Major  C.  G.  Nurse). 

This  species  comes  near  to  D.  striolatus,  Cam.,  from  Lahore. 
The  two  may  be  separated  thus  : — 

Clypeus  roundly  and  deeply  incised  in  the  middle  ;  the 
base  of  the  mesopleura?  without  stout  striations  ; 
the  hinder  tibia?  and  tarsi  testaceous       .         .        striolatus,  Cam. 

Clypeus  not  roundly  and  deeply  incised  in  the  middle  ; 
the  base  of  the  mesopleura?  with  some  stout  stria- 
tions ;  the  hinder  tibiae  only  testaceous  at  the  base     reticulata. 

Antennas  black  ;  the  flagellum  with  a  pale  microscopic  pile.  Head 
black ;  the  front  and  vertex  minutely  and  sparsely  punctured  ;  the  face 
is  thickly  covered  with  silvery  pubescence ;  the  apex  of  the  clypeus 
almost  transverse.  Mandibles  yellow,  their  apical  third  black.  Thorax 
shining  ;  the  base  of  the  propleura?  with  stout  striations ;  there  are 
two  stout  long  oblique  stria?  behind  the  middle,  and  a  shorter  curved 
one  behind  these,  almost  in  the  middle  ;  inesopleura?  with  stout,  widely 
separated  keels  on  the  basal  half,  which  form  irregular  reticulations  ; 
the  basal  half  coarsely  aciculated,  the  apical  smooth  and  shining.  The 
base  of  the  metapleura?  is  smooth  and  shining  ;  the  rest  bears  oblique 
distinctly  separated  stria?.  The  base  of  the  median  segment  bears 
stout  oblique  keels,  which  run  into  irregular  reticulations  in  the  middle  ; 
the  apical  slope  is  irregularly  transversely  striated  ;  the  fovea  is  large 
and  deep.  The  four  anterior  tibia?  and  the  anterior  tarsi  are  for  the 
greater  part  testaceous  ;  the  base  of  the  hinder  tibia?  white  ;  there  are 
four  longish  spines  on  the  hinder  tibia?,  and  there  are  three  or  four 
shorter  spines  on  the  apex  on  the  outer  side  ;  the  middle  tibia?  are 
similarly  but  not  so  strongly  spined.  Abdomen  smooth  and  shining  ; 
the  apical  half  covered  with  a  pale  down. 

Cerceris  simlaensis,  sp.  nov. 
Black,  largely  marked  with  yellow,  and  thickly  covered  with  white 
hair ;  the  scape  of  the  antenna?  beneath  yellow  ;  the  third  joint  and 
the  base  of  the  fourth  rufous ;  legs  yellow  ;  the  four  anterior  femora 
largely  marked  with  black  behind  ;  the  hinder  pair  with  the  apical 
two-thirds  black ;  the  basal  area  on  the  median  segment  stoutly  longi- 
tudinally striated.      $  .     Length,  10-11  mm. 

Hab.     Simla  (Nurse). 


84  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Head  black  ;  the  frontal  spine,  the  face,  the  inner  orbits  to  shortly 
above  the  base  of  the  antenna? — the  yellow  line  narrowed  and  rounded 
above — the  clypeus,  cheeks,  and  mandibles,  except  at  the  apex,  yellow. 
Face  strongly  punctured  ;  the  clypeus  is  rounded  at  the  top ;  its  upper 
part  convex,  its  lower  with  a  semicircular  depression  in  the  middle  ; 
the  apex  black  and  transverse  in  the  middle ;  the  sides  obliquely 
narrowed  ;  both  are  black  on  the  lower  side.  Vertex  strongly  punc- 
tured ;  the  punctures  distinctly  separated ;  the  front  is  much  more 
closely  and  more  minutely  punctured,  especially  below  where  they  run 
into  striations.  Thorax  strongly  and  closely  punctured,  and  thickly 
covered  with  white  hair  ;  there  is  a  yellow  mark — obliquely  narrowed 
on  the  inner  side — on  either  side  of  the  pronotum,  and  the  post- 
scutellum  is  yellow.  The  scutellum  is  more  sparsely  punctured  than 
the  mesonotum.  The  basal  area  on  the  metanotum  is  stoutly  longi- 
tudinally striated  ;  the  rest  of  it  is  closely  rugosely  punctured,  and  is 
thickly  covered  with  long  white  hair.  Pleurae  closely  but  not  deeply 
punctured,  except  the  part  below  the  hind  wings,  which  is  closely 
striated.  Legs  yellow ;  the  four  front  femora  above  broadly  at  the 
base,  slightly  more  than  the  apical  half  of  the  posterior,  and  a  line  on 
the  outer  and  inner  sides  of  the  apical  half  of  the  hinder  tibia?,  black ; 
the  hinder  tarsi  infuscated.  Wings  hyaline,  the  apex  smoky  ;  the 
stigma,  the  costa,  and  the  basal  nervures  fulvous.  The  abdominal 
segments  are  lined  with  yellow  on  the  apex  ;  the  last  has  an  irregularly 
round  mark  on  the  sides.  The  pygidial  area  is  strongly  punctured, 
more  sparsely  in  the  middle  than  at  the  apex  or  base  ;  the  epipygium 
has  a  rounded  incision  in  the  apex  ;  the  fifth  and  sixth  segments  are, 
at  the  apex  laterally,  armed  with  bundles  of  stiff  golden  hair,  the  last 
being  the  thicker  and  longer,  and  looks  like  a  stiff  broad  spine. 

Come  nearest  to  C.  himalayensis,  Bingham. 

ICHNEUMONIDJi. 

Cryptus  excavatus,  sp.  nov. 
Niger  ;  pedibus  runs  ;    coxis  trochanteribus  femoribusque  anticis 
subtus  nigris;  alis  hyalinis,  stigmate  nervisque  nigris.     ?  .    Long.  12, 
terebra  3  mm. 

Hah.     Simla  (Nurse). 

Antenna?  entirely  black.  Head  black ;  the  inner  orbits  narrowly 
in  the  middle  and  the  outer  still  more  narrowly  yellow.  Face  strongly 
and  closely  punctured,  and  thickly  covered  with  white  hair  ;  the  centre 
roundly  projecting.  Clypeus  smooth,  shining,  and  sparsely  punc- 
tured. Front  deeply  depressed,  smooth,  closely  and  finely  transversely 
striated  ;  the  part  below  the  ocelli  is  coarsely  irregularly  transversely 
striated;  the  vertex  near  the  ocelli  is  stoutly  reticulated.  Thorax 
closely  rugosely  punctured,  more  or  less  striated  on  the  pleura?  and 
mesonotum.  Scutellum  shining  and  sparsely  punctured.  The  median 
segment  is  more  coarsely  rugosely  punctured  than  the  mesonotum ; 
the  basal  keel  is  less  distinct  than  the  apical ;  the  teeth  are  broad. 
The  mesosternal  furrow  is  deep,  curved,  and  does  not  reach  beyond  the 
middle.  Legs  rufous  ;  all  the  coxa?  and  trochanters,  the  front  femora 
to  near  the  apex  below  and  behind,  the  middle  pair  behind  to  near 


NEW    SPECIES    OF    HYMENOPTERA   FROM    INDIA.  85 

the  middle,  the  apex  of  the  hinder  narrowly,  and  of  the  tibiae  more 
broadly,  black.  Abdomen  shining,  the  black  with  a  bluish  tinge.  The 
wings  have  a  slight  fulvous  tint. 

A  smaller  and  more  slenderly  built  species  than  C.  lucn- 
lentus. 

Cryptus  luculentus,  sp.  nov. 

Niger;  pedibus  runs  ;  coxis  trochanteribusque  nigris  ;  alishyalinis, 
stigmate  testaceo,  nervis  fuscis.      ?  .     Long.  17,  terebra  5  mm. 

Hah.     Simla  (Nurse). 

Antennae  entirely  black  ;  the  scape  punctured  and  sparsely  covered 
with  short  hair.  Head  black ;  the  inner  and  outer  orbits  and  a  trans- 
verse mark  on  the  middle  of  the  clypeus  near  the  apex,  yellowish. 
Face  closely  and  rather  strongly  punctured,  and  thickly  covered  with 
white  hair ;  the  centre  is  dilated  broadly  and  roundly ;  the  clypeus  is 
more  shining,  and  not  quite  so  strongly  punctured  as  the  face. 
Mandibles  black,  rufous  behind  the  teeth.  Thorax  closely  and  dis- 
tinctly punctured  ;  the  pleurae  more  strongly  than  the  mesonotum. 
The  punctuation  on  the  sides  and  on  the  apical  slope  of  the  median 
segment  run  into  reticulations,  this  being  also  the  case  with  the  meta- 
pleurae.  The  base  of  the  median  segment  is  obliquely  depressed  in  the 
middle ;  the  basal  transverse  keel  on  it  is  interrupted  in  the  middle, 
distinct  on  the  sides,  and  projecting  on  the  outer  edge.  Wings  hyaline, 
with  a  slight  but  distinct  fulvous  tinge.  Abdomen  smooth  ;  the  middle 
segments  aciculated.  Legs  rufous  ;  the  coxae  and  trochanters  black ; 
the  hinder  tarsi  have  a  yellowish  tinge  ;  they  are  distinctly  spinose. 

Spilichneumon  annulicornis,  sp.  nov. 
Niger ;    pedibus,  scutello  abdomineque  late  rufis  ;   annulo  flagello 
antennarum,  abdominisque  apice  albis  ;   alis  hyalinis,  stigmate  nervis- 
que  nigris  ;  apice  tibiarum  posticarum  tarsisque  posticis  nigris.      $  . 
Long.  11  mm. 

Hab.     Simla  (Nurse). 

Antennae  shorter  than  the  body,  black,  the  flagellum  brownish 
beneath  towards  the  apex  ;  there  is  a  broad  white  band  beyond  the 
middle.  Head  black ;  the  inner  orbits  and  the  sides  of  the  clypeus 
broadly  lemon-yellow  ;  the  centre  of  the  clypeus  has  a  rufous  tinge. 
Face  and  clypeus  closely  punctured  ;  the  front  and  vertex  are  quite  as 
strongly  and  closely  punctured  ;  the  mandibles  are  broadly  rufous  near 
the  middle.  Thorax  black,  the  scutellum  yellow.  Pro-  and  meso- 
thorax  closely  and  strongly  punctured,  and  thickly  covered  with  pale 
pubescence ;  the  scutellum  is  not  so  closely  punctured,  and  is  covered 
with  long  pale  hair.  Median  segment  closely  and  strongly  punctured, 
and  thickly  covered  with  longish  white  pubescence  ;  the  areola  is  twice 
longer  than  broad  ;  the  basal  half  is  slightly  but  distinctly  narrowed, 
its  apex  transverse  ;  the  sides  are  stoutly  transversely  striated,  the 
centre  aciculated  ;  in  the  middle  of  the  apical  half  is  a  longitudinal 
keel ;  the  apical  slope  is  closely  irregularly  rugose.  Pleurae  closely, 
almost  rugosely,  punctured,  the  metapleurae  more  coarsely  than  the 
rest.  Legs  rufous ;  the  four  anterior  coxae  and  the  trochanters  pale 
yellow  ;  the  hinder  coxae,  the  basal  joint  of  the  trochanters,  the  apical 


86  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

third  of  the  tibire,  and  the  hinder  tarsi,  black.  Wings  hyaline,  the 
stigma  and  nervures  dark  fuscous.  Abdomen  black  ;  the  post-petiole, 
the  second  and  third  segments,  and  the  sides  of  the  fourth  red  ;  a  large 
semicircular  white  mark  on  the  apex  of  the  sixth  segment  and  the 
whole  of  the  seventh  white.  The  post-petiole  is  strongly  but  not  very 
closely  punctured ;  the  gastrocoeli  are  narrow,  dilated  at  the  base  ; 
their  outer  side  longitudinally  striated. 

(To  be  continued.) 


A     LIST     OF     THE     "  MACRO-LEPIDOPTERA "     OF 
LANCASTER    AND     DISTRICT. 

By  C.  H.  Forsythe. 

In  compiling  this  list  of  our  local  "  Macro-Lepidoptera," 
I  have  kept  strictly  in  view  the  necessity  of  excluding  any 
species  I  have  had  the  slightest  doubt  about.  I  could  have 
included  several  species  on  the  authority  of  the  late  Mr.  J.  B. 
Hodgkinson,  who  marked  them  in  Newman's  '  British  Butterflies 
and  Moths '  as  "  probably  occurring  in  the  neighbourhood  " ; 
but,  as  I  have  no  record  of  their  actual  capture,  I  have  excluded 
them.  That  the  list  is  far  from  complete  I  know,  but  I  hope 
this  will  stimulate  collectors  to  record  the  capture  of  anything 
"  new  to  the  district,"  so  that  we  may  in  the  near  future  have 
a  more  complete  one.  I  have  to  thank  Mr.  George  Loxham,  of 
Lancaster,  for  much  valuable  information  ;  some  of  his  records, 
extending  over  a  period  of  forty  years,  are  unique. 

Pierid^e. 

Fieris  brassica. — Common  everywhere  in  June  and  July,  and  the 
second  brood  in  August  and  September. 

P.  mpce. — Abundant ;  late  May  and  June,  and  the  second  brood  in 
August  and  September.     A  yellow  form  occurs  occasionally. 

P.  napi. — Abundant ;  late  May  and  June,  and  the  second  brood  in 
July,  August,  and  September.  Some  of  the  forms  about  Clougha  Pike 
are  much  suffused  with  black  scales,  and  the  veins  are  broadly  marked, 
showing  a  tendency  to  melanism. 

Ettchloe  cardamines. — Uncommon  about  Lancaster.  Odd  specimens 
near  Quernmore  and  Torrisholme.  Abundant  at  Witherslack  and 
Methop  in  May  and  June. 

Leucophasia  sinapis.  —  Local.  Fairly  common  at  Methop  and 
Witherslack  in  April  and  May.     No  second  brood  has  been  recorded. 

Colias  edusa. — Very  rare  generally  ;  in  "  edma  years  "  we  frequently 
obtain  specimens.  I  have  taken  this  species  (in  1900)  at  Hest  bank 
and  near  Halton,  and  saw  a  specimen  the  following  year  flying  over  a 
clover  field  near  Lancaster.  "In  1892  I  took  several  examples  near 
Lancaster,  and  in  1900  I  took  a  few  near  Methop  bank  "  (G.  Loxham). 
The  var.  helice  has  not  been  captured,  as  far  as  I  know. 


MACRO-LEPIDOPTERA    OF    LANCASTER    AND    DISTRICT.  87 

Gonepteryx  rhamni. — Rare  about  Lancaster,  fairly  common  at  Arn- 
side,  and  abundant  at  Witberslack  in  late  July,  August,  and  September. 

Nymphalid^e. 

Argynnis  selene. — Formerly  common  near  Clougha  Pike  ;  now  ex- 
tinct there.  "  Up  to  a  few  years  ago  it  occurred  commonly  in  a  rough 
field  near  Witherslack,  but  cultivation  has  stamped  it  out  in  that 
locality"  \G.  Loxham).     The  imago  appears  in  June. 

A.  euphrosyne.  —  Common  near  Warton,  Carnforth,  on  Arnside 
Knott,  and  near  Grange-in-Cartmel,  in  early  June. 

A.  aylaia. —  I  took  a  specimen  in  July,  1901,  near  Hest  bank. 
Common  at  Warton,  Arnside,  and  Witberslack. 

A.  adippe, — Fairly  plentiful  at  Warton  ;  common  at  Arnside  and 
Witherslack  in  July  and  August.  "  I  took  a  fine  aberration  of  this 
species  some  years  ago  on  Arnside  Knott "  (G.  Loxham). 

A.  paphia. — I  took  a  specimen  at  Witherslack  on  August  3rd,  1901 
— a  record  (vide  '  Entomologist,'  vol.  xxxiv.  p.  253). 

Vanessa  poh/chloros. — One  specimen  taken  by  me  at  Witherslack, 
July  24th,  1901  (vide  'Entomologist,'  vol.  xxxiv.  p.  245— "  The 
Butterflies  of  the  Witherslack  District,"  contributed  by  me  in  Sep- 
tember, 1902). 

V.  urticce. — Abundant  everywhere  in  early  May  and  in  September. 
Although  we  rarely  get  aberrations  of  this  species,  I  took  one  at  Arn- 
side in  August,  1903,  and  another  in  Grimsbaw  Lane  three  days  later. 

V.  io. — Uncommon  about  Lancaster.  Odd  examples  near  Clougha 
Pike,  Quernmore,  Grimshaw  Lane,  &c,  in  August.  Abundant  about 
Witherslack  and  Arnside.  This  species  is  apt  to  vary ;  though  such 
aberrations  are  rare,  I  have  a  Witherslack  example,  taken  in  1901, 
without  the  "  eye"  markings  on  the  hind  wings. 

Pyrameis  atalanta.  —  Fairly  common  in  some  seasons,  scarce  in 
others.  Lancaster,  Methop,  Witherslack,  Arnside,  Halton,  &c,  in 
July,  August,  and  September. 

P.  canlui.  —  Uncommon  generally ;  in  some  years  (as  in  1903) 
fairly  plentiful.  Lancaster,  Arnside,  Silverdale,  Witherslack,  &c,  in 
August  and  September.  "  I  used  to  take  the  larva  feeding  upon 
Cnicus,  annually,  at  Heysham  some  years  ago"  (G.  Loxham). 

Erebia  cethiops. — Plentiful  at  Arnside  and  Witherslack  in  August. 

Paranje  egeria. — "  Fairly  common  near  Witherslack  some  years 
ago  "  (G.  Loxham).     This  species  is  now  extinct  in  this  district. 

P.  megara. — Common  near  Sline,  Heysham,  Warton,  Methop,  and 
Witherslack  in  late  May  and  June,  and  the  second  brood  in  August. 

Satyrus  semele. — Common  at  Arnside  and  Witherslack  in  July  and 
August. 

Epinephele  ianira. — Abundant  everywhere  in  June  and  July. 

E.  tithonus. — Very  local,  near  Overton.  "  Formerly  common  about 
Heysham  Moss  in  July  "  (G.  Loxbam). 

Aphantopus  (E.)  hyper anihvs. — "  Formerly  common  in  Maud's  Wood, 
near  Grange-in-Cartmel,  in  July  and  August"  (G.  Loxham).  This 
species  has  not  been  taken  in  this  district  for  the  last  few  years,  and  is 
probably  extinct. 

Camonympha  typhon.  —  The   type   does   not  occur  here.     On  the 


88  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

mosses  at  Witherslack,  Methop,  and  Heysham,  the  var.  rothliebi  is 
abundant  in  June  and  July. 

C.  pamphilus. — Abundant  everywhere  in  June,  July,  and  August. 

Zephyrus  (Thecla)  betula. — Very  local  and  scarce  near  Silverdale  in 
late  August  and  September.  "Common  near  Silverdale,  formerly" 
(G.  Loxham). 

Z.  (T.)  quercus,  —  Fairly  common  on  Arnside  Knott  in  July  and 
August. 

Callopkrys  (T.)  rubi.  —  Abundant  near  Clougha  and  Quernmore ; 
common  at  Metbop  in  April,  May,  and  June. 

Chrysnphaniis  phlocas.  —  Fairly  common  in  Grimshaw  Lane,  near 
Clougha,  Blea  Tarn,  Arnside,  Witherslack,  &c,  from  June  to  September. 

Lyccena  agon. — Locally  common  at  Witherslack  in  August. 

L.  ayestis. —  Common  at  Arnside,  Methop,  &c,  in  May,  June,  and 
July.  The  var.  salmacis  occurs  occasionally  at  Warton  and  Arnside, 
and  the  var.  allous  at  Arnside  fairly  commonly. 

L.  icarus.  —  Common  everywhere  in  June,  and  the  second  brood 
(often  very  diminutive  in  size)  in  September. 

L.  corydon.  —  "  Common  about  Arnside  Tower  some  years  ago. 
Common  near  Warton  in  1892"  (G.  Loxham). 

L.  minima. — Very  local  near  Witherslack  early  in  June. 

Cyaniris  (L.)  argiolus.  —  Common  about  Grange,  Methop,  and 
Witherslack  in  late  May  and  early  June.  No  second  brood  occurs  in 
this  district. 

Erycinid-e. 

Nemeobius  lucina.  —  Very  local  near  Grange  and  at  Witherslack  in 
late  May  and  June. 

Hesperiad^;. 

Tlianaos  (Nisoniades)  tages.  —  Plentiful  at  Arnside  and  Witherslack 
in  May. 

Augiades  (Hesperia)  sylvanus.  —  Fairly  common  near  Methop  and 
Arnside  in  May  and  June. 

Sphingid.e. 

Acherontia  atropos.  —  Scarce,  although  odd  specimens  are  captured 
nearly  every  year  in  July,  August,  and  September.  The  larvre  have 
also  been  taken  feeding  on  potato  occasionally. 

Sphinx  convolvuli. — Rare.  I  took  two  specimens  in  August,  1900, 
and  had  another  brought  to  me  by  a  gardener,  wbo  found  it  at  rest  on 
a  fuchsia;  and  on  August  23rd,  1902,  I  found  a  specimen  on  a  gate 
near  Halton.  I  have  only  one  record  of  the  larva  being  found  on 
bindweed  (Convolvulus  arvensis)  on  July  19th,  1900,  near  Quernmore. 

Deilephila  galii.  —  The  larvas  are  rare  at  Heysham  on  Galium  in 
September. 

Chcerocampa  celerio. — Very  rare.  Mr.  John  Ralph  has  a  specimen, 
taken  in  Lancaster  some  years  ago  ;  and  on  July  28th,  1898,  I  had  a 
small  male  brought  to  me  by  our  electrician. 

Metopsilus  (C.)  porcellus.  —  I  took  two  specimens  at  Quernmore  in 
June,  1901,  and  have  seen  it  on  the  wing  near  Clougha.  "It  occurs 
on  the  Witherslack  and  Methop  Mosses  "  (G.  Loxham). 


MACRO-LBPIDOPTBRA    OF    LANCASTER   AND    DISTRICT.  89 

Smerinthus  ocellatus.  —  This  species  occurs  near  Hest  bank,  but  I 
have  only  taken  larvae  tbere ;  at  Witherslack  the  sallows  growing 
by  the  sides  of  the  mosses  are  prolific  hunting  grounds  for  the  larva3 
in  July. 

S.  populi. — Common  everywhere :  imago  in  June,  larvre  in  July 
and  August. 

Macroglossa  stellatarum.  —  "Common  at  Arnside,  Methop,  and 
Witherslack  in  May"  (G.  Loxham). 

Hemaris  (M.)  fuciformis. — "  Rare  near  Methop  bank  in  late  May" 
(G.  Loxham). 

H.  (ill.)  bombyliformis. — "  Occasionally  about  the  mosses  at  Wither- 
slack and  near  Methop  bank  in  late  May  "  (G.  Loxham). 

SESIIDiE. 

Trochilium  crabroniformis. — Common  in  the  County  Asylum  grounds 
on  sallow  trunks  in  late  June  and  July.  Occasionally  at  Heysham  and 
Hornby. 

Zyg^nimd. 

Ino  statices.  —  Very  local  near  Witherslack  in  late  June  and  early 
July. 

Zygana  filipendultz. — Local,  but  abundant  near  Grange  in  July. 

Cymbid^;. 
Hylophila  prasinana.  —  Not  common  ;    Grimshaw  Lane,   County 
Asylum  grounds,  near  Quernmore,  &c,  end  of  May.     I  have  bred 
this  species  from  Witherslack  and  Methop  larva?. 

Nolid.e. 
Nolo,  cucuUatella. — Local ;  Freeman's  Wood,  Lancaster,  in  July. 

Arctiad^:. 

Nudaria  mundana. — Not  common,  but  generally  distributed.  Blea 
Tarn,  Quernmore,  County  Asylum  grounds,  &c,  end  of  July. 

Cybosia  (Lithosia)  mesomella.  —  "  Uncommon  near  Scotforth  and  at 
Witherslack  in  July  "  (G.  Loxham). 

Lithosia  lurideola. — Common  at  Witherslack  and  Arnside  in  July. 

L.  sericea. — Local  at  Witherslack  in  mid-July. 

(Enistis  (Gnophria)  quadra. —  "Two  examples  attracted  to  light 
near  Lancaster,  July,  1902  "  (G.  Loxham). 

HipocHta  (Euchelia)  jacobace.  —  Abundant  at  Witherslack  and 
Methop,  less  so  at  Warton,  in  June. 

Diacrisia  (Nemeophila)  russula.  —  Fairly  common  near  Quernmore 
and  Clougha,  common  on  the  Witherslack  and  Methop  Mosses  in  July. 

Parasemia  (X.)  pJantaginis. — Common  at  Witherslack,  near  Quern- 
more, and  Clougha  in  July  and  early  August. 

Arctia  caia. — Common  everywhere  in  July. 

A.  villica.  —  "  Rare.  Two  specimens  were  taken  in  Ridge  Lane, 
near  Lancaster,  in  June,  a  few  years  ago  "  (G.  Loxham). 

Phragmatobia  (Spilosoma)  fuliginosa. — Rare  at  Heysham  ;  common 
near  Clougha  and  Methop  bank,  end  of  June. 

Spilosoma  mend ica. — Common;  Freeman's  Wood,  Lancaster  (gene- 
rally), Quernmore,  &c,  in  June. 

BNTOM. — MARCH.    1905.  H 


90  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

S.  lubricipeda, — Common  everywhere  in  June. 
S.  menthastri. — Plentiful  in  June,  and  generally  distributed. 
S.  urticee. —  Very  local.     "I  have  only   taken  this  species  near 
Oakcliffe  Hall  in  June  "  (G.  Loxham). 

(To  be  continued.) 


NOTES    AND    OBSERVATIONS. 

Pupation  of  Cataclysta  lemnata. — The  larva  noted  (ante,  p.  5)  as 
alive  in  November  was  brought  into  a  warm  room,  fed  up  rapidly,  and 
made  a  case  nearly  an  inch  long.  When  it  made  its  cocoon  (about 
January  25th)  it  much  shortened  this,  and  made  it  broader,  by  what 
engineering  expedients  I  do  not  know,  nor  how  it  made  a  further 
important  improvement.  The  larval  case  was  very  shabby,  being 
covered  with  leaves  of  Lemna,  mostly  dead  and  discoloured.  The 
cocoon  (15  mm.  long  and  10  wide)  is  now  covered  by  bright  fresh 
leaves  of  the  duckweed,  so  far  as  regards  the  portion  above  water,  and, 
except  that  it  is  convex  and  prominent,  it  now  looks  just  like  the  weed 
growing  around  it. — T.  A.  Chapman  ;  Betula,  Keigate,  Feb.  4th,  1905. 

The  Time  of  Appearance  of  Lepidoptera  in  connection  with 
Season  and  Latitude. — The  question  of  the  time  of  appearance  of 
Limenitis  sibylla,  raised  by  the  notes  of  Messrs.  Gurney  (Entom.  xxxvii. 
324)  and  Bentall  (ibid,  xxxviii.  62),  is  one  of  wider  interest  than  may 
appear  from  the  case  of  a  single  species.  The  whole  subject  of  the 
time  of  appearance  of  species  in  connection  with  the  two  factors  of 
season  and  latitude  requires  collating  and  discussing.  I  regret  that  I 
have  no  time  to  do  this  myself,  but  I  beg  to  communicate  two  personal 
observations  as  a  contribution  to  the  discussion.  Some  years  ago  I 
spent  a  few  weeks  at  the  little  village  of  Framzelle,  near  Cape  Gris 
Nez.  Early  in  October,  when  the  weather  had  become  cold,  and  Lepi- 
doptera had  nearly  all  disappeared,  the  only  butterfly  found  along  the 
coast  was  Argynnis  lathona,  which  species  was  fairly  common.  On 
those  rare  occasions  when  this  butterfly  is  taken  in  this  country,  it  is, 
if  I  remember  the  records  accurately,  always  taken  some  weeks  earlier. 
Again,  this  last  autumn  (1904),  I  was  at  Ballater,  in  Scotland.  On 
Sept.  21st,  in  the  course  of  an  evening  walk  by  the  banks  of  the  Dee,  I 
saw  and  captured  Chesias  spartiata,  which  was  flying  in  profusion  over 
the  broom  on  a  clear,  cold,  moonlight  night.  The  flight  lasted  for  about 
twenty  minutes.  This  date  struck  me  as  being  very  early  for  Scotland. 
E.  Meldola;  6,  Brunswick  Square,  W.C.,  Feb.  1st,  190*5. 

Gynandrous  Specimen  of  Cyaniris  (Lyc^na)  argiolus. — During  a 
fortnight's  holiday  in  South  Devon  I  paid  a  visit  to  Torquay  on  Aug. 
8th,  1904,  and  was  rewarded  by  the  capture  of  a  freshly-emerged 
gynandrous  specimen  of  Lyccena  argiolus.  I  had  just  previously  taken 
a  fine  male  Lasiocampa  (Bombyx)  quercus,  one  male  L.  argiolus,  and 
seven  specimens  of  Macroglossa  stellatarum,  and  had  seen  Colias  edusa, 
when,  as  we  were  returning  to  the  harbour  from  the  bathing-cove,  my 
wife  called  my  attention  to  a  holly  blue,  which  settled  in  the  middle  of 


CAPTURES  AND  FIELD  REPORTS.  91 

the  road,  and  fell  an  easy  victim  to  my  net.  When  boxed,  the  insect 
elevated  its  wings  over  its  back,  and  its  true  character  was  not  then 
recognized.  On  our  return  to  the  boarding-house  it  was  transferred  to 
the  killing-bottle,  when  it  closed  its  wings  round  its  body  and  revealed 
the  fact  that  the  right  pair  of  wings  were  those  of  the  male,  and  the 
left  pair  those  of  the  female.  The  markings  on  the  under  side  are 
quite  normal.  The  abdomen  appears  to  possess  the  characters  of  the 
female.  The  specimen  is  1}  in.  in  expanse.  There  was  no  oppor- 
tunity of  establishing  evidence  of  the  theory  that  these  freaks  occur  in 
pairs,  for  the  fellow  one  did  not  cross  my  path.  I  have  collected  for 
twenty-one  years  without  having  met  with  a  gynaudrous  specimen,  and 
this  capture  was  in  consequence  especially  pleasing  to  me.  The 
weather  that  day  was  all  that  could  be  desired,  the  sun  shining  bril- 
liantly in  a  cloudless  sky,  and  the  heat  was  intense. — 0.  Granville 
Clutterbuck  ;  Heathside,  Heathville  Road,  Gloucester. 

Notes  on  Odonata. — Mr.  H.  M.  Edelsten  sends  the  following 
interesting  notes  on  dragonflies  in  1905  : — Sympetrum  striolatum  and 
Msclma  mixta,  South  Devon,  common,  Aug.  19th  to  80th  ;  M.  cyanea 
and  /E.  grandis,  Enfield,  August;  Erythromma  naias,  Enfield,  several, 
June  10th  ;  Pyrrhosoma  nymphula,  Enfield  and  Epping  Forest,  June  ; 
Ischnura  eleyans,  Enfield  and  Epping  Forest,  June,  July,  and  August ; 
Agrion  pulchellum,  Enfield,  June;  A.  puella  and  Enallagma  cyathi- 
gerum,  Enfield,  June,  July,  and  August.  He  also  received  from  the 
Norfolk  Broads,  S.  striolatum  and  Lestes  sponsa,  Aug.  25th,  Sept.  5th. 
On  one  occasion  Mr.  Edelsten  was  able  to  watch  a  female  E.  cyathi- 
gerum  ovipositing.  It  descended  below  the  surface  and  remained 
under  water  for  nearly  fifteen  minutes.  When  it  came  up  again  it 
flew  off  and  was  at  once  seized  by  a  male,  per  colhim. — W.  J.  Lucas  ; 
Kingston-on-Thames. 


CAPTUKES  AND  FIELD  REPORTS. 

Vanessa  antiopa  in  Surrey. — I  have  a  rather  damaged  specimen 
of  the  "  Camberwell  Beauty  "  butterfly,  which  was  captured  on  August 
29th,  1904,  at  Raynes  Park.— W.  Smith  ;  46,  Durham  Road,  Cotten- 
ham  Park,  Wimbledon,  Jan.  3rd,  1905. 

Lyc^na  bcetica  in  Cornwall. — I  have  much  pleasure  in  recording 
the  capture,  near  to  Truro,  of  a  female  specimen  of  L.  bcetica.  It  was 
netted  on  August  2nd,  1904,  by  a  young  friend  of  mine,  a  schoolboy 
collector,  who  so  far  has  only  a  very  small  collection  of  the  commoner 
species  of  butterflies.  He  saw  the  insect  in  his  garden  hovering  around 
a  veronica-bush,  which  it  quickly  left  for  a  fuchsia-tree  in  bloom,  and 
from  which  he  netted  it.  It  was  not  until  he  boxed  the  insect  that  he 
thought  it  to  be  anything  unusual.  He  kept  it  alive  for  a  day  or  two, 
hoping  to  find  me  at  home,  but  unfortunately  I  was  away  on  my  holi- 
days. He  therefore  pinched  the  thorax  in  the  old-fashioned  way,  and 
set  the  insect,  which  is  now  in  my  collection.  Both  the  wings  on  the 
right  side  are  a  little  split  at  the  edges,  and  the  fringe  worn  ;  otherwise 
it  is  in  good  condition,  the  under  side  being  beautifully  marked  and 


92  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

coloured.  The  tail-like  appendages  and  antennas  are  complete,  but  by 
the  pinching  of  thorax  to  kill  it  only  one  leg  remains.  I  am  delighted, 
however,  to  have  the  specimen.  Can  you  inform  me  whether  there  are 
any  later  records  of  the  capture  of  this  insect  than  those  given  in 
Barrett's  '  British  Lepidoptera,' published  in  1893  ? — W.  A.  Kollason; 
The  White  House,  Truro,  Feb.  10th,  1905. 

[In  1893  three  specimens  of  L.  bcetica  were  recorded  in  the  '  Ento- 
mologist '  for  that  year — a  male  on  September  7th  at  Dartford  ;  one  at 
Hastings,  also  in  September ;  and  a  specimen  in  Sussex,  August  28th. 
Two  examples  were  reported  as  occurring  in  England  in  1899.  Qne 
of  these  was  recorded  as  taken  at  Tunbridge  Wells  on  September  1st ; 
the  other  was  said  to  have  been  captured  at  Deal  on  September  16th 
(Entom.  xxxii.  p.  281). — Ed.] 

Unusual  Dates. — The  following  dates  may  be  worth  recording  : — 
On  Nov.  15th,  1901,  a  fine  male  specimen  of  Colias  edusa  vta,s  seen  on 
the  wing ;  on  Jan.  25th,  1905,  one  example  of  Cidaria  psittacatq 
(siderata)  was  found  at  rest  on  a  bank  ;  and  on  Feb.  3rd,  1905,  a 
specimen  of  Eumia  luteolata  (cmtmjata)  was  seen  in  a  similar  position. 
The  latter  is,  I  think,  quite  exceptional  even  for  South  Devon. — E.  D. 
Morgan  ;  8,  Luscombe  Terrace,  Dawlish,  Devon,  Feb.  3rd,  1905. 

[In  the  December  number  of  the  '  Entomologist '  for  last  year  there 
are  two  records  of  G.  edusa  having  been  observed  in  November. 
C.  psittacata  hybernates  in  the  imago  state.  February  is  certainly  an 
unusual  date  for  11.  luteolata. — Ed.] 

Leucoph^a  surinamensis  Linn,  in  Essex. — This  pretty  cockroach 
has  occurred  abundantly  in  a  tanpit  adjoining  the  greenhouses  of  a 
private  garden  between  Chelmsford  and  Bloomfield,  and  is  doing  con- 
siderable harm  to  the  pineapples,  orchids,  and  other  plants.  In  Mr. 
Burr's  'British  Orthoptera,'  published  in  1897,  the  occurrence  of  two 
individuals  at  Bognor,  Sussex,  and  one  at  Kew  is  mentioned,  but  Mr. 
Burr  states  that  "it  hardly  deserves  to  be  called  British  until  it  is 
proved  that  it  actually  breeds  here."  There  is  no  doubt  of  its  breed- 
ing in  the  present  locality,  as  it  has  been  established  for  several  years, 
and  the  specimens  brought  to  me  are  of  every  age  and  size,  from 
recently  hatched  young  to  mature  insects.  The  gardener  who  sub- 
mitted the  specimens  to  me  does  not  know  how  they  came,  but  in  the 
past  few  years  numerous  tropical  plants  have  been  brought  into  the 
garden,  and  the  cockroaches  may  have  been  brought  with  one  of  them. 
I  have  sent  specimens  to  the  British  Museum  Collection,  and  my 
naming  has  been  confirmed  there. — E.  Charles  Horrell  ;  County 
Laboratories,  Chelmsford,  Essex. 

Since  writing  the  above,  I  hear  from  Mr.  W.  H.  Harwood,  of  Col- 
chester, that  about  thirty  specimens  have  recently  been  found  near 
Liverpool  and  Manchester. — E.  C.  H. 

A  few  Captures  from  North  Cornwall  in  1903. — The  following 
insects,  taken  during  July  and  August,  may  be  worth  noting  : — Argynnis 
aijlaia,  abundant  and  in  grand  condition  ;  Leucophasia  sinapis,  includ- 
ing one  of  the  pale  variety ;  Hesjieria  linea,  abundant ;  Melanargia 
galatea,  Habrosyne  derasa,  Cymatophora  duplaris,  Emmelcsia  alchemiilata, 
Triphccna  intcrjecta,  Hylopkila  quercana  (bicolorana),  Hypsipetes  ehitata 


CAPTURES    AND    FIELD    REPORTS.  93 

beautiful  vars.  ;  Epione  apiciaria,  common  ;  Noctua  baia  ;  and  a  grand 
specimen  of  Cidaria  triincata  var.  comma-notata,  of  the  colouring  de- 
scribed by  "  Newman." — W.  A.  Rollason  ;  The  White  House,  Truro, 
Cornwall. 

Notes  on  Coleoptera  in  South-west  Surrey. — Claviger  foveolatus, 
Mull.  In  the  nests  of  Formica  flava  under  stones  on  the  "  Hog's 
Back." — Chrysomela  polita,  L.  Occurred  only  once  in  the  interior  of 
a  fallen  tree  on  Peasmarsh. — Oncomera  femorata,  F.  Abundant  in  the 
vicinity  of  Shackleford,  on  JEgopodium  podagraria. — Leistus  spinibarbis, 
F.  Under  refuse  in  a  wood  near  Puttenham. — Carabus  intricatus,  L. 
Fairly  plentiful  during  the  summer  months. — Pterostichus  nigrita,  F., 
P.  strenuus,  Daws.  Widely  distributed,  but  few  specimens  taken. — 
Notiophilus  palustris,  Duft.  Occurred  once  or  twice  on  Peasmarsh. — 
Geotrupes  sylvaticus,  Panz.  One  specimen  taken  in  a  copse  near 
Compton. — Clytus  arietis,  L.  On  roses  at  Godalming.  —  Meloe  pro- 
scarabceus,  L.,  M.  violaceus,  Marsh.  Occurred  frequently  on  grassy 
banks. — Zabrus  gibbus,  F.  Was  taken  only  once  in  a  field  of  standing 
corn  at  Shackleford. — Anobium  pertina.v,  L.  Plentiful  in  old  willows 
on  the  banks  of  the  Wey. — Toxotus  meridianus,  L.  One  specimen 
only  crawling  on  a  road. —  Bolitobius  atricapillus,  F.  Abundant  in 
fungi. — CaUistus  lunatus,  F.  Under  stones  on  the  "  Hog's  Back." — 
Apion  pomonie,  F.  Abundant.  —  Silpha  rugosa,  L.,  S.  atrata,  L. 
Plentiful  on  dead  animals. 

I  also  did  a  little  collecting  among  the  water-beetles  during  the 
first  fortnight  in  July.  From  Cuttmill  ponds  I  obtained  Pelobius 
tardus,  Herbst ;  Agabus  bipustulatus,  L.  ;  Acilius  sulcatus,  L.  ;  llybius 
fuliginosus,  F.  ;  Gyrinus  natator,  Scop.  ;  Cercyon  jiavipes,  F.  ;  Dytiscus 
marginalis,  L.  ;  Haliplus  obliquus,  F.  ;  Hyphydrus  ovatus,  L.  And 
from  Losely,  Hydroporus  palustris,  L.  ;  Spharidium  bipustulatum,  F. — 
J.  A.  Croft  ;  Charterhouse,  Godalming,  Surrey. 

Collecting  in  West  Cornwall  during  1903-1904. — Omitting  cap- 
tures of  the  commoner  species,  the  following  may  be  interesting  to 
record : — 

1903.  Truro  District. — June  :  Lycana  argus  (agon),  Acidalia  sub- 
sericeata,  Eaj)ithecia  plumbeolata.  July  :  Habrosyne  derasa,  Thyatira 
batis,  Acidalia  bisetata,  Cymatophora  duplaris,  Bapta  [Corycia)  temerata, 
Melanippe  galiata. 

Newquay  District. —  July:  Lycana  argus  (fairly  abundant),  L. 
astrarche  {inedon). 

Falmouth  District. —  July:  Melanippe  galiata.  August:  Colias 
edusa  (scarce),  Vanessa  cardui  (fairly  common),  Epineuronia  (Neuro?iia) 
popularis,  Noctua  rubi,  Melanippe  galiata,  Agrotis  sur/usa,  A.  pitta,  A. 
obelisca,  Triphana  interjecta,  Noctua  c-nigrum,  Axylia  putris,  Miana 
literosa.  September:  Eupithecia  centaureata,  Heliothis  armigera,  Cara- 
drina  blanda,  Aporophyla  australis,  Folia  Jiavicincta. 

1904.  Truro  District. — May  :  Rusina  tenebrosa.  June  :  Heliodes 
arbuti,  Emmelesia  alchemillata,  Melanippe  galiata,  sEthia  {Zanclognatha) 
tarsi pennalis,  Anticlea  rubidata  (common),  Rusina  tenebrosa,  Eupithecia 
exiguata,  E.  castigata,  Cymatophora  duplaris,  Acidalia  subsericeata.  July  : 
Eupithecia   tenuiata    (from   larvae    taken   in    sallow-catkins  in  April), 


94  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Metrocampa  margaritaria,  Ligdia  adust  at  a,  Eapithecia  rectangulata,  Mela- 
nippe  unangidata,  Anticlea  sinuata,  August :  Acidalia  promutata, 
Xanthia  silago  (from  larvae  taken  in  sallow-catkins  in  April).  Septem- 
ber :  Xylina  rhizolitha,  Golias  edusa  (2),  Orthosia  lota  (from  larvas  taken 
in  sallow-catkins  in  April),  Polia  flavicincta. 

St.  Austell  District. — June:  Erastria  fuscida,  Tephrosia  punctu- 
laria.  July  :  Emmelesia  alchemillata,  Melanippe  unangidata,  M.  rivata, 
Anticlea  rubidata,  Erastria  fuscida. 

Falmouth  District. — June:  Anticlea  rubidata,  Emmelesia  ajfinitata, 
Bapta  (Gorycia)  temerata,  Anticlea  sinuata.  July :  Agrotis  lunigcra, 
Gleora  glabraria,  Emmelesia  ajinitata,  Eupithecia  rectangulata.  August  : 
Lasiocampa  (Bombyx)  quercus,  Pyrantels  (Vanessa)  cardui  (numerous). 
This  month  were  taken  also  larva  of  Bapta  temerata,  and  in  July 
larvae  of  Emmelesia  ajpnitata,  Dianthcecia  capsophila,  Eupithecia  venosata, 
Macroglossa  stellatarum,  and  Pieris  napi. 

I  should  be  glad  to  know  if  Gleora  glabraria  and  Anticlea  sinuata 
have  been  previously  recorded  from  Cornwall.  —  W.  A.  Rollason  ; 
The  White  House,  Truro,  Cornwall. 

[Anticlea  cucullata  (sinuata)  has  once  been  recorded  from  Cornwall. 
Gleora  glabraria  is  known  to  occur  in  Devonshire,  but,  so  far  as  we  are 
aware,  it  has  not  been  reported  before  from  Cornwall. — Ed.] 


SOCIETIES. 


Entomological  Society  of  London. — February  1st,  1905. — Mr.  F. 
Merrifield,  President,  in  the  chair. — The  President  announced  that  he 
had  appointed  Dr.  Thomas  Algernon  Chapman,  M.D.,  F.Z.S. ;  Dr. 
Frederick  Augustus  Dixey,  M.A.,  M.D.  ;  and  Professor  Edward  B. 
Poulton,  D.Sc,  F.R.S.,  as  Vice-Presidents  for  the  Session  1905-6. — 
Mr.  H.  St.  J.  Donisthorpe  exhibited  specimens  of  Oligota  granaria 
found  in  a  granary  in  Holborn,  the  only  other  localities  reported 
hitherto  being  Shoe  Lane  and  Scarborough. — Mr.  W.J.  Kaye,  a  speci- 
men of  the  Erycinid  butterfly,  Mesosemia  eamene,  pinned  in  its  natural 
position  of  rest  to  show  its  resemblance  to  the  head  of  a  small 
mammal,  such  as  a  mouse. — Dr.  T.  A.  Chapman,  a  variety  of  the 
female  of  Lycaena  melanops.  As  a  mere  aberration  it  was  interesting, 
but  it  was  of  value  as  showing  that  the  position  in  the  genus  for  long 
accorded  to  the  species,  whether  by  accident  or  design,  close  to  the 
Arion-Euphemus  group,  was  correct.  The  considerable  extension  of 
the  blue  in  this  specimen  showed  up  certain  black  spots  on  the  upper 
surface  of  both  upper  and  lower  wings,  strictly  similar  to  these 
characteristics  of  the  Arion-Euphemus  group.  He  had  named  the 
variety,  which  seemed  to  be  undescribed,  var.  uheeleri,  in  recognition 
of  the  work  done  by  the  Rev.  George  Wheeler  among  alpine  butter- 
flies.— Mr.  F.  Enock,  a  living  female  H.  defoliaria,  taken  as  late  as 
February  1st,  at  rest  on  north  side  of  oak-tree,  and  another  female 
taken  January  28th  in  the  same  wood  at  Bexley.  He  also  exhibited, 
on  behalf  of  Mr.  Leonard  Newman,  of  Bexley,  two  fine  hybrids  bred 
from  a  male  Notodonta  ziczac  and  a  female  N.  dromedarius,  the  colour 
being  that  of  dromedarius  while  the  markings  were  those  of  ziczac. — 


SOCIETIES.  95 

Mr.  0.  E.  Janson,  a  living  specimen  of  Acridium  eegyptium,  L.,  found 
in  a  cauliflower  in  Bloomsbury,  and  probably  imported  from  Italy. — 
Mr.  G.  C.  Champion,  two  specimens  of  Malachius  bamevUlei,  Puton, 
captured  by  Mr.  Thouless  at  Hunstanton,  Norfolk,  in  June,  1899,  a 
recent  addition  to  the  British  List. — Mr.  H.  W.  Andrews,  male  and 
female  examples  of  Machimus  rusticus,  Mg.,  a  rare  Asilid,  taken  in  cop. 
at  Freshwater,  Isle  of  Wight,  on  August  13th,  1903.— Mr.  W.  J.Lucas, 
a  female  specimen  of  Panorpa  cognata  taken  at  Byfleet  Canal  on  August 
23rd,  1904.  The  species  occurs  at  Folkestone,  and  is  said  to  be  found 
in  the  New  Forest.  For  comparison  he  also  exhibited  female  specimens 
of  P.  communis  and  P.  germanica. — The  following  papers  were  read  : — 
"  A  Eevisiou  of  the  Genus  Criocephalus,  with  Notes  on  the  Habits  of 
Asemum  striatum  and  Criocephalus  ferns,'"  by  Dr.  D.  Sharp,  M.A.,  F.R.S., 
and  J.  Gilbert  Smith,  Mr.  Smith  exhibiting  specimens. — "Another 
Entomological  Excursion  to  Spain  "  (with  descriptions  of  two  new 
species  of  Hemiptera  by  Dr.  0.  M.  Reuter),  by  Dr.  T.  A.  Chapman, 
M.D.,  and  G.  C.  Champion,  F.Z.S. —  "  On  the  Matrivorous  Habit  of 
Heterogynis,"  and  "  On  the  Pupal  Suspension  of  Thais,"  by  Dr.  T.  A. 
Chapman,  the  author  exhibiting  examples  of  Heterogynis  from  nume- 
rous localities. — "Notes  on  New  Zealand  Lepidoptera,"  by  E.  Meyrick, 
B.A.,  F.R.S. — H.  Rowland-Brown,  M.A.,  Hon.  Secretary. 

South  London  Entomological  and  Natural  History  Society. — 
January  12th,  1905. — Mr.  E.  Step,  F.L.S.,  Vice-President,  in  the  chair. — 
The  President  referred  to  the  death  of  Mr.  C.  G.  Barrett,  who  had  been 
a  former  President  of  the  Society,  and  it  was  unanimously  agreed  to 
send  a  letter  of  condolence  to  Mrs.  Barrett  and  family. — Mr.  Main 
exhibited  Panorpa  communis  and  P.  germanica  from  Folkestone. — Mr. 
Lucas,  P.  cognata,  the  rarest  British  scorpion-fly,  and  the  other  two 
species  for  comparison,  with  a  female  of  the  latter  taken  during  the 
field-meeting  at  Byfleet  on  July  23rd.  He  also  showed  Chrysopa  cen- 
tralis, from  the  same  locality. — Mr.  Goulton,  photographs  of  lepido- 
pterous  larva?. — Mr.  Joy,  varieties  of  Aphantopus  (Epinephele)  hyper  - 
anthus  (1)  with  white  ocelli  on  the  upper  side  of  the  hind  wing;  (2) 
with  the  ocelli  on  the  under  side  wholly  or  partially  reduced  to  mere 
dots  =  var.  arete;  and  (3)  with  elongate  ocelli  on  the  under  side  =ab. 
lanceolata. — Mr.  R.  Adkin  gave  an  account  of  the  Annual  Meeting  of 
the  South-eastern  Union  of  Scientific  Societies,  which  he  attended  as 
the  Society's  delegate.  He  also  read  the  report  of  the  field-meeting 
held  at  Eynsford  on  June  25th,  1904. — Mr.  Lucas  read  the  report  of 
the  field-meeting  at  Byfleet  on  July  23rd,  and  then  showed  a  number 
of  lantern-slides  illustrative  of  protective  resemblance,  kindly  lent 
him  by  Mr.  Hamm,  of  the  Hope  Museum,  Oxford. — Messrs.  Dennis, 
Clark,  Lucas,  Step,  Tonge,  and  West  also  exhibited  various  slides. 

January  26th. — Mr.  Sich,  F.E.S.,  President,  in  the  chair. — Annual 
General  Meeting. — The  first  part  of  the  meeting  was  devoted  to  the 
business  of  receiving  the  Treasurer's  balance-sheet  and  statement ;  the 
reading  of  the  Council's  report  for  the  past  year ;  the  announcement 
of  the  Officers  and  Council  elected  for  the  ensuing  year  ;  and  the 
reading  of  the  retiring  President's  address.  A  satisfactory  financial 
condition  was  announced  by  the  Treasurer,  Mr.  T.  W.  Hall,  and  the 
Council's  report  showed  that  the  work  of  the  Society  had  been  gener- 
ally  successful  throughout   the   year,   with    an   average    attendance 


96  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

at  the  twenty-five  meetings  of  over  thirty.  A  list  of  the  elected 
Officers  and  Council: — President,  Hugh  Main,  B.Sc,  F.E.S. ;  Vice- 
Presidents,  A.  Sich,  F.E.S.,  and  E.  Step,  F.L.S. ;  Treasurer,  T.  W. 
Hall,  F.E.S. ;  Librarian,  A.  W.  Dodds ;  Curator,  W.  West  (Green- 
wich) ;  Hon.  Secretaries,  Stanley  Edwards,  F.L.S. ,  F.E.S.,  and  Hy. 
J.  Turner,  F.E.S.  ;  Council,  R.  Adkin,  F.E.S.,  F.  Noad  Clark,  F.  B. 
Carr,  A.  Harrison,  F.L.S.,  F.Z.S.,  F.C.S.,  W.  J.  Kaye,  F.E.S.,  H.  A. 
Sauze,  and  W.  West  (Streatham). — Ordinary  Meeting:  Mr.  Hugh 
Main,  B.Sc,  President,  in  the  chair. — Dr.  Chapman  exhibited  a  living 
specimen  of  Doritis  apollinus,  bred  from  a  pupa  sent  from  Syria. — Mr. 
Step,  a  further  portion  of  the  "  Tugwell"  herbarium. — Mr.  Main 
reported  having  seen  Hybernia  rupicapraria,  Phigalia  pedaria,  Cheima- 
tobia  brumata,  H.  marginalia,  and  P.  monodactylus  in  Epping  Forest  in 
some  numbers  on  Jan.  22nd. — Mr.  Turner  read  a  few  notes  on  the 
Entomology  of  Assiniboia,  Canada,  received  from  Mr.  A.  J.  Croker. — 
Hy.  J.  Tubner,  Hon.  Rep.  Sec. 

Lancashire  and  Cheshire  Entomological  Society.  —  The  first 
ordinary  meeting  of  the  session  was  held  in  the  Royal  Institution, 
Liverpool,  on  Monday,  January  16th,  1905.  —  Mr.  Wm.  Webster, 
M.R.S.A.I.,  in  the  chair.  — The  Rev.  Chas.  E.  G.  Kendall,  B.A., 
Ripon  Street,  Preston,  and  Mr.  Albert  Wade,  F.E.S.,  Frenchwood 
Street,  Preston,  were  elected  members  of  the  Society. — Donations  to 
the  Library  were  reported  by  the  Secretary  from  Messrs.  H.  St.  J.  K. 
Donisthorpe,  F.Z.S.;  J.  R.  Charnley,  F.Z.S.,  and  H.  B.  Score, 
F.R.G.S. — The  chairman  announced  that  the  Council  had  decided 
to  hold  a  microscopical  and  lantern  meeting  in  March,  when  it  was 
hoped  that  as  many  members  as  possible  would  contribute  to  make 
the  innovation  a  success. — This  completing  the  business,  a  paper 
was  communicated  by  Mr.  E.  J.  B.  Sopp,  F.R.  Met.  Soc,  on  the 
"  Orthoptera  of  Lancashire  and  Cheshire." — A  paper  was  then  read 
by  Mr.  H.  B.  Score,  F.R.G.S.,  F.R. Hist. S.,  on  "Ants  and  their 
Ways,"  which  was  copiously  illustrated  by  lantern  slides.  In  opening, 
the  lecturer  treated  interestingly  and  fully  of  the  general  external 
anatomy  of  the  ant,  afterwards  discoursing  on  the  uses  of  the  various 
organs  described,  and  shown  on  the  screen.  He  then  reviewed  the 
habits  of  some  of  the  better-known  insects,  and  enlarged  on  the 
life-histories  of  such  well-known  species  as  the  "Driver  Ants" 
(Anomma  arceus)  of  West  Africa,  the  "  Grain  Storing  Ants"  (Atta 
barbara),  of  Palestine,  &c,  the  "Parasol  Ants"  {(Ecodoma  cepha- 
lotes),  "Agricultural  Ants"  (Atta  malefaciens),  and  others.  Passing 
to  a  consideration  of  Formica  rufa,  F.  fusca,  F.  sanguined,  Myrmicd 
ruginodis-,  and  other  British  species,  he  recapitulated  what  is  known 
regarding  the  habits  and  life-history  of  the  various  species,  and 
mentioned  that  he  had  for  many  months  had  under  observation,  in 
a  Lubbock  formicarium,  a  nest  of  our  common  black  house  ant, 
Ladus  niger. — On  the  motion  of  Dr.  Cotton,  seconded  by  Mr.  Oulton 
Harrison,  a  hearty  vote  of  thanks  was  accorded  the  lecturer. — 
Amongst  exhibits  shown  were  a  beautiful  series  of  slides  of  larvas  by 
Mr.  J.  J.  Richardson  :  Acronycta  leporina,  Anarta  myrtilli,  Liparis 
salicis,  Fidonia  atomaria,  Ccenonympha  davits,  &c,  by  Dr.  Cotton,  and 
Periplaneta  americana  and  LeucopJicea  surinnmensis,  from  the  Liverpool 
Docks,  by  Mr.  Sopp. — E.  J.  B.  Sopp  and  W.  B.  Harrison,  Hon.  Sees. 


WATKINS     &     DONCASTER, 

Naturalists  and  Manufacturers  of  Entomological  Apparatus  and  Cabinets. 
Plain  lliug  Nets,  wire  or  oaue,  including  Stick,  Is.  3d.,  2s.,  2s.  6d.  Folding  Nets, 
3s.  Gd  ,  4s!  Umbrella  Nets  (self-acting),  7s.  Pocket  Boxes,  Gil.,  9d.,  Is.,  Is.  6d. 
Zinc  llelaxiug  Boxes,  9d.,  Is.,  Is.  6d.,  2s.  Nested  Chip  Boxes,  7d.  per  four  dozen. 
Entomological  Pins,  assorted  or  mixed,  Is.,  Is.  6d.  per  oz.  Pocket  Lanterns,  2s.  6d. 
to  8s.  Sueariue  Tin,  with  brush,  Is.  6d.,  2s.  Sugaring  Mixture,  ready  for  use, 
la.  9d.  pectin.  "  Store  Boxes,  with  camphor  cells,  2s.  (id.,  4s.,  5s.,  Gs.  Setting 
Boards,  flat  or  oval,  1  in.,  6d. ;  1 }  in.,  8d. ;  2  in.,  lOd. ;  2*  in.,  Is. ;  3.J  in.,  Is.  4d. ; 
4  in.,  Is.  6d. ;  5  in.,  Is.  lOd. ;  Complete  Set  of  fourteen  Boards,  10s.  Gd.  Setting 
Houses,  9s.  6d.,  lis.  Gd.;  corked  baok,  14s.  Zinc  Larva  Boxes,  9d.,  Is.,  Is.  6d. 
Breeding  Cage,  2s.  6d.,  4s.,  5s.,  7s.  Gd.  Goleopterist's  Collecting  Bottle,  with  tube, 
Is.  Gd.,  ls.8d.  Botanical  Cases,  japanned,  double  tin,  Is.  Gd.,  2s.  9d.,  3s.  6d.,  4s.  Gd. 
Botanical  Paper,  Is.  Id.,  Is.  4d.,  Is.  9d.,  2s.  2d.,  per  quire.  Insect  Glazed  Cases, 
2s  Gd.  to  lis.  Cement  for  replacing  Antennee,  4d.  per  bottle.  Steel  Forceps, 
Is.  6d.,  2s.,  2s.  6d.  uer  pair.  Cabinet  Cork,  7  by  8  J,  best  quality,  ls.4d.  per  dozen 
sheets.  Brass  Chloroform  Bottle,  2s.  Gd.  Iusect  Lens,  Is.  to  8s.  Glass-top  and 
Glass-bottomed  Boxes  from  Is.  per  dozeu.  Zinc  Killing  Box,  9d.,  Is.  Pupa 
Digger,  in  leather  sheath,  Is.  9d.  Taxidermist's  Companion,  containing  most 
necessary  implements  for  skinning,  10s.  Gd.  Scalpels,  Is.  3d.  ;  Scissors,  2s.  per 
pair;  E™-drills,  2d.,  3d.,  9d;  Blowpipes,  4d.,  Gd. ;  Artificial  Eyes  for  Birds  and 
AnimalsT Label-lists  of  British  Butterflies,  2d. ;  ditto  of  Birds'  Eggs,  2d.,  3d.,  6d. ; 
ditto  of  Land  and  Fresh-water  Shells,  2d. ;  Useful  Books  on  Insects,  Eggs,  &c. 

The  WAND  TELESCOPIC  NET— An  innovation  in  Butterfly  Nets.— We  beg 
to  call  your  attention  to  our  new  Telescopic  Handle  for  Butterfly  Nets.  It  is 
made  entirely  in  brass,  and  is  light  and  strong;  and  moreover  it  can  be  shut  up  to 
carrv  in  small  compass,  A  very  compact  pattern,  effecting  great  saving  of  weight 
and  "bulk.  Prices.— With  two  joints,  8s.  6d. ;  with  thre°  joints,  9s.  Gd. ;  with  four 
joints.  10s.  6d.  Complete  with  improved  Cane  Folding  Ring,  and  Bag.  We  shall 
be  pleased  to  send  on  approval. 

SHOW       ROOM       FOR       CABINETS 

Of  every  description  for  Inskots,  Bikos'  Eggs,  Coins,  Microscopical  Objects, 

Fossils,  &c.     Catalogue  (96  pp.)  sent  on  application,  post  free. 

A    LAUGK     STOCK    OF    INSECTS    AND     BIRDS'    EGGS 

(BRITISH,    KUROPEAN,    AND    EXOTIC). 

Birds,  Mammals,  6c,  Preserved  and  Mounted  by  First-class  Workmen. 

Only  Address:— 

30  STRAND,  W.C.,  LONDON  (5  doors  from  On  a  king  Crobs). 

HERBERT    W,    MARSDEN, 

NATURAL     HISTORY     AGENT     AND     BOOKSELLER, 
40,    TRIANGLE   West,   CLIFTON,   BRISTOL. 

Moderate  Prices. 
Cabinets  and  Apparatus  for  Entomologists,  Oologists,  Ornithologists    Botanists,  Ac. 
Botanical  Cases,  Drying  Paper,  dc— British  &  Exotic  Shells. 
Thk  most  reliable  Stock  of  BI11DS*  SKINS  and  BIRDS'  EGGS  in  Britain. 
New  and  Second-hand  Books.- Exchange  and  Label  Lists. 
Ornithological  Catalogue,  1905,  now  ready;  also  Shell  Catalogue. 
N  B  —Mr    Marsden's  large  Stock  of  Insects  has  now  been  made  up  into  numerous 
useful'lots ;  also  many  lots  of  Birds'  Skins  and  Eggs,  all  of  which  are  offered  at  excep- 
tionally low  prices.     Lists  on  application.  ^^^ 

THOS.  SALVAGE,  Arlington,  Berwick,  Sussex, 

Has  for  Sale  Extra  Fine  Avion,  Ichneumiformis,  Multiformis,  Geminip 

Hcata,  and  very  many  other  fine,  well-set  Imagos.  Healthy  Pupae  of 
■Orion,  Ligmtri,  Leporina,  Or,  Astai*,  Chaonia  (Abbotswood),  Reclusa,  Put- 
veraria,  Comortana,  Bidentata  (dark  Northern),  Isograntmata,  &o.  Also  a 
large  quantity  of  Ova,  all  very  cheap. 

For  Prices  apply  to   above  :    all  sent  on  Application. 
T.  S.  will  work  Cornwall  for  the  Season  (six  months)  on    Subscription.     A 
limited  number  of  Subscribers  required  at  £5  each.     Apply  as  above. 


CONTENTS. 

Cryptic  Form  and  Colouring  in  Melitsea  Larvae,  T.  A.  Chapman.  73.  A  Now 
Species  of  Nodaria  from  Japan  and  Coro:i,  Richard  South,  71.  Descriptions 
of 'Three  New  Beetles  from  the  Gold  Coast  and  Angola,  West  Africa,  E.  A. 
Heath,  74.  Bibliographical  Notes  on  the  Hemiptera, — No.  4,  G.  W.  Kirkaidy, 
76.  Lepidoptera  of  the  Lincolnshire  Coast,  A.  E.  Gihhs,  70.  Supplomentary  I 
List  of  the  Lepidoptera  of  the  Island  of  Capri. — No.  2,  C.  Seymour  Browne, 
82.  Now  Species  of  Hymenoptera  (Aculeata,  Ichneumonida?,  and  Braconidai 
.  from  India,  P.  Cameron,  83.  A  List  of  the  "  Macro-Lepidoptera  "  of  Lan- 
caster and  District,  C.  H.  Forsi/the,  80. 

Notes  and  Observations. — Pupation  of  Cataclysta  lemuata.  T.  A.  Chapman.  90. 
The  Time  of  Appearance  of  Lepidoptera  in  connection  with  Sea?on  and  Lati- 
tude. R.  Mehlola,  90.     Gynandrous  Specimen  of  Cyaniris  iLycitna)  argiolus." 
C.  Granville  Olulierbuck,  90.     Notes  on  Odonata,  W.  J-  hucas,  91. 
'[•res  and  Field   Reports.  —  Vanessa   antiopa   in    Surrey,    W.    Smith. 
L.vcm  n.i    i'utica  in  Cornwall,   W:   A.   Bollason.  91.      Unusual    Dates,    E.  D. 
Mart/an,  92.     Leucoplnea  surinaiuensis.  Linn.,  in  Essex,  E.  Charles  Horn! I, 
92.     A  lew  Captures  from  North  Cornwall  in  1903,  W.  A.  Bollason,  92. 
on  Coleoptera  in  South-west   Surrev.  J.  A.    Croft,   98.     Collecting  in   West 
Cornwall  during  1903-1904,  W.  A.  BoUason.  93; 
Societies. — Entomological  Society  of  London,  94.     South  London  Entomological 
and  Natural  History  Society,    95.     Lancashire  and   Cheshire  Entomological 
Society,  96. 

DR.  STAUDINGER  &  BANG  =  HAAS,  Blasewitz- Dresden,  in  their 
new  Price  List,  No.  XLVIII.  for  1905,  offer  more  than  16,000  Species  of 
well-named  LKPIDOPTERA,  set  or  in  papers,  from  all  parts  of  the  world,  in 
finest  condition;  1400  kinds  of  PREPARED  LARV^ ;  numerous  LIVING 
PUP.E.  See.  Separate  Price  Lists  for  COLEOPTEHA  (22,000  species),  for 
HYMEKOPTERA.  (3200  species),  DIPTERA  (2400),  HEMIPTERA  (2200), 
OllTHOPTEKA  (1100),  NEUROPTERA  (600),  BIOLOGICAL  OBJECTS 
Discount  for  Cash-orders.     Prices  low. 

BA8TIN  BROTHERS,  The  Hatherley  Rooms,  Reading. 

Plain  Nets,  1/3  and  2  G.  Folding  Nets,  2/-  to  4/0.  Umbrella  Nets,  7/-.  Water  and 
Sweeping  Nets,  2  6  and  1  i>.  Pocket  Boxes.  Ud..  9d.j  1  -,  16.  Zinc  Belaxing  Boxes, 
9d..  1     ,    I  I  iitomological  Pins,  ]       and  1  6  per  ounce,  mixed.     Killing  Bottles 

(empty),  id.  to  1  ■-.  Sugaring  Lanterns,  2/6  to  8/-.  Zinc  Killing  Boxes,  9d.  and  1-. 
Sugaring  Tins,  1  6  and  2  -.  Sugaring  Mixture,  1'9  per  tin.  Store  Boxes  with  Camphor 
Cells.  2  6,  Setting  Boards,  14  sizes,  from  6d.  to  1/10;  complete  set,  one 

of  each  size,  10/6.  Setting  Houses,  9/6,  11  6,  (with  store  box  back)  14/-.  Zinc  Larvns 
Poxes,  9d.  and  1/-.  Breeding  Cages,  2/6  to  7/6.  Japanned  Collecting  Box,  with  strap, 
a  H.  Glass  top  and  bottom  Boxes,  from  1/4  per  dozen.  Purple  Shouldered  Boxes  (best 
make),  nested,  4  dozen,  1/3.  "Chip"  Boxes,  nested,  4  dozen,  7d.  Glass  Tubes,  per 
dozen,  6d.  to  3/-.     Split  Cork,  1/-  to  2/8  per  dozen  sheets.     Pupa?  diggers,  1/9. 

All  kinds  of  Entomological  Apparatus  kept  in  Stock.     Lists  free. 

The   YOUNG   ENTOMOLOGIST'S   COMPANION,   comprising  Net,   Killing  Bottle, 
ug  Boards,  Pocket,  Store,  and  Zinc  Boxes,  Pins,  &c,  post  free,  10/6. 
A   very   large  stock    of    EXOTIC    LKPIDOPTERA,    COLEOPTERA,    and    other 
interesting  Insects  is  always  avaiUdde.     Lists  free.     Correspondence  invited*. 

BASTIN    BROTHERS,    The    Hatherley    Rooms,    READING. 

JAMES     GARDNER, 

MANUFACTURER  of  ALL  KINDS  of  ENTOMOLOGICAL  APPARATUS 

29  (late  426),  OXFORD    STREET 
(Nearly    opposite    Tottenham    Court    Road). 

PRICED   LISTS    ON   APPLICATION. 

Ml  Articles  Guaranteed ;  exchanged  if  not  approved  of.     Friends  and  Customers 
are  requested  to  note  the  Address,  as  mistakes  occur  daily. 


aujtJouixiJriiuiNO    fun    iyuo     aj^-cj    xnwvv     l»uiu. 
Subscription  6s.,  post  free,  including  double  numbers,  should  be  sent  to 

West.  Newman  &  Go, 


Vol.   XXXVIII 1  APRIL    1905.  TNo.   503. 


THE 


ENTOMOLOGIST 


lllustntttb  Journal 


GENERAL    ENTOMOLOGY 


EDITED     BY     RICHARD     SOUTH,     F.E.S. 

WITH    THE    ASSISTANCE    OF 

ROBERT   ADKIN,  F.E.S.  W.  F.  KIRBY,  F.L.S.,  F.E.S. 

W.  L.  DISTANT,  F.E.S.,  <fcc.  G.  W.  KIRKALDY,  F.E.S. 

EDWARDA.  FITCH,  F.L.S..F.E.  hi.       W.  J.  LUCAS,  B.A.,  F.E.S. 

-F.  W.FROHAWK,  F.E.S.,  M.B.O.U.  ,   Db.  L».  SHARP,  F.R.S.,  F.E.S.,  Ac. 
MARTIN  JACOBY,  F.E.S.  G.  H.  VERRALL,  F.E.S. 

"By  mutual  confidence  and  mutual  aid 
Great  deeds  are  done  and  great  discoveries  made." 


LONDON: 

WEST,    NEWMAN    &    CO.,    54,    HA' 
SIMPK1N,   MARSHALL,    HAMILTON,,  ifetfT    f    (  <J..    Limj 

Price  Sixpence 


J.    &    W.    DAVIS  (NT 


IATURALISTS    i\ 
TAXIDERMISTS,/ 

MANUFACTURERS     OF     ENTOMOLOGICAL    APPARATUS    AND 
NATURALISTS'   REQUISITES,  &c, 

31  &  33,  Hythe  Street,  DARTFORD,   Kent. 

Telegrams:     "  DAVIS,  NATURALISTS,  DARTFORD."  National  Telephone  :     ■'  108  DARTFORD." 

LOCALITY       LABELS. 

2'6  per   1,000.     4  to  10  sorts,  equal   numbers,  anv  wording,   see  specimens  below: — 

Smith  Smith,  Smith. 

;i' 
190  190 

Neatly  printed  similar  to  the. above.     Welave   sopplied  these  Labels  to  Entomologists  in  all  parts  of  Givat 

Britain. 

"Data"    Blanks   for   Plants.   Birds'   Eggs.   Nests,  and  Skins,   from  8d.  per  100 

"Data"  Label?,    with  Collector's  Name  and    Locality  printed  in,  from  1/6  per  100 

50  British  Butterflies,  all  different,  named.  5s.     Setting-house,  good  condition,  6s.  6d. 

Larvae  Collector's  Guide  and  Calendar.  Illustrated,  Is.     Birdstufnng  and  Mounting. 

Illustrated,  is.     Animal,  Fish,  and  Reptile  Stuffing,  Illustrated,  Is.  6d.     Label  List, 

British  Macro-Lepidoptera,  6d. 
Naturalists'  Diary  and  Year  Book,  Is.     Our  Country's  Butterflies  and  Moths,  1000 

Coloured  Specimens,  6s. 
FERTILE  OVA.— P&r  doz. — Antique  2d.     Pyramidea,  Tragopogonis,  3d.     Tiliaria, 
Angularia,  Antumnaria,  Nupta,  4d.     Fuscantaria,  6d.     Erosaria,  8d.     Cassinea,  Is.  3d. 
Versicolor,  9d.     Badiata.  Illunaria,  Multistrigaria,  Lithorhiza,  4d.     Silkworms'  Eggs 
4d.  per  100. 

HEALTHY  LARV/E.  —  Per  flo:.  —  Villica,  Quercus,  Sambucata,  Potatoria,  Is. 
Caja,  Dominula.  8d.     Dispar,  Moaacha  (voting).  6d.     Iris,  (Id.  each. 

HEALTHY  PUP/E.—  Each,— Chaonia.  Junaria,  Cuculla,  5d.  Callunae,  Carpini, 
Qcellatus,  4d.  Ligustri,  Populi,  Advenaria,  Chlorana,  3d.  Dolabraria,  6d.  Dictaea, 
/dczac,  Tetralunaria,  2£d.  Yinula,  Pisi.  Batis,  Falcula,  Pigra,  Camelina,  Albicillata, 
Prasinana,  2d.     Bidentata,  Hirtaria,  Ferrugata,  Unidentaria,  l^d. 

BRITISH  LEPIDOPTERA.— One  hundred  named  Specimens,  all  different,  5s. 
post  free.     See  our  New  List  and  discounts. 

EXOTIC  BUTTERFLIES.— We  have  some  thousands  of  these  as  received  in 
papers,  assorted  dozens,  (id.,  Is.,  and  Is.  6d. 

GENUINE     BRITISH    "WILD"    STOCK. 

CHEAPEST  HOUSE  IN  THE  TRADE. 

Every  Reader  of  the  '  Entomologist  '  is  requested  to  send  for 
our  Spring  List  of  Ova,  Larva?,  Pupa?,  and  fresh  killed  Insects. 
The   List   is  too   long   to   include  in  our   usual  Advertisement. 

Apartments  for  Entomological  Visitors  to  the  New  Forest.   Expeditions  arranged 
and  accompanied.      Terms  on  Application. 

MORRIS    &    WEIR,    ENTOMOLOGISTS, 

BROCKENHURST,    NEW    FOREST. 

The  Insect  Hunter's  Companion 

INSTRUCTIONS     FOR 

COLLECTING,     REARING,     SETTING,    AND     PRESERVING 

ENTOMOLOGICAL     SPECIMENS. 

By  the  Rev.  JOSEPH  GREENE,  M.A.    Revised  and  Extended  by  A.  B.  FARN. 

Price  One  Shilling ;   postage  Twopence. 


London:    WEST,  NEWMAN  dc  CO.,  54,   Hatton  Garden,  E.G. 


THE    ENTOMOLOGIST 


Vol.  XXXVIII.] 


APRIL,     1905. 


[No.  503. 


DESCRIPTIONS    OF    TWO    NEW    BEETLES    FROM 

ANGOLA. 

By  E.  A.  Heath,  M.D.,  F.L.S. 


Fig.  1. 


Fig.  2. 


Fani.  Cicindelid;e. 


Ophryodera  distanti,  sp.  n.     (Fig.  1.) 

Head,  pronotum,  and  elytra  piceous,  varying  in  some  specimens  to 
coppery  brown  ;  elytra  coarsely  punctured  with  very  pale  ochraceous 
irregular  and  indistinct  marks  from  a  little  above  the  centre  to  the 
apex,  where  they  form  an  irregular  submarginal  band.  The  head, 
face,  pronotum,  and  pygidium  are  covered  with  brownish  white  hairs. 
The  antennae  are  piceous,  except  the  first  three  joints,  wbich  are 
purple  ;  the  first  joint  is  much  thicker  than  the  second,  which  is  twice 

ENTOM. — APRIL,    1905.  I 


98  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

longer  ;  the  third  joiut  is  half  as  long  as  the  second.  The  body 
beneath  is  shining  black,  except  the  pro-  and  mesonota,  which  are 
green  and  coppery.  On  each  side  of  the  head,  thorax,  and  abdomen 
is  a  band  of  white  hairs  reaching  to  the  pygidiuin.  The  femora  are 
bluish  coppery  black,  and  densely  covered  with  white  hairs  ;  the 
tibisB  are  bluish  black,  and  slightly  less  hairy ;  the  posterior  tibia?  are 
longer  than  the  tarsi ;  all  the  tarsi  are  purple,  with  white  hairs  at 
the  joints. 

Var.  a. — Elytra  with  only  a  few  white  spots. 

Var.  b. — Elytra  spotless. 

Var.  c. — Elytra  coppery  brown. 

Long.  12  lines,  lat.  4  lines. 

Hah.     Angola. 

Farn.  Cerambycid^e. 

Prosopocera  rothschildi,  sp.n.  (Fig.  2.) 
Head,  pronotum,  scutellum,  and  elytra  densely  covered  with  short 
pale  brown  pubescence  ;  the  pronotum  is  slightly  sculptured,  and  has 
a  very  short  tooth  on  each  side,  and  a  black  puncture  on  the  upper 
side  in  a  line  with  and  near  each  tooth,  and  one  just  under  the  tooth, 
the  anterior  and  posterior  margins  are  transversely  striated  ;  the 
scutellum  is  tongue-shaped  ;  the  elytra  are  rather  thickly  covered  with 
black  punctures,  the  humeral  angles  are  slightly  raised  and  produced 
forward,  the  basal  area  is  blackly  tuberculate.  The  antenna?  in  the 
male  are  nearly  three  times  as  long  as  the  body,  and  covered  with  a 
fine  silky  lavender-coloured  pubescence ;  the  basal  joint  is  stoutest, 
and  half  as  long  as  the  second  joint ;  all  the  remaining  joints  are  of 
the  same  length  as  the  second,  except  the  last  joint,  which  is  slightly 
longer.  The  legs  and  tarsi  are  covered  with  pale  lavender- coloured 
pubescence.  The  body  beneath  is  the  same  brown  colour  as  the  elytra. 
Long.  15  lines,  max.  lat.  6  lines. 

Hab.     Angola. 


NOTES   ON   SOME    STEPHENSIAN   TYPES   OF   TORTRI- 
CINA   IN   THE    NATIONAL   COLLECTION. 

By  Pochard  South. 

Cnephasia  sinuana,  Stepli.,  and  C.  incanana,  Steph. 

For  nearly  a  quarter  of  a  century  I  have  been  under  the  im- 
pression that  I  knew  C.  sinuana,  Steph.,  but  it  was  not  until 
quite  recently  that  I  became  aware  of  the  existence  of  C.  in- 
canana. The  revelation  came  about  when  examining  the  Tortri- 
cina  in  the  Stephens  collection  in  the  Natural  History  Museum. 
In  working  through  the  species  of  Cnephasia,  I  found  three  speci- 
mens over  the  name  sinuana  ;  each  of  these  had  one  of  the  small 
oval  labels  on  the  pins  which  distinguish  veritable  Stephensian 
specimens  from  others  which  have  been  added  since  the  collec- 
tion went  into  the  Museum.     One  of  these  specimens  accurately 


TYPES    OF   TOItTRICINA    IN   THE    NATIONAL    COLLECTION.  99 

agrees  with  the  description  of  C.  sinuana  (111.  iv.  128) ;  the  other 
two  were  indicated  as  cineraria,  Bent.,  a  label  bearing  that  name 
being  pinned  in  the  drawer  under  the  specimens.  These  last  are 
most  certainly  referable  to  C.  chrysantheana,  Dup.,  but  the  type 
of  sinuana,  if  it  is  not  an  aberrant  form  of  C.  chrysantheana,  is 
most  distinctly  not  the  sinuana  of  Wilkinson  and  all  later  authors. 
In  the  same  drawer  was  a  series  of  a  Cnephasia  over  the  name 
incanana,  Steph.  ("The  Scotch  Gray  T.").  The  description  of 
this  species  was  found  in  the  appendix  to  Stephens's  '  Catalogue 
of  British  Micro-Lepidoptera,'*  p.  101.  The  species  is  also  in- 
cluded as  Cnephasia  incanana,  Steph.  MSS.,  in  the  list  itself 
(p.  66,  No.  12).  There  were  twelve  examples  of  this  species 
in  the  series,  but  only  three  of  these  were  Stephensian,  and, 
although  neither  was  so  indicated,  it  was  not  difficult  to  fix  on 
the  type. 

After  a  close  but  unsuccessful  search  through  all  the  available 
literature  to  discover  further  reference  to  C.  incanana,  I  com- 
municated with  Mr.  Eustace  Bankes  on  the  subject,  but  he  was 
unable  to  refer  me  to  any  work  wherein  the  species  was  men- 
tioned. When  he  was  in  town  lately,  Mr.  Bankes  was  good 
enough  to  call  at  the  Museum,  and,  when  he  had  made  a  critical 
examination  of  the  types  of  sinuana  and  incanana,  he  expressed 
himself  satisfied  that  the  latter  was  identical  with  the  insect  that 
he  and  others  have  always  considered  to  be  sinuana,  Steph. 
With  regard  to  the  specimens  standing  as  sinuana,  he  concurred 
in  the  removal  of  the  two  labelled  cincrana,  Bent.,  to  C.  chry- 
santheana ;  but  he  was  rather-  dubious,  I  think,  about  referring 
the  type  of  sinuana  to  that  species  also. 

I  append  a  copy  of  the  original  description  of  C.  incanana  : — 

"  Alls  anticis  cinereo-albidis,  fascia  basalt  rotundata,  secimda  obliqua 
media,  margineque  postico  nigro-fuscis.     (Exp.  alar.  7-8  lin.) 

"Head  hoary;  thorax  and  anterior  wings  pale  ashy- white,  or 
hoary,  with  a  few  dusky  scales  ;  near  the  base  is  a  distinct  deep 
fuscous  bar,  rounded  externally,  and  not  reaching  to  the  inner  margin  ; 
on  the  costa  towards  the  middle  is  a  similarly  coloured  bar,  extending 
across  the  wing,  but  not  to  the  anal  angle  ;  this  bar  is  well-defined 
and  bi-angulated  on  the  basal  edge,  but  on  the  hinder  one  it  is  gradu- 
ally shaded  off  to  the  ground  colour  ;  the  hinder  margin  is  also  fuscous, 
with  a  curved  black  transverse  streak,  reaching  from  the  costa  to 
nearly  the  anal  angle  ;  fringe  ashy  ;  posterior  wings  and  fringe  pale 
fuscous. 

"Scotland:  Perthshire." 

It  will  be  noted  from  the  above  that  the  subbasal  bar  is 
described  as  rounded  externally,  whereas  of  sinuana  the  descrip- 
tion runs  :  "  with  an  incurved  deep  fuscous  fascia  near  the  base, 
having  a  tooth  without."    The  italics  are  mine.    Wood's  fig.  1003 

";:  '  List  of  the  Specimens  of  British  Animals  in  the  Collection  of  the 
British  Museum,' part  x.     Lepidoptera (continued).     1852. 

I  2 


100  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

(obsoletana  in  error)  represents  sinuana,  Steph.,  whilst  Wilkin- 
son's figure  of  sinuana  (Brit.  Tort.  pi.  ii.  fig.  6)  is  really  that  of 
incanana,  Steph. 

Catopteia  rjjfana,  Steph.,  and  C.  expallidana,  Haw. 

In  the  Stephens  collection  were  five  specimens  of  a  Catoptria 
over  the  name  expallidana,  and  in  the  same  series  a  specimen 
with  the  name  rufana  pinned  under  it.  The  latter,  except  in 
the  matter  of  colour,  does  not  agree  exactly  with  Stephens's 
description  of  "  Carpocapsa"  rufana  (111.  iv.  124),  as  there  are  no 
traces  of  the  "very  obscure  somewhat  ocellated  silvery  spot,  with 
two  fulvescent  lines  in  the  middle."  Wood's  fig.  989  certainly 
represents  this  particular  specimen.  Of  the  other  specimens 
referred  to,  two  only  are  Stephensian,  and  neither  of  these  can 
be  made  to  accord  with  Stephens's  description  (identical  with 
Haworth's)  of  Bactra  expallidana,  Haw.,  but  they  fit  in  very 
closely  with  the  C.  expallidana  of  Wilkinson,  Stainton,  and 
others,  and  in  part  with  Stephens's  description  of  rufana. 

As  pointed  out  to  me  by  Mr.  Bankes  when  he  examined  the 
series,  the  specimen  of  rufana  might  be  a  reddish  form  of  B. 
lanceolana,  Hiibn.,  and  there  is  a  somewhat  similar  example 
from  Stainton's  collection  in  the  Museum  series  of  this  species. 
I  am,  however,  not  at  all  certain  that  the  Stephens  specimen  is 
referable  to  B.  lanceolana.  In  his  Catalogue,  previously  men- 
tioned, Stephens  places  rufana  under  " Grapholita"  expallidana, 
Haw.,  as  a  synonym,  and  he  quotes  Wood's  fig.  989.  Now,  as  I 
have  already  stated,  the  specimen  of  rufana  in  Stephens's  collec- 
tion is  without  doubt  the  one  figured  by  Wood,  although  it  does 
not  tally  in  every  detail  with  Stephens's  description.  It  would 
appear  therefore  that  this  description  was  made  from  more  than 
one  individual.  The  fact  of  specimens  with  a  lined  ocellus  (the 
expallidana  of  Wilk.  and  Sta.)  being  in  his  series  with  rufana 
strongly  supports  this  view.  But  why  did  he  afterwards  merge 
rufana  in  expallidana,  Haw.  ?  Seeing  that  there  is  no  mention 
of  an  ocellus  in  the  description  of  expallidana,  Haw.  and  Steph., 
it  would  seem  that  both  authors  had  a  species  before  them 
which  was  not  identical  with  the  expallidana  of  Wilkinson  and 
others,  and  in  part  with  the  rufana  of  Stephens.  The  descrip- 
tion of  expallidana,  Haw.,  in  111.  iv.  125,  reads  :  "  Pallida,  lucida, 
tincturd  costam  versus  alarum  anticarum  icterici^ ;  and  to  this 
Stephens  adds  :  "  Palpi  long,  and  slightly  curved  over  the  back." 
He  further  remarks  :  "  Taken  near  Coombe  Wood:  probably  not 
strictly  belonging  to  the  genus  [Bactra],  but  my  specimen  is  too 
injured  to  determine."  I  have  been  unable  to  detect  any  speci- 
men in  the  Stephensian  collection  that  could  be  the  one  from 
which  the  above  was  written. 


101 

NEW     CULICIDiE     FKOM     THE    WEST     COAST 
OF     AFEICA. 

By  Fred.  V.  Theobald,  M.A. 

The  new  Culicidse  described  here  were  sent  me  by  Mr.  Austen, 
of  the  British  Museum,  and  were  collected  at  Bihe,  Angola, 
Portuguese  West  Africa,  by  Dr.  Creighton  Wellman  in  1904, 
and  at  Sierra  Leone  by  Major  Smith,  D.S.O.,  B.A.M.C. 

The  new  Danielsia  and  /Edimorphus  are  very  marked  and 
beautiful  species.  The  Pyretophorus  was  pointed  out  as  being 
distinct  from  P.  costalis,  Loew,  by  Mr.  Austen,  after  whom  I 
have  named  the  species.  The  Anopheles  closely  resembles  A. 
nigripes,  Staeger,  but  is  clearly  distinct. 

The  types  are  deposited  in  the  National  Collection.  The 
strange  genus  Heptaphlebomyia  is  more  fully  described  than  in 
my  Monograph,  as  fresh  material  was  included  in  the  collection 
from  Angola. 

Genus  Anopheles,  Meigen. 

(Syst.  Beschr.  1818,  Meigen  ;  Mono.  Culicid.  iii.  p.  17, 
Theobald .) 

Anopheles  smithii,  n.  sp. 

Head  black,  with  a  patch  of  frosty  grey  scales  in  front;  proboscis 
black ;  palpi  black,  with  three  narrow  pale  bands,  apex  black.  An- 
tenna? with  outstanding  scales  as  well  as  hairs  on  the  second  segment, 
giving  a  tufted  appearance.  Thorax  frosty  grey  in  the  middle,  deep 
brown  at  the  sides,  and  with  a  median  dark  line  and  brown  hair-like 
scales.  Abdomen  black,  with  dull  golden  hairs.  Legs  black,  un- 
handed. "Wings  unspotted,  the  veins  clothed  with  dense  dark  brown 
scales. 

$  .  Head  black,  with  a  patch  of  frosty  grey  upright  forked  scales 
in  front,  dense  black  upright  forked  scales  behind,  over  which  shows  a 
prominent  tuft  of  large  grey  narrow-curved  scales  projecting  forwards 
from  the  thorax  ;  several  thick  black  bristles  project  forwards  between 
the  eyes  ;  proboscis  and  clypeus  black,  the  former  thin  ;  palpi  as  long- 
as  the  proboscis,  thin,  scaly,  black,  with  three  pale  bands,  the  apical 
segment  black.  Antenna?  black,  the  second  segment  with  a  small 
dense  tuft  of  hairs  on  the  inner  side  as  well  as  the  normal  longer  black 
ones.  Thorax  frosty  grey  in  the  middle,  showing  a  median  dark  line 
and  a  pale  yellowish  brown  one  on  each  side  of  it  in  front,  more  or  less 
tessellated  behind,  and  with  many  small  black  specks,  the  sides  deep 
brown,  the  pale  frosty  area  contracted  in  front,  thus  widening  the  dark 
brown  lateral  areas ;  hairs  or  hair-like  scales  of  thorax  brown  ;  scu- 
tellum  and  metanotum  deep  brown,  posterior  border-bristles  of  the 
former  black.  Abdomen  black,  with  deep  brown  hairs.  Legs  long 
and  thin,  deep  brown  ;  ungues  equal  and  simple,  thin,  rather  long. 
Wings  clothed  with  dense  rather  stumpy  lanceolate  scales,  uniformly 
dark  brown  ;  the  first  submarginal  cell  considerably  longer  and  nar- 
rower than  the  second  posterior  cell,  its  base  nearer  the  base  of  the 


102  THE    ENTOMOLOGI8T. 

wing  than  that  of  the  latter,  gradually  becoming  acute  at  the  base,  its 
stem  about  two-thirds  the  length  of  the  cell ;  stem  of  the  second  pos- 
terior cell  longer  than  the  cell ;  supernumerary  and  mid  cross-veins 
close  together,  the  mid  a  little  behind  the  supernumerary  posterior 
cross-vein  about  its  own  length  distant  behind  the  mid.  Length, 
3'5  to  4  mm. 

Habitat.     Sierra  Leone  (800  ft.)  (Major  Smith). 

Observations. — Described  from  several  females  collected  by 
Major  Smith.  It  is  a  very  dark  species,  coming  near  A.  nigripes, 
Staeger,  but  can  be  told  at  once  by  the  denser  wing-scales  and 
banded  palpi.  The  structure  of  the  second  antenna!  segment  is 
very  marked  ;  the  scales  are  rather  long  and  outstanding,  giving 
a  tuft-like  appearance. 

Genus  Pyretophorus,  Blanchard. 
(Comp.  Rend.  Soc.  d.  Biol.  p.  795  (1902) ;  Mono.  Culicid.  iii. 
p.  6G,  1902,  Theobald.) 

Pyretophorus  austenii,  n.  sp. 

Head  black,  with  grey  scales  in  front ;  proboscis  black,  with  two 
broad  snowy  white  bands,  the  last  forming  a  white  apex  to  the  palpi, 
and  a  third  very  narrow  white  band.  Thorax  brown,  clothed  with 
silvery  grey  scales  ;  also  the  scutellum.  Abdomen  black,  with  golden 
hair.  Legs  black,  with  apical  white  tips.  Wings  with  black  and 
white  patches  of  scales,  costa  with  two  small  white  spots  and  traces  of 
a  minute  third  spot  towards  the  base  ;  most  of  the  veins  pale-scaled, 
but  prominent  black  spots  at  base  of  the  second  posterior  cell  and  apex 
of  lower  branch  of  fifth  long  vein. 

2  .  Head  black,  with  upright  snowy  white  forked  scales  in  front, 
black  ones  behind  ;  proboscis  black  ;  palpi  black-scaled,  densely  at  the 
base,  with  two  broad  white  bands  towards  the  apex,  one  forming  the 
apex  of  the  palpi,  and  a  third  small  one  towards  the  basal  half. 
Antennae  black,  with  grey  pubescence.  Thorax  black,  with  scattered 
broad  curved  snowy  white  scales  ;  also  the  scutellum.  Abdomen 
black,  densely  clothed  with  golden  hairs  ;  the  two  lobes  with  black 
scales.  Legs  black,  the  apices  of  all  the  segments,  except  the  last  in 
the  fore  and  mid  legs,  with  a  narrow  white  band ;  in  the  hind  legs  all 
the  segments  are  banded ;  ungues  equal  and  simple,  rather  long. 
Wings  with  rather  dense  Pyretophorus-like  scales ;  the  costa  with 
three  white  spots,  the  apical  one  large,  the  second  smaller,  and  the 
third  very  small ;  all  three  spread  fairly  evenly  on  to  the  first  long 
vein,  which  has  in  addition  a  small  white  spot  between  the  two  apical 
costal  ones,  and  another  near  the  third  spot,  its  base  mostly  white.  On 
the  base  of  the  costa  is  another  small  white  spot  not  reaching  the  top 
of  the  costa  ;  the  branches  of  the  third  long  vein  are  black  at  the  tips 
and  bases  near  the  fork,  and  there  is  another  black  patch  near  its  base  ; 
the  third  long  vein  pale,  except  for  a  black  spot  near  the  apex,  and  two 
near  the  base  ;  the  fifth  has  two  black  spots  near  the  apices  of  its 
branches,  a  large  black-scaled  area  in  front  of  and  including  the  base 
of  the  fork  and  its  stem  near  the  fork,  rest  of  the  vein  pale-scaled  ; 
the  sixth  has  three  black  spots,  the  median  one  the  largest ;  wing- 


NEW  CULICIDjE    FROM   THE    WEST    COAST    OF    AFRICA.  103 

fringe  with  a  pale  area  at  the  junction  of  all  the  veins.  First  sub- 
marginal  cell  considerably  longer  and  a  little  narrower  than  the 
second  posterior  cell,  its  base  nearer  the  base  of  the  wing,  its  stem 
about  one-fourth  the  length  of  the  cell ;  stem  of  the  second  posterior 
cell  rather  more  than  two-thirds  the  length  of  the  cell  ;  supernumerary 
cross-vein  a  little  behind  the  mid,  the  posterior  about  its  own  length 
distant  behind  the  mid  ;  posterior  border-scales  of  the  fringe  long, 
narrow,  and  curved.     Lengtb,  5  mm. 

Habitat.     Bihe,  Angola  (Dr.  Creighton  Wellman). 

Observations. — Described  from  a  single  perfect  female.  The 
chief  characters  are  in  the  thoracic  squamose  structures  and 
marked  wing  ornamentation. 

Genus  Danielsia,  Theobald. 
(The  'Entomologist,'  p.  78,  March,  1904.) 

Danielsia  wellmanii,  n.  sp. 

Head  creamy  white,  with  two  median  black  spots.  Palpi  and 
proboscis  brown.  Thorax  deep  brown,  with  a  broad  creamy  area  on 
each  side,  expanding  in  front,  and  passing  around  the  front  of  the 
mesonotum,  and  with  a  short  creamy  median  line  arising  from  the  pale 
anterior  area  ;  numerous  golden  brown  bristles  posteriorly.  Abdomen 
black,  with  basal  white  lateral  spots  on  basal  segments,  becoming 
median  on  the  apical  ones.  Legs  deep  brown,  front  pair  unbanded, 
mid  and  hind  with  a  broad  basal  pale  band  to  the  metatarsi  and  first 
tarsal  segments. 

?  .  Head  deep  brown,  with  rather  loosely  applied  flat  creamy 
scales,  with  two  large  patches  of  flat  dark  scales  above,  and  with 
creamy  narrow-curved  scales  behind.  Clypeus  and  proboscis  black  ; 
palpi  rather  long,  black ;  antennas  black,  with  indistinct  narrow  grey 
bands.  Thorax  black,  clothed  with  narrow-curved  bronzy-brown 
scales,  with  a  broad  creamy  scaled  area  on  each  side,  which  expands 
anteriorly,  and  which  meets  around  the  front,  and  sends  a  narrow 
short  median  line  of  creamy  scales  into  the  brown  area  ;  a  few  pale 
scales  in  front  of  the  scutellum  and  numerous  golden  brown  bristles 
over  the  roots  of  the  wings  ;  prothoracic  lobes  with  small  flat  creamy 
scales  ;  scutellum  with  rather  broad  narrow -curved  scales,  narrowest  on 
the  lateral  lobes  ;  border-bristles  bright  golden  brown  ;  mesonotum 
black  ;  pleura?  with  white  puncta.  Abdomen  black,  with  deep  violet 
reflections  ;  the  basal  segments  with  basal  white  lateral  spots,  which 
become  median  on  the  last  two  or  three  segments,  the  latter  having  a 
few  white  scales  extending  on  to  the  dorsum  and  in  the  middle,  but 
not  forming  bands  ;  border-bristles  small,  pale  golden.  Venter  with 
basal  white  bands.  Legs  deep  blackish  brown,  the  front  pair  with 
only  a  faint  trace  of  a  pale  band  at  the  base  of  the  metatarsus  ;  the 
mid  and  hind  with  a  broad  white  basal  band  to  the  metatarsi  and  first 
tarsus  ;  venter  of  base  of  fore  and  mid  femora  white  ;  base  of  hind 
femora  white,  and  white  knee-spot.  Ungues  uniserrated,  the  tooth 
long.  Wings  with  the  first  submarginal  longer  and  narrower  than 
the  second  posterior  cell,  its  stem  nearly  two-thirds  the  length  of  the 
cell ;  stem  of  the  second  posterior  as  long  as  the  cell ;  posterior  cross- 


104  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

vein  about  twice  its  own  length  distant  from  the  mid  ;  lateral  vein- 
scales  long  and  straight.     Halteres  creamy.     Length,  4-0  mm. 

Habitat.     Bihe,  Angola. 

Observations. — Described  from  a  perfect  female.  It  is  a  very 
distinct  species,  easily  told  by  the  thoracic  and  abdominal  orna- 
mentation and  leg-banding.  It  clearly  comes  in  the  genus 
Danielsia,  but  the  scutellar  scales  are  rather  broader  than  in 
the  type  (D.  albolineata). 

(To  be  continued.) 


PREOCCUPIED    NAMES    IN    COLEOPTERA. 

By  T.  D.  A.  Cockerell. 

There  is  urgent  need  for  someone  to  go  over  the  generic 
names  used  for  Coleoptera,  and  sift  out  the  homonyms.  For 
some  reason  coleopterists  seem  extraordinarily  careless  about 
homonymy,  and  it  is  evident  that  some  of  them,  while  proposing 
numerous  new  generic  names,  never  take  the  trouble  to  consult 
the  indices  of  Scudder  or  Waterhouse.  Alexia,  Steph.,  1835,  is 
the  name  still  in  use  for  a  genus  of  Endomychidai,  but  it  is 
invalid  because  of  the  molluscan  Alexia,  Leach,  1818.*  Fair- 
maire  still  uses  the  name  Anodon,  proposed  in  the  seventies,  for 
a  Dynastine  beetle,  but  Oken  used  Anodon  in  Mollusca  in  1815. 
The  Dynastine  genus  may  take  the  name  Paranodon,  n.  n. 
Coryphus,  Cski,  1902,  for  an  Endomychid  genus,  would  be  con- 
sidered by  many  a  homonym  of  Corypha  (Gray,  1840  ;  Walker, 
1860),  but  I  think  it  may  be  allowed  to  stand. \  Weise,  in  1902, 
proposed  Stenella  and  Spilonota  as  the  names  of  two  Chrysomelid 
genera,  but  both  names  are  invalid  (Gray,  1870;  Stephens,  in 
Lepidoptera).  Stenella  may  be  changed  to  Stenellina,  n.  n., 
type  Stenellina  marginata  (Weise),  and  Spilonota  may  become 
Spilonotella,  n.  n.,  type  Spilonotella  sag  ax  {Spilonota  sagax, 
Weise).  The  original  descriptions  are  in  Arch.  Naturg.  vol.  68, 
pp.  145  and  151.  In  the  same  paper,  Weise  proposes  a  genus 
Sphondylia,  which  many  would  consider  too  like  Sphondyla  (Illi- 
ger,  1805). 

*  Since  writing  the  above  I  have  found  that,  according  to  Mr.  B.  B. 
Woodward  (Journ.  of  Conch.  1903,  p.  361),  the  date  given  for  the  molluscan 
Alexia  in  the  '  Nomenclator  Zoologicus  '  is  wrong  ;  that  is,  it  is  the  date  of 
Leach's  manuscript,  which  was  not  actually  published  until  1847.  Hence 
the  coleopterous  name  stands,  and  it  is  the  familiar  molluscan  Alexia  which 
has  to  go. 

f  It  may  be  added  that  the  arachnid  genus-name  Coryphceus,  Cam- 
bridge, 1895,  is  a  homonym  of  Coryphaeus,  Gistl,  1848. 


105 


NEW    SPECIES    OF    HYMENOPTEEA    (ACULEATA,   ICH- 
NEUMONID^,    AND    BRACONIDiE)    FROM    INDIA. 

By  P.  Cameron. 

(Concluded  from  p.  86.) 

Spilichneumon  coxalis,  sp.  nov. 

Niger ;  facie,  clypeo,  mandibulis,  linea  prouoti,  mesosterno,  scu- 
telloque  flavis ;  abdominis  medio  late  rufo  ;  apice  petioli  flava  :  pedi- 
bus  rufis,  coxis  posticis,  apice  tibiarum  posticarum  tarsisque  posticis 
nigris.     S  •     Long.  10  mm. 

Hab.     Simla  (Nurse). 

Antennae  black  ;  tbe  under  side  of  the  scape  yellow,  of  the  flagellum 
brownish  ;  they  are  hardly  longer  than  tbe  body,  and  taper  perceptibly 
towards  the  apex,  where  they  are  serrate.  Head  black  ;  the  face, 
clypeus,  mandibles,  the  inner  orbits  to  the  occiput  narrowly,  and  the 
outer  from  near  the  top  broadly,  yellow.  Face  and  clypeus  closely, 
uniformly,  and  distinctly  punctured  ;  the  front  and  vertex  are  more 
closely  punctured.  Mandibles  yellow,  their  teeth  black,  the  part 
behind  them  rufous  ;  palpi  pale  yellow.  Thorax  black,  shining  ;  the 
edge  of  the  prouotum,  the  scutellum,  the  apex  of  the  post-scutellum, 
the  tegula?,  and  the  tubercles  pale  yellow.  Mesonotum  closely  and 
uniformly  punctured,  the  scutellum  fiat  and  less  closely  punctured. 
Post-scutellum  smooth  ;  its  sides  at  the  base  largely  depressed.  Median 
segment  closely  and  distinctly  punctured,  the  base  and  the  areola 
smooth  and  shining  ;  tbe  apical  slope  is  thickly  covered  with  white 
hair  ;  the  areola  is  twice  longer  than  wide  ;  the  basal  keel  is  flat,  wide, 
and  broken  in  the  middle  ;  the  apex  is  transverse  ;  the  inner  side  is 
bordered  by  a  wide  furrow  ;  in  the  centre  of  the  apex  is  a  small 
triangular  projection ;  the  surface  is  finely  sbagreened.  Pleurae 
closely  punctuied  ;  the  apex  of  the  pro-  irregularly  striated.  Wings 
clear  hyaline,  the  stigma  and  nervures  black.  The  four  anterior  legs 
are  reddish  fulvous  ;  the  coxas  and  trochanters  pale  yellow,  the  hinder 
coxae  black,  their  apex  yellow  all  round,  the  basal  joint  of  the  trochan- 
ters black,  as  is  also  the  apex  of  the  hinder  femora  narrowly,  the 
apical  two-thirds  of  the  tibia?,  and  the  tarsi  entirely  ;  the  calcaria  pale 
yellow.  Petiole  black ;  the  apex  with  a  yellow  band,  which  is  narrowed 
in  the  middle  ;  the  second,  third,  and  basal  half  of  the  fourth  segment 
rufous  ;  the  rufous  band  on  the  fourth  extends  to  the  apex  ;  there  is  a 
narrow  yellow  band  on  the  apex  of  the  fifth,  a  large  one  on  the  apex  of 
the  sixth,  and  the  seventh  segment  is  entirely  yellow.  The  segments 
and  the  post-petiole  are  thickly  covered  with  short  white  pubescence, 
and  closely  punctured ;  the  gastrocoeli  are  small,  deep,  and  smooth. 

Cratichneumon  erythrozonus,  sp.  nov. 
Niger ;  abdomine  late   femoribusque  posticis  rufis  ;  alis  hyalinis, 
nervis  stigmateque  nigris.     $  .     Long.  11  mm. 

Hab.     Simla  (Nurse). 

Antennaa  as  long  as  the  body ;  tbe  flagellum  brownish  beneath. 


106  THE    ENTOMOLOGI8T. 

Head  black,  the  inner  orbits  from  the  middle  to  shortly  below  the  eyes 
lemon-yellow,  the  band  becoming  wider  below  ;  the  face  and  clypeus, 
except  at  the  apex,  closely  and  rather  strongly  punctured,  and  thickly 
covered  with  white  pubescence ;  the  apex  of  the  clypeus  is  slightly 
obliquely  depressed  and  impunctate  ;  the  front  and  vertex  are  closely 
and  distinctly  punctured.  Mandibles  black,  dark  rufous  near  the 
apex ;  the  palpi  fuscous.  Thorax  entirely  black,  and  thickly  covered 
with  short  white  pubescence  ;  the  scutellum  is  less  closely  punctured  ; 
the  basal  half  of  the  post-scutellum  is  smooth,  the  apical  closely  punc- 
tured. The  base  of  the  median  segment  is  closely  and  somewhat 
strongly  punctured;  the  sides  of  the  arese  are  irregularly  striated. 
Pleurae  uniformly  and  distinctly  punctured.  Mesosternum  thickly 
covered  with  white  pubescence.  The  four  anterior  tibiae  in  front  and 
the  anterior  femora  above  in  front  are  pale  testaceous ;  tbe  hinder 
femora,  except  at  the  apex,  are  bright  red ;  the  calcaria  are  black. 
Wings  clear  hyaline,  the  nervures  and  stigma  black  ;  the  stigma 
fuscous  on  the  lower  side  ;  the  disco-cubital  nervure  is  largely  bullated 
in  front  of  the  stump  of  a  nervure  ;  the  recurrent  nervure  bullated 
above  and  below  the  stump.  Petiole  closely  punctured ;  the  middle  of 
the  post-petiole  smooth  ;  the  sides  sparsely  punctured  ;  the  otber 
segments  are  closely  punctured  and  thickly  covered  with  short  white 
pubescence  ;  the  gastrocceli  are  shallow  and  stoutly  striated  at  the 
base  ;  the  apex  deep,  wide,  and  aciculated. 

Anomalon  apicate,  sp.  nov. 

Nigrum ;  abdomine  rufo,  apice  nigro  ;  facie,  clypeo,  scutello,  post- 
scutelloque  flavis  ;  pedibus  anterioribus  flavis,  posticis  runs  ;  alis  hya- 
linis,  stigmate  fusco,  nervis  nigris.      $  .     Long.  16  mm. 

Hob.     Simla  (Nurse). 

Antennae  testaceous,  the  second  and  the  greater  part  of  the  fourth 
joints  black.  Head  black,  below  the  antennae  pale  yellow  ;  the  vertex 
closely  punctured  ;  the  front  with  eight  irregular  keels  on  the  central 
part,  which  is  also  closely  transversely  striated  ;  the  face  closely  and 
distinctly  punctured,  and  thickly  covered  with  white  pubescence ;  the 
base  of  the  clypeus  closely  punctured,  the  apex  almost  impunctate. 
Mandibles  pallid  yellow,  their  teeth  black  ;  the  palpi  pallid  yellow. 
Thorax  black ;  the  scutellum,  post-scutellum,  and  tegulae  yellow. 
Mesonotum  closely  and  rather  strongly  punctured,  its  centre  at  the  base 
raised  ;  the  apex  in  the  middle  transversely  irregularly  striated.  Scu- 
tellum and  post-scutellum  coarsely  punctured.  Propleurae  above 
closely  punctured  ;  the  rest  coarsely  irregularly  reticulated.  Meso- 
pleurae  above  irregularly  longitudinally  striated  ;  below  closely  punc- 
tured. The  median  segment  at- the  base  is  closely  rugosely  irregularly 
reticulated  ;  the  lateral  keels  are  roundly  curved ;  the  space  behind 
these  is  smooth  ;  the  apex  behind  is  narrowed  into  a  distinct  neck, 
and  is  irregularly  transversely  striated.  Metapleurae  coarsely  irregu- 
larly reticulated.  Legs  rufous;  the  anterior  pair  paler,  more  yellowish 
in  tint ;  the  four  front  coxae  and  trochanters  pale  yellow.  Wings 
hyaline,  with  a  faint  fulvous  tinge  at  the  base  ;  the  stigma  testaceous, 
the  nervures  black.  The  second  and  third  segments  of  the  abdomen 
are  black  above ;  the  apical  two  are  entirely  black. 


NEW    SPECIES    OF    HYMENOPTERA   FROM    INDIA.  107 

BRACONIDiE. 

Iphiaulax  elizeus,  sp.  nov. 

Luteous ;  the  antennas,  front,  vertex,  the  occiput,  the  upper  half 
of  the  outer  orbits,  and  the  apical  abdominal  segment  black  ;  the  face, 
clypeus,  and  malar  space,  and  upper  half  of  the  inner  orbits,  pale 
yellow  ;  the  wings  to  the  transverse  basal  netware  and  the  basal  half 
of  the  stigma  yellow ;  beyond  that  dark  fuscous ;  the  apex  of  the 
hinder  tibiaa  broadly,  and  the  hinder  tarsi  black.  $  and  ?  .  Length  8, 
terebra  2  mm. 

Hab.     Deesa  (Nurse). 

Head  smooth  and  shining,  the  face  sparsely  covered  with  pale  hair ; 
mandibles  pale  rufous.  Back  of  abdomen  irregularly  rugosely  punc- 
tured ;  the  sutures  on  the  second,  third,  and  fourth  segments  are  wide 
and  stoutly  striated ;  on  the  sides  of  the  fifth  the  furrow  is  wide, 
closely  and  finely  striated  ;  the  furrows  on  the  apex  of  the  fifth  and 
sixth  segments  are  narrow,  distinct,  and  deep ;  there  is  no  keel  or 
distinct  plate  on  the  base  of  the  second  segment.  The  base  of  the  first 
cubital  cellule  is  hyaline,  broadly  above  and  below  ;  the  cloud  on  the 
posterior  wings  commences  opposite  that  on  the  anterior. 

Iphiaulax  smenus,  sp.  nov. 

Rufous,  the  flagellum  of  the  antennas  black  ;  the  wings  dark 
fuscous,  the  first  cubital  cellule  and  a  spot  below  it  hyaline,  the  stigma 
yellowish  fulvous ;  the  mesonotum  and  scutellum  sparsely  but  dis- 
tinctly punctured  ;  the  median  segment  closely  and  strongly  punc- 
tured.     $  and  J  .     Length  8-11  mm.,  ovipositor  13-16  mm. 

Hab.     Deesa  (Nurse). 

Vertex  smooth  ;  the  front  with  a  deep  furrow,  its  sides  finely  and 
closely  punctured  ;  the  sides  of  the  face  somewhat  strongly  and 
closely  punctured.  Clypeus  almost  smooth,  except  close  to  the  apex. 
Mandibles  punctured  and  rufous  at  the  base,  the  apex  black.  Parap- 
sidal  furrows  distinct,  narrow,  deep,  indistinctly  crenulated.  Median 
segment  thickly  covered  with  white  pubescence.  Petiole  coarsely 
rugosely  punctured,  except  in  the  centre  at  the  apex  ;  the  lateral 
furrows  with  a  few  transverse  keels  ;  the  second,  third,  and  fourth 
segments  are  more  closely  rugosely  punctured ;  the  transverse  and 
oblique  furrows  are  closely  striated ;  the  apices  of  the  segments  are 
smooth ;  the  oblique  furrows  on  the  second  segment  are  stoutly 
striated,  the  hollow  at  their  apex  smooth.  There  is  no  plate  or  keel 
on  the  base  of  the  second  segment.  The  basal  four  segments  of  the 
abdomen  are  together  as  long  as  the  head  and  thorax  united. 

Agrees  in  coloration  (except  that  the  hinder  tibial  and  tarsi 
are  not  black)  with  I.  punjabe?ises,  Cam.,  but  that  species  has  the 
ovipositor  only  as  long  as  the  body,  and  the  abdomen  is  shorter 
and  broader.  The  species  varies  considerably  in  size.  The 
male  has  (or  may  have)  the  apical  segments  of  the  abdomen 
black. 


108  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

A     LIST     OF     THE     "  MACRO-LEPIDOPTERA "     OF 
LANCASTER     AND     DISTRICT. 

By  C.  H.  Forsythe. 

(Continued  from  p.  90.) 

Hepialid.e. 

Hepialas  hwnuli. — Abundant  near  Halton,  County  Asylum  grounds, 
Quernmore,  Grimshaw  Lane,  &c,  in  July. 

H.  sylvanus. — Fairly  common  at  Arnside  and  Witherslack  in  July. 

H.  fusconebulosa  (velieda).  —  Plentiful  in  Grimshaw  Lane,  Ridge 
Lane,  Blea  Tarn,  Halton,  &c,  late  June  and  July.  The  var.  carmts 
is  fairly  common. 

H.  lupulinus. — Abundant  in  Grimshaw  Lane,  near  Halton,  County 
Asylum  grounds,  &c,  in  June. 

H.  hectus. — Very  local  near  Quernmore  in  late  June. 

Lymantriad^:. 

Porthesia  similis. — Common  in  July  everywhere,  especially  at  Blea 
Tarn  and  near  Freemau's  Wood. 

Dasychira  pudibunda.  —  Local ;  near  Clougha.  I  beat  the  larva? 
from  oak  in  this  locality  in  1902,  and  bred  the  imago  the  following 
June.     "  Uncommon  near  Quernmore  "  (G.  Loxham). 

Orgyia  antiqua. — Common  on  Cockerham  Moss,  about  Arnside  and 
Witherslack,  &c,  in  August. 

Lasiocampid;e. 

Pcecilocampa  populi.  —  Fairly  common  some  seasons,  scarce  in 
others ;  comes  freely  to  the  street  lamps  about  Lancaster  in  October 
and  November. 

Eiiogaster  lanestris.  —  Nests  of  the  larva?  are  plentiful  at  Grange, 
Warton,  &c,  in  late  June. 

Macrotlujlacia  [Bombyx)  rubi.  —  The  larvae  are  common  about 
Witherslack,  Methop,  and  Grange  in  August.  In  the  wild  state  the 
imago  is  uncommon. 

Lasiocampa  (Z>.)  quercus.  —  Plentiful  at  Witherslack,  less  so  at 
Heysham,  in  mid-July.  Var.  callunce  occurs  about  Clougha  and  near 
Quernmore, 

Cosmotriche  (Odonestis)  potatoria.  —  The  larva?  are  often  abundant 
about  Heysham  in  the  spring ;  the  imago  occurs  in  July. 

SaTURNIAD/E. 

Satumia  pavonia.  —  Abundant  on  the  mosses  around  Witherslack 
and  Methop ;  less  plentiful  near  Quernmore  in  late  April  and  May. 

DrEPANIDjE. 

Drepana  lacertinaria. — Fairly  common  at  Methop  and  Witherslack 
in  June.  I  have  bred  this  species  from  larva?  obtained  in  September 
near  Methop  bank. 

D.  falcataria. — Fairly  common  at  Methop  and  Witherslack  in  late 
May  and  June. 


MACRO-LEPIDOPTERA    OF    LANCASTER    AND    DISTRICT.  109 

Cilix  ylaucata.  -Common  in  Grimshaw  Lane,  at  Blea  Tarn,  &c,  in 
June. 

NoTODONTIDiE. 

Centra  (Dicranura)  furcvla. — I  have  bred  this  species  from  Wither- 
slack and  Methop  larva3  obtained  in  September.  The  imago  occurs  in 
June,  on  sallow  tree-trunks,  but  is  not  common. 

C.  (D.)  bifida.  —  Scarce.  I  have  bred  this  species  from  Methop 
larva?  only,  taken  from  aspen  trees  in  September.  "  I  have  taken  the 
larva?  on  aspen  trees  near  Faraway  Moss,  Witherslack,  occasionally  " 
(G.  Loxham). 

Dicranura  vimda. — Fairly  common  and  generally  distributed  in  June. 

Pterostoma  palpina.  —  Uncommon.  I  have  bred  this  species  from 
larva?  beaten  from  sallow  and  birch  near  Methop  bank  in  September. 

Lophopteryx  camelina. — Occasionally  in  the  County  Asylum  grounds 
in  July.  The  larva?  are  common  on  birch  and  oak  on  the  mosses  at 
Cockerham,  Methop,  and  Witherslack  in  September. 

Pheosia  (Notodonta)  dictaa.— Local,  and  not  common.  I  have  only 
bred  this  species  from  Witherslack  larva?,  beaten  in  September  from 
sallow. 

Xotodonta  dromedarius. — Not  uncommon  on  the  Witherslack,  Methop 
and  Cockerham  Mosses.     The  larva?  occurs  on  birch  in  September. 

Phalera  bucephala.  —  Common  everywhere  in  June.  The  larva? 
occur  in  Grimshaw  Lane,  liidge  Lane,  near  Halton,  &c,  on  oak,  in 
July  and  August. 

1'i/gant  curtula.  —  Not  common.  I  have  bred  this  species  from 
larva?  taken  near  Methop  Bank  in  September.  The  imago  appears  in 
late  April  and  May. 

Cymatophokid^:. 

Habrosyne  (Thyatira)  derasa.  —  Fairly  common  at  sugar  near 
Bowerham  Bottom,  County  Asylum  grounds,  Witherslack,  Methop, 
&c,  in  July. 

Thyatira  batis.  —  Fairly  common  at  sugar  in  late  June.  County 
Asylum  grounds,  Bowerham  Bottom,  Witherslack,  &c. 

Cymatophora  duplaris.  —  Local.  I  have  bred  this  species  from 
Methop  and  Witherslack  larva?  beaten  off  birch  in  early  September. 
The  imago  appears  in  May  and  June. 

NoCTUIDjE. 

Bryophila  perla. — Common  and  well  distributed  on  walls,  July  and 
August. 

Demas  coryli. — Comes  to  sugar  at  Arnside  and  Grange  in  May  and 
June. 

Acronycta  psi.  —  Fairly  plentiful  and  generally  distributed  in  June 
and  July, 

A.  leporina.  —  Local.  I  have  only  bred  this  species  from  larva? 
taken  off  birch  trees  in  the  County  Asylum  grounds  (Old  Side)  in 
July  and  August.     The  imago  appears  in  late  May  and  June. 

A.  megacephala.  —  I  brought  a  quantity  of  larva?  from  London  last 
year  (1902),  and  have  since  found  larva?  feeding  on  poplar  in  the 
County  Asylum  grounds.  I  have  also  bred  it  from  larva?  taken  in 
September  near  Methop  bank,  otherwise  I  should  not  have  included  it 
in  this  list. 


110  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

A.  rumicis. — Fairly  common  and  generally  distributed  in  late  May 
and  June.  The  larvae  are  generally  to  be  found  in  dyke  sides,  &c,  on 
rumex  and  various  other  low  plants  in  August  and  September. 

A.  menyanthidis. — Occurs  near  Methop,  Clougha,  &c,  but  is  not 
common,  in  June. 

Craniophora  (A.)  Ivjustri. — Uncommon.  I  took  three  specimens  in 
mid- July  m  the  County  Asylum  grounds.  "I  have  taken  it  in  Cor- 
poration Wood,  Quernmore  "  (G.  Loxham). 

Diloba  caruleocephala. — Fairly  common  and  generally  distributed. 
The  imago  in  September  and  October,  and  the  larva  on  the  white- 
thorn in  June;  Quernmore,  Halton,  Caton,  Grimshaw  Lane,  and  near 
Clougha. 

Leucania  lithargyria. — Fairly  common  at  sugar,  County  Asylum 
grounds,  near  Halton,  Grimshaw  Lane,  &c,  in  June  and  early  July. 

L.  comma. — Common  at  sugar  and  bloom ;  generally  distributed  in 
June. 

L.  impura. — Abundant  at  sugar  in  July. 

L.  pallens. — Abundant  everywhere  at  sugar  in  July  and  August. 

(To  be  continued.) 


NOTES    AND    OBSERVATIONS. 

My  attention  has  been  called  to  a  note  on  the  type  of  the  Linnean 
genus  Cimex  by  Mr.  Kirkaldy  in  the  last  number  of  the  '  Entomo- 
logist.' I  dealt  with  the  matter  in  '  Nature  '  of  March  17th,  1904, 
and  showed  why  C.  lectularius  must  be  regarded  as  the  type  of  the 
Linnean  genus,  and  I  also  pointed  out  that  Clinocoris  is  a  mere 
synonym  of  Acanthia.  To  this  note  I  would  ask  the  attention  of  any- 
one who  takes  any  further  interest  in  the  matter.  If  Mr.  Kirkaldy 
would  consult  the  12th  edition  of  Linnseus  he  would  find  why  G.  lectu- 
larius is  classed  with  winged  species  under  Cimex. — W.  T.  Blanford. 

Breeding  Dragonflies  from  the  Egg.  —  In  my  note  (Entom. 
xxxvii.  285)  recording  dimorphism  in  the  females  of  Ischnura  elegans 
and  Enallagma  cyathigerum  at  Wicken,  I  mentioned  that  I  had  attempted 
to  get  the  females  taken  in  copula  to  lay  eggs,  but  without  success.  I 
now  find,  however,  that  in  one  of  the  aquaria  used  in  the  attempt  with 
E.  cyathigerum  there  are  a  number  of  dragonfly  nymphs  about  half  an 
inch  in  length.  Before  being  used  for  the  dragonflies  the  aquarium 
had  been  untouched  for  more  than  a  year,  and  contained  only  small 
Crustacea,  &c. ;  so  that  there  can  be  no  possibility  of  accidental  intro- 
duction of  the  nymphs.  The  dragonflies  taken  in  copula  were  put  in  a 
large  muslin  bag  over  the  aquarium,  and  I  saw  the  females  feeling 
about  under  the  water  with  the  tip  of  the  abdomen,  and  occasionally 
walking  down  the  weeds  till  they  were  quite  submerged,  but  at  the 
time  I  could  find  no  eggs.  I  should  be  grateful  if  anyone  experienced 
in  rearing  dragonfly  nymphs  could  tell  me  what  is  the  best  food  to 
supply  them  with  when  they  grow  larger.  And  I  should  like  again  to 
point  out  that  anyone  interested  in  dragonflies  who  may  succeed  in 


NOTES    AND    OBSERVATIONS.  Ill 

rearing  considerable  numbers  from  known  parents,  of  a  species  shewing 
female  dimorphism,  will  be  able  to  render  valuable  service  to  science. — 
L.  Doncaster;  University  Museum  of  Zoology,  Cambridge,  Feb.  13th. 
[If  such  small  animals  as  water-fleas  can  be  easily  obtained,  these 
should  be  given.  Otherwise  decaying  leaves,  &c,  from  the  bottom  of 
a  pond  or  stream  will  always  contain  bloodworms  and  other  small  life 
on  which  the  nymphs  will  feed ;  but  care  must  be  taken  that  no  fresh 
nymphs  are  introduced.  The  size  of  the  nymphs  of  E.  cyathigerum  in 
the  present  instance  raises  an  interesting  question.  Clearly  they  will 
not  be  full-grown  and  ready  to  emerge  in  May,  yet  they  will  probably 
disclose  imagines  this  year.  It  is  pretty  certain  that  in  this  species 
emergences  do  take  place  late  in  the  season  ;  still  there  do  not  appear 
to  be  two  broods  annually.  Possibly  the  eggs  laid  early  in  the  season 
produce  early  imagines  in  the  next  season,  while  the  late  ones  produce 
late  imagines  the  next  year.  Are  there  two  races,  in  fact?  Perhaps 
Mr.  Doncaster  will  be  able  to  settle  the  question.  I  have  thought  that 
the  late  males  of  E.  cyathigerum  at  the  Black  Pond,  in  Surrey,  have 
more  pronounced  markings  than  the  early  ones. — W.  J.  L.] 

Western  Smerinthids. — The  whole  Smerinthid  fauna  of  the  United 
States  numbers  only  about  nine  species.  A  few  of  these  have  spread 
over  a  very  large  area,  and  have  split  up  into  more  or  less  distinguishable 
local  races.  -Thus  Smerinthus  cerisyi,  Kirby,  and  Pachysphinx  modesta, 
Harris,  have  their  eastern  and  western  forms,  quite  distinguishable, 
but  not  very  well  to  be  separated  specifically.  The  beautiful  Cala- 
symbolus  exececatus,  Abbot  and  Smith,  is  common  in  the  States  east  of 
the  plains,  but  has  apparently  not  been  reported  further  west."  At 
Pecos,  New  Mexico,  July  22nd,  1903,  1  took  a  fine  female  of  C.  exece- 
catus,  with  an  expanse  of  85  mm.  It  differs  from  the  normal  eastern 
form  in  having  the  upper  third  of  the  outer  margin  of  the  anterior 
wings  more  strongly  dentate,  and  the  colours  of  the  wing  in  general 
paler  and  yellower,  with  the  upper  two-thirds  of  the  median  field  light 
greyish  ochre,  leaving  the  dark  central  spot  very  conspicuous.  Pro- 
visionally, this  form  may  be  treated  as  a  variety,  vecosensis ;  but,  as 
the  pallid  coloration  is  just  what  would  be  expected  in  a  western  race, 
judging  from  other  known  cases,  it  is  at  least  probable  that  the  dis- 
covery of  other  examples  will  enable  us  to  recognize  a  subspecies  or 
idiomorph.  On  the  other  hand,  it  is  very  likely  that  a  similar  colora- 
tion may  occur  here  and  there  as  an  aberration  among  eastern 
examples. — T.  D.  A.  Cockerell  ;  Boulder,  Colorado,  Feb.  10th,  1905. 

Leucopho3a  surinamensis,  L.,  breeding  in  Britain. — With  reference 
to  the  interesting  note  by  Mr.  Horrell  in  your  last  issue  (ante,  p.  92),  it 
may  be  worth  recalling  that  at  the  October  (1901)  meeting  of  the 
Lancashire  and  Cheshire  Entomological  Society  in  Liverpool,  I  ex- 
hibited a  series  of  this  distinct  little  cockroach,  in  all  stages  of  growth, 
which  had  been  captured  amongst  turfs  at  Fallowfield  during  1903 
and  1904,  and  kindly  sent  to  me  by  Dr.  W.  E.  Hoyle,  M.A.,  and 
Mr.  J.  Ray  Hardy,  of  the  Manchester  Museum.     Cockroaches  are  at 

*  Except  in  the  far  north-west  (British  Columbia),  where  climatic  con* 
ditions  are  entirely  different  from  those  in  New  Mexico. 


112  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

all  times  difficult  to  rear  in  captivity,  and  I  regret  that  I  was  unable 
to  keep  the  insects  alive  sufficiently  long  to  learn  much  of  their  habits 
and  life-history.  I  hope  Mr.  Horrell  may  be  more  fortunate. — E.  J.  B. 
Sopp;  Liverpool  Road,  Birkdale,  March  15th,  1905. 

The  Mason  Collection. — A  portion  of  this  historical  collection  of 
British  Lepidoptera,  accumulated  by  the  late  Philip  Brookes  Mason, 
Esq.,  M.R.C.S.,  F.L.S.,  &c,  of  Burton-on-Trent,  was  dispersed  at 
Stevens's  Auction  Rooms  on  March  14th  and  15th  last.  Besides  the 
extinct  and  rare  species  and  numerous  interesting  aberrations  that  it 
contained,  there  were  types  and  other  specimens  from  the  collection  of 
Adrian  Hardy  Haworth,  author  of  '  Lepidoptera  Britannica,'  and 
editor  of  the  first  volume  of  '  Transactions  of  the  Societas  Entomo- 
logical which  was  founded  in  London  in  the  year  1806.  Also  some 
types  and  examples  of  many  species  from  other  collections  that  were 
formed  in  the  early  part  of  the  last  century. 

The  attendance  was  good,  but  perhaps  not  quite  so  numerous, 
especially  on  the  second  day,  as  we  have  seen  on  other  occasions  when 
notable  collections  have  come  under  the  hammer.  The  bidding  for  many 
of  the  lots  could  hardly  be  described  as  competitive  ;  in  fact,  it  was  some- 
times found  necessary  to  combine  two  and  even  three  lots  before  any 
desire  to  make  an  offer  was  evinced.  The  majority  of  the  specimens 
were  on  white  pins,  and  without  localities,  &c. ;  possibly,  in  these  days 
of  black  pins  and  full  data,  this  may  have  somewhat  influenced  prices. 
Altogether  there  were  538  lots  put  up  during  the  two  days,  and  we 
believe  that  the  amount  realized  was  somewhere  about  £550.  In  the 
following  notes  only  the  most  important  details  of  the  first  day's  sale 
are  referred  to : — ■ 

Butterflies. — Pieris  daplidice,  eleven  specimens,  averaged  11/- 
each.  The  specimen  mentioned  in  Newman's  '  British  Butterflies  '  as 
having  been  reared  from  one  of  the  eggs  laid  by  a  female  captured  near 
Dover  was  sold  for  1G/- ;  a  pair,  one  of  which  was  a  female  captured 
in  the  Isle  of  Wight  in  1867,  30/- ;  one  example  taken  at  Folkestone, 
and  another  without  data,  26/-  ;  three  specimens  (two  from  Sydenham), 
27/6.  There  were  sixteen  examples  of  Colias  edusa  var.  helice ;  these 
averaged  2/6  apiece,  and  seemed  to  be  not  dear  at  the  price.  A  speci- 
men of  Arijynnis  niobe  (Canterbury),  together  with  a  long  series  each  of 
A.  euphrosyne  and  A.  selene,  only  made  8/-.  Of  A.  latonia  there  were 
no  less  than  sixteen  specimens,  and  these  sold  for  four  guineas,  or  at 
the  rate  of  5/3  each.  They  were  in  four  lots  of  three  specimens,  and 
one  lot  of  four  specimens,  the  price  per  lot  ranging  from  14/-  to  24/-. 
Ten  examples  of  Vanessa  antiopa  produced  £9  8s.  altogether.  They 
were  put  up  singly,  and  the  prices  each  were  26/-  (3),  22/-  (1),  18/- 
(2),  16/-  (1),  14/-  (2),  and  8/-  (1).  Several  of  these  were  ancient 
examples  from  the  Haworth  and  E.  Shepherd  collections,  but  those  that 
brought  the  highest  price  were  two  from  Horning,  Norfolk  (1872),  and 
one  taken  by  the  late  Mr.  J.  Sang  at  Darlington.  An  example  of 
Anosia  (Danais)  ple.vippus,  L.  (archippus,  Fabr.,  erippus,  Cr.),  the  com- 
mon milk-weed  butterfly  of  the  United  States.  Apparently  this  species 
had  not  been  noted  as  migratory  previous  to  1870.  However  this  may 
be,  its  first  visit  to  Britain  seems  to  have  been  in  1876,  and  between 
that  year  and  1896  several  specimens  have  been  recorded,  chiefly  from 


NOTES    AND    OBSERVATIONS.  113 

places  on  the  southern  and  western  coasts  of  England,  and  during  the 
years  1885T6.  The  earliest  report  was  from  Wales,  and  the  latest 
records  (of  specimens  seen)  were  from  Surrey  and  Hampshire.  The 
Mason  specimen  was  formerly  in  the  late  Mr.  Tugwell's  collection,  and 
at  the  sale  thereof  realized  35/-  It  now  passes  into  the  Tring  Museum 
at  the  enhanced  price  of  £4  10s.  Lyccena  avion,  in  good  condition,  were 
not  expensive.  Three  lots  of  males,  seven  and  eight  in  a  lot,  sold  at 
7/-  a  time,  while  a  series  of  seven  females  found  a  buyer  at  12/-,  and 
six  other  females  (one  with  large  spots)  went  for  20/-.  The  three 
dozen  brought  in  a  total  of  53/-,  and  this  gives  an  average  of  about 
1/6  each  all  round,  or,  say,  10/-  per  dozen  males,  and  30/-  per  dozen 
females.  For  three  couples  of  L.  semiargus  (acis),  the  prices  were 
45/-,  60/-,  and  70/-  ;  two  lots  of  the  same  species,  each  comprising 
three  males,  40/-  and  50/-  ;  three  males,  35/- ;  three  males  and  two 
females,  with  long  series  of  L.  minima,  60/-  ;  three  males,  with  a  num- 
ber of  L.  minima,  some  of  the  latter  without  spots  on  the  under  side, 
32/6.,  Sixteen  specimens  of  Chrysophanus  dispar  increased  the  total 
for  the  first  day's  sale  by  £80  6s.,  which  amount  gives  an  average  of 
about  £5  per  specimen.  The  highest  price  was  £8  for  a  fine  female  in 
which  the  basal  spots  of  the  fore  wings  were  united.  The  lowest  bid 
was  45/-  for  a  female  example  that  was  not  exactly  in  the  best  con- 
dition. Two  examples  of  C.  virgaurea,  and  one  of  O.  chryseis,  from 
Haworth's  collection,  together  with  nice  series  of  Thecla  w-album  and 
T.  pruni  (among  the  latter  was  one  example  without  white  lines  on 
under  side),  went  for  £3  10s.  (Janson).  These  two  "  coppers  "  are  not 
now  recognized  as  British  species,  but  the  specimens  offered  are  of 
historical  interest. 

Moths. — A  dark  specimen  of  Acherontia  (Manduca)  atropos,  with 
broad  black  outer  margin,  sold  for  two  guineas,  and  an  example  of 
Hyluicus  {Sphinx)  pinastri  from  Haworth's  collection,  together  with  a 
specimen  of  the  same  species  from  E.  Shepherd's  collection,  only  made 
12/-,  whilst  18/-  was  given  for  another  specimen  that  formerly  be- 
longed to  Dr.  Hewgill.  Eight  Deilephila  euphorbia  obtained  £8  12s. 
One  specimen  labelled  from  "  Mr.  Raddon,  Sept.,  1848 ;  larva  found 
near  Bideford,"  ran  the  bidding  up  to  40/-  ;  three  other  Raddon  speci- 
mens sold  for  16/-,  18/-,  and  22/- each  ;  the  specimen  recorded  by  the 
late  Mr.  W.  P.  Weston  as  taken  by  himself  in  a  garden  at  South- 
ampton in  August,  1871,  made  24/-;  one  from  Mr.  Spry's  collection 
brought  in  36/-;  and  one  from  Haworth's  collection,  coupled  with 
I),  hippophaes  (Devonshire)  only  fetched  12/-.  A  specimen  of  Daphnis 
nerii,  taken  in  a  street  at  Burton-on-Trent  in  1888,  found  a  purchaser 
at  14/-  ;  another  example  from  Dr.  Hewgill,  together  with  the  type  of 
Pldegethontius  quinquemaculata,  Haw.,  a  North  American  species,  was 
bought  for  the  Tring  Museum  at  a  cost  of  £6.  Deilephila  galii,  of 
which  species  there  were  twelve  specimens,  went  for  2/6  apiece,  while  the 
seven  I).  livomica  ranged  in  price  from  7/-  to  one  guinea.  Of  Cha.ro- 
campa  celerio  nine  specimens  were  offered,  and  these  sold  at  from  8/- 
to  20/-  each,  the  total  for  the  set  being  £5  14s.  Among  the  Sesiadre 
were  some  very  desirable  species,  and  for  the  possession  of  some  of 
these  bidding  was  pretty  brisk.  Six  examples  of  "  vespiformis  "  were 
disposed  of  at  from  12/-  to  20/-  each.     Sesia  seolii/ormis  and  S.  sphegi- 

ENTOM. — APRIL.    1905.  K 


114  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

formis  were  put  up  in  three  assorted  lots,  thirteen  or  fourteen  speci- 
mens in  each,  and  fetched  14/-,  24/-,  and  26/-  per  lot.  Five  specimens 
of  S.  andreniformis,  lotted  singly,  produced  £8  3s.  altogether,  but  the 
price  per  lot  varied  greatly  ;  one  from  E.  Shepherd's  collection  only 
made  8/-;  one  from  "Rev.  A.  Matthews"  secured  £4;  two  others 
went  for  10/-  each  ;  and  for  one  taken  at  Folkestone  in  1878,  55/- 
was  obtained.  There  was  a  nice  series  of  Zygoma  exulans,  but  the  price 
per  specimen  did  not  much  exceed  1/-.  Twenty-six  Z.  jUipendulce, 
including  two  examples  of  the  yellow  form  and  other  minor  aberra- 
tions, sold  for  20/-.  For  a  fine  specimen  of  the  rare  "  black  "  form  of 
this  species,  known  as  chrysanthemi,  the  bidding  quickly  ran  up  to  ten 
guineas  (Janson).  The  type  of  Sarrothripus  rev  ay  ana  var.  stonanus, 
Curtis,  was  sold  for  27/6  (Janson),  and  the  type  ramulanus,  Curtis,  a 
form  of  the  same  species,  made  20/-. 

Aberrations. — A  curious  specimen  of  Euchloe  cardamines,  in  which 
the  orange  patch  on  left  fore  wing  did  not  extend  to  the  apex,  was 
bought  by  Mr.  Sydney  Webb  for  30/-.  Two  females  streaked  with 
orange  on  upper  or  under  surface  were  sold  for  18/-  and  20/-  respec- 
tively, one  going  into  the  collection  of  Mr.  J.  A.  Clark.  A  straw- 
coloured  variety  of  Argynnis  selene  sold  for  20/-  (Janson).  but  another 
interesting  under-side  aberration  of  the  same  species  was  obtained  by 
Mr.  Farn  for  4/-  less.  There  were  two  fine  "  sports  "  of  A.  euphrosyne ; 
one  of  these,  nearly  black  both  above  and  below,  was  sold  to  Mr.  Farn 
for  37/6  ;  the  other,  "  extraordinary  light  var.,  almost  spotless,  with 
cream-coloured  margins,"  reached  the  handsome  price  of  £8  (Tring 
Museum).  A  pale  straw-coloured  var.  of  A.paphia,  from  E.  Shepherd's 
collection,  sold  for  £2  (Janson),  and  a  very  dark,  almost  black,  form  of 
A.  aylaia  went  for  20/-.  Two  aberrations  of  Satyrus  semele,  one  tawny 
and  the  other  very  pale,  were  not  dear  at  22/-.  A.  specimen  of  Epine- 
phele  ianira  (jurtina)  "  cream  coloured,  with  disc  of  fore  wings  orange, 
J.  W.  Douglas  collection,"  realized  £5  (Janson),  and  an  interesting 
example  of  E.  tithonus,  "  outer  disc  of  fore  wings  white  with  pale  grey 
border,"  was  secured,  we  believe  by  Mr.  Studd,  for  £4.  An  almost 
unicolorous  male  example  of  Nemeobius  lucina,  brownish  orange  or 
fulvous  in  colour,  went  for  £S,  but  a  similar  aberration  of  the  female 
was  bought  for  the  Tring  Museum  at  £9.  A  specimen  of  the  schmidtii 
form  of  Chrysophanus  pklceas  went  for  the  easy  price  of  8/-.  Although 
it  was  not  exactly  true  schmidtii,  it  was  only  removed  therefrom  by 
reason  of  the  slight  creamy  tint  of  the  ground  colour.  The  specimen 
was  from  E.  Shepherd's  collection.  Among  the  species  of  Lycana 
there  were  some  nice  aberrations,  but  the  prices  obtained  for  them 
seemed  to  be  low  in  most  cases,  possibly  due  to  the  absence  of  data. 

The  gynandrous  specimens  were  five  in  number,  and  these  realized 
£4  18s. : — (1)  Lyccena  agon  (left,?  ,  right  ?  ),  28/-  ;  (2)  L.  icarus  (left  ^  , 
right  $  ),  18/- ;  (3)  L.  icarus  (left  $  ,  right  <? ),  16/- ;  (4)  Smerinthus 
populi  (left  ^  ,  right  ?  ),  18/-;  (5)  S.  populi  (left?,  right  <?),  18/-. 
Three  hybrid  S.  ocellata- populi  produced  only  16/-. 

Notes  on  the  second  day's  sale  will  be  given  in  the  May  number  of 
the  '  Entomologist.' 


115 


CAPTURES     AND     FIELD     REPORTS. 

Tortrices  in  the  Liverpool  District. — The  localities  worked  com- 
prise Wallasey  sand-bills,  and  Kirby  and  Simonswood  Mosses,  near  to 
Liverpool ;  also  Delamere  Forest,  some  twenty  miles  away,  in  Cheshire. 
Most  of  the  species  are  common  and  pretty  generally  distributed,  but, 
as  no  local  notes  appear  to  have  been  published  for  some  time,  this 
record  may  be  of  interest.  Tortrix  podana,  Scop.,  is  common  all 
round  Liverpool.  T.  rosanct,  L.,  occurred  freely  at  Wallasey,  a  nice 
series  being  bred  from  larvae  taken  on  sallow  early  in  July  ;  while 
T.  dumetana,  Tr.,  was  captured  on  Kirby  Moss  at  the  end  of  the 
month.  T.  ribeana,  Hb.,  was  taken  sparingly  on  the  Moss  early  in 
August,  and  a  few  T.  corylana,  Fb.,  were  bred  from  Wallasey.  T.  uni- 
fasciana,  Dup.,  occurred  freely  on  palings  arouud  Sefton  Park,  though 
worn,  as  a  rule,  when  I  came  across  them.  T.  viridana,  L.  I  did  not 
see  any  green  specimens,  although  very  abundant  on  the  Mosses,  and 
at  Delamere  in  July.  The  moths  were  yellow,  although  many  ap- 
peared fresh  ;  I  attribute  this  to  the  damp,  especially  on  the  Mosses, 
where  it  was  very  noticeable.  T.  ministrana,  L.,  and  var.  ferrugana 
occurred  in  some  numbers  at  Delamere  in  May.  T.  forsterana,  Fb., 
is  common  throughout  the  district,  as  one  would  expect  of  so  uni- 
versally distributed  an  insect.  The  genus  Peronea,  Curt.,  is  well 
represented.  P.  sponsa,  Fb.,  was  bred  from  beech,  and  the  moth  was 
common  on  palings  under  the  trees  during  September.  The  specimens 
are  all  noticeably  darker  than  a  series  taken  at  Brockley,  S.E.,  in  1898. 
A  visit  to  Wallasey  the  last  week  in  July  produced  P.  variegana,  Schiff., 
which  was  very  abundant  among  the  burnet-rose  (Rosa  spinosissima). 
The  special  object  of  search  was  P.  permutana,  of  which  only  one 
example  was  found  ;  another  trip  on  August  Bank  Holiday  was  blank 
as  regards  this  local  insect,  but  P.  aspersana  turned  up  in  good  num- 
bers. It  is  noteworthy  that  the  black  form  of  variegana  was  only 
found  on  the  east  side  of  Liverpool,  in  the  Sefton  Park  district ;  the 
nearest  approach  to  it,  at  Wallasey,  was  a  nearly  unicolorous  dark 
brownish  variety.  Teras  contaminana,  Hb.,  was  a  common  moth  round 
Sefton  Park  in  the  autumn,  but  I  did  not  take  many,  being  busy  with 
other  things.  The  pretty  Dictyopteryx  bergmanniana,  L.,  was  plentiful 
among  the  burnet-rose  on  the  sand-hills  throughout  June  ;  one  speci- 
men was  a  pale  lemon-yellow,  with  the  ferruginous  markings  obsolete. 
Penthina  betulatana,  Haw.,  and  P.  corticana,  Hb.,  are  everywhere  abun- 
dant among  birch  ;  some  examples  were  bred  from  Delamere  larva? 
obtained  in  May.  Of  P.  sororculana,  Zett.,  only  one  was  captured  at 
Delamere,  also  in  May.  Pardia  tripunctana,  Hb.,  and  Spilonota  in- 
carnatana,  Hb.,  were  met  with  at  Wallasey,  where  the  latter  simply 
swarmed  the  last  week  in  July,  but  only  seemed  to  last  a  few  days  in 
good  condition.  Aspis  ndmanniana,  L.,is  common,  and  found  through- 
out the  district.  Sericoris  urticana,  Hb.,  S.  lacunana,  Dup.,  and  S. 
cespitana,  Hb.,  were  also  generally  common.  Delamere  produced 
Phoxopteryx  myrtillana,  Tr.,  in  May  ;  abundant  and  easily  disturbed  in 
the  daytime.  Hypermecia  crnciana,  L.,  a  pretty  little  species  addicted 
to  sallow,  abounded  on  the  sand-hills,  and,  at  Wallasey,  was  found  to 
vary  scarcely  at  all.     Grapholitha  ramella,  L.,  and  Catoptria  amulana, 


116  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Schl.,  were  represented  only  by  single  specimens  from  Simonswood  and 
Wallasey  respectively.  A  visit  to  the  Mosses  at  the  end  of  July  pro- 
duced Pcedisca  bilunana,  Haw.,  P.  occultana,  Doug.,  and  Retinia  pini- 
colana,  Hb.,  as  well  as  one  R.  pinivorana,  Zell.,  occultana  being  very 
common  among  the  pines.  Pcedisca  solandriana,  L.,  was  bred  from 
birch  at  Delamere,  and  P.  semifuscana,  St.,  was  yielded  by  larvae  found 
on  sallow  from  St.  Helens  ;  these  two  variable  species  will  have  more 
attention  in  1905,  as  they  appear  to  be  common  in  the  district. 
Ephippiphora  similana,  Hb.,  and  E.  pflugiana,  Haw.,  are  represented  by 
a  few  specimens  of  eacb.  One  specimen  of  Dichrorampha  petiverella,  L., 
was  found  at  Wallasey  ;  at  the  same  place,  in  June,  Eupoecilia  dnbitana, 
Hb.,  occurred  freely  on  tbe  wing  in  the  evening,  and  E.  angustana, 
Hb.,  abounded  on  Kirby  Moss  among  heatber.  I  looked  out  keenly  for 
evidences  of  melanochroic  tendency,  but  so  far  as  I  could  see  there  was 
no  particular  variation,  the  series  I  took  being  very  little  darker  than 
some  captured  in  Kent  several  years  ago.  I  have  one  insect  which  has 
been  doubtfully  referred  to  Pcedisca  corticana,  Hb.,  from  Wallasey,  and 
a  few  specimens  of  Phlocodes  tetraquetrana,  Haw.,  from  Delamere  Forest ; 
while,  in  conclusion,  I  should  state  that  the  following  species  were 
observed  in  some  numbers,  viz.  Sphaleroptera  ictericana,  Haw.,  at  Wal- 
lasey ;  Catoptria  ulicetana,  Haw.,  at  Formby,  on  the  sand-hills  among 
furze  ;  and  Tortricodes  hyemana,  Hb.,  at  Delamere  in  April. — William 
Mansbridge  ;  27,  Elmbank  Eoad,  Liverpool. 


SOCIETIES. 

Entomological  Society  of  London. — March  1st,  1905. — Mr.  F. 
Merrifield,  President,  in  the  chair. — The  Duke  of  Bedford,  E.G., 
President  of  the  Zoological  Society,  &c,  of  Woburn  Abbey,  Beds.,  and 
15,  Belgrave  Square,  S.W.  ;  M.  Lucien  Chopard,  Membre  de  la 
Societe  Entomologique  de  France,  of  98,  Boulevard  St.  Germain, 
Paris  ;  Mr.  Wilfred  Fleet,  F.H.A.S.,  of  "  Imatra,"  Bournemouth  ;  and 
Mr.  Robert  Sidney  Mitford,  C.B.,  of  85,  Redcliffe  Square,  S.W.,  were 
elected  Fellows  of  the  Society.— Mr.  H.  St.  J.  Douisthorpe  exhibited 
an  example  of  Oxypoda  sericea,  Heer,  taken  in  Dulwich  Wood,  June 
17th,  1904,  a  species  new  to  Britain  ;  also  0.  nigrina  Wat.  (with  a 
type  lent  by  Mr.  E.  A.  Waterhouse),  to  demonstrate  that  it  is  not 
synonymous  with  sericea  as  stated  on  the  Continent ;  and  0.  exigaa 
wbich  is  also  there  regarded  as  synonymous  with  nigrina. — Mr.  Hugh 
Main  and  Mr.  Albert  Harrison,  a  long  series  of  Colias  edusa,  with  var. 
helice,  bred  from  one  female  helice  sent  by  Dr.  T.  Chapman  from  the 
South  of  France,  to  show  the  proportion  of  type  and  variety  obtained ; 
and  the  results  of  similar  experiments  with  Amphidasys  betularia,  bred 
from  a  male  var.  doubledayaria  and  a  type  female  taken  at  Woodford, 
Essex,  in  1903. — Mr.  R.  Priske,  a  specimen  of  Helops  striata,  with  a 
photograph,  showing  an  abnormal  formation  of  the  right  antenna, 
which  was  divided  into  two  branches  from  the  fifth  joint. — Mr.  Percy 
H.  Grimshaw,  examples  of  Hydrotcea  pUipes,  Stein,  male  and  female, 
the  latter  sex  being  previously  unknown  ;  and  several  specimens  of 
II.  tuberculata,  Eond,  not  hitherto  recorded  in  Britain,  captured  by 
Mr.  W.  Dale  and  Dr.  J.  H.  Wood  in  various  localities.  — Dr.  F.  A. 


SOCIETIES.  117 

Dixey,  some  cocoons  and  perfect  imagines  of  hybrid  Satumiids,  in- 
cluding female  and  male  of  S.  pavonia,  L.  x  S.  pyri,  Scheff.,  with 
added  specimens  of  both  sexes  of  the  parent  forms  for  comparison, 
the  cross  product  resembling  a  large  S.  pavonia  rather  tban  a 
small  S.  pyri.  The  exhibit  further  included  three  males  and  three 
females,  of  which  the  female  parent  was  S.  pavonia  and  the  male 
parent  a  hybrid  between  S.  pavonia  male  and  S.  spini  female,  viz.  the 
cross  product  to  which  Professor  Standfuss  has  given  the  name  S.  bovne- 
manni.  These  six  individuals  had  been  reared  from  ova  supplied  by  him, 
aud  Dr.  Dixey  gave  an  account  of  their  life-history.  The  remaining 
four  examples  of  the  hybrid  =  8.  schaufussi  disclosed  far  less  strongly 
marked  sexual  differences  tban  in  S. pavonia. — Professor  E.  B.  Poulton, 
F.R.S.,  groups  of  synaposematic  Hymenoptera  and  Diptera  captured 
by  Mr.  A.  H.  Hamm  ;  three  broken  specimens  of  Papilio  hesperus,  taken 
at  Entebbe  in  1903,  by  Mr.  C.  A.  Wiggins,  showing  that  the  tails  of  a 
Papilio,  if  untouched  by  enemies,  can  endure  a  great  deal  of  wear  ;  and 
Nymphaline  butterflies  from  Northern  China,  apparently  mimetic  of  the 
male  Hypolimnas  misippus,  which  is  not  known  to  occur  in  that  region. 
The  President,  a  number  of  examples  of  Pyvameis  atalanta  and  a 
pair  of  Aglaias  urtica,  illustrating  the  effects  of  cold  season  breeding, 
by  Mr.  Harwood  of  Colchester. — Mrs.  De  la  B.  Nicholl  read  a  paper 
on  "  Butterfly-hunting  in  British  Columbia  and  Cauada,"  illustrated 
by  numerous  examples  of  the  species  captured  during  the  summer  of 
1904. — Sir  George  Hampson,  B.A.,  F.Z.S.,  communicated  a  paper  on 
"  Three  Remarkable  New  Genera  of  Micro-Lepidoptera." — Mr.  Herbert 
Druce,  F.LS.,  F.Z.S.,  a  paper  entitled  "Descriptions  of  Some  New 
Species  of  Diurnal  Lepidoptera,  collected  by  Mr.  Harold  Cookson  in 
Northern  Rhodesia  in  1903-4  ;  LycEeuidse  and  Hesperiida?  by  Hamilton 
H.  Druce,  F.Z.S."— Mr.  F.  DuCane  Godman,  F.R.S.,  D.C.L.,  a  paper 
entitled  "Descriptions  of  Some  New  Species  of  Satyridre  from  South 
America." — Mr.  W.  L.  Distant,  a  paper  entitled,  "  Additions  to  a 
Knowledge  of  the  Homopterous  Family  of  Cicadidae." — H.  Rowland- 
Brown,  M.A.,  Hon.  Sec. 

South  London  Entomological  and  Natural  History  Society. — 
February  9th,  1905.— Mr.  Hugh  Main,  B.Sc,  F.L.S.,  President,  in  the 
cbair.  —  A  special  exhibition  of  Hybevnia  defoliaria  males  had  been 
arranged,  and  series  were  shown  by  Messrs.  Rayward,  Pratt,  Crow, 
Browne,  Hickman,  Harrison,  Main,  Goulton,  and  Tonge.  The  variation 
ranged  from  uniformly  dark  forms  to  uniformly  light  ones,  with  con- 
siderable variation  in  widths  and  colour  of  the  transverse  markings. 
It  was  noted  that  the  males  migrated  in  large  numbers,  but  no  well 
ascertained  facts  were  known  as  to  the  distribution  of  the  females. — 
Mr.  Rayward.  liviug  females  of  H.  rupicapraria  from  Wallington. — 
Mr.  Crow,  on  behalf  of  Mr.  Hickman,  the  whole  of  the  imagines  and 
varieties  bred  from  the  brood  of  Arctia  caia,  referred  to  at  the  Exhibition 
of  Varieties  in  November,  1904.  Several  extreme  forms  had  scarcely 
any  white  or  light  markings,  and  yet  the  usually  dark  markings  ap- 
peared through  a  veil  of  semitransparent  smoky  scales.  There  were  no 
intermediates.  —  Mr.  Kaye,  two  forms  of  the  rare  Heliconius  pasithoe 
from  the  Demarara  River. — Mr.  Adkin,  a  series  of  Lyccena  (Cupido) 
minima,  taken  last  year  at  Eastbourne,  and  showing  an  unusual 
amount  of  blue  iu  the  males. — Mr.  South,  a  long  series  of  very  varied 


118  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

specimens  of  Gelechia  populella,  taken  on  birch  trunks  at  Oxshott  on 
Aug.  20t.li,  1904.  He  also  showed  a  hybrid  between  Anthrocera 
(Zygana)  filipendulce  female  x  A.  trifolii  male,  and  contributed  the 
following  note : — The  specimen  of  Zygoma  exhibited  was  reared  from 
eggs  deposited  by  a  female  Z.  j\ 'Upend uIcb  that  had  paired  with  a  male 
Z.  trifolii.  The  parents,  also  exhibited,  were  one  of  the  four  cross 
pairs  to  which  reference  was  made  at  a  meeting  of  the  Society  held  on 
Oct.  22nd,  1903  (see  also  En  torn,  xxxvii.  15).  Although  all  the  eggs 
hatched,  and  the  larvae,  over  100  in  number,  appeared  at  first  to  be 
doing  fairly  well,  they  gradually  died  off  until  there  appeared  to  be  only 
a  few  that  seemed  likely  to  survive  the  winter.  In  the  spring  of  1904 
it  was  found  that  only  four  larvae  gave  any  promise  of  completing  their 
metamorphoses,  but  two  of  these  ultimately  disappeared  ;  the  other  two 
formed  cocoons  in  due  course,  but  only  one  imago  emerged,  and  this 
was  unable  to  clear  itself  properly  from  the  pupal  case.  The  specimen 
therefore  is  imperfectly  developed,  and  each  antenna  is  still  encased  in 
the  pupal  sheath.  However,  it  is  evident  that  the  offspring  has  in- 
herited characters  of  each  parent,  but  in  a  modified  form.  The  sixth 
spot  of  the  fore  wings  is  present,  but  only  faintly  discernible  (in  the 
female  parent  this  spot  is  unusually  large,  and  united  with  spot  5) ; 
the  border  of  the  hind  wings  is  much  broader  than  in  Z.Jilipendula, 
but  not  quite  so  broad  as  in  Z.  trifolii.  Altogether  the  specimen  closely 
resembles  the  form  of  Z.  filipendulce  known  as  var.  hippocrepidis. — Mr. 
Edward,  two  male  examples  of  the  rare  Papilio  blumei,  from  Celebes. — 
Mr.  Priske,  an  example  of  Cahsoma  sycophant  a,  recently  picked  up  in 
Kew  Gardens. — Dr.  Chapman,  a  long  series  of  bred  Hastula  (Dtchelia) 
hyerana  and  its  dark  var.  marginata,  a  Tortrix  from  the  South  of 
France,  together  with  a  quantity  of  details  of  its  life-history,  including 
larvae  in  each  iustar,  pupa-cases,  stems  of  asphodel  showing  the 
ravages,  photographs  of  ova,  microscopical  slides  showing  tubercles, 
&c,  and  read  a  paper  on  the  exhibit. 

February  23'  d. — The  President  in  the  chair. — Mr.. Or.  H.  Briault,  of 
Acton,  was  elected  a  member.  —  There  was  a  special  exhibition  of 
Hybemia  marginaria  (progemmaria).  —  Messrs.  Harrison  and  Main, 
series  from  (1)  Epping  Forest,  mostly  typical ;  (2)  neighbourhood  of 
Liverpool,  including  a  number  of  var.  fuscata ;  (3)  Delatnere  Forest, 
only  a  few  var.  fuscata.  —  Mr.  Tonge,  series  from  Tilgate  Forest  and 
Keigate,  with  some  very  prettily  variegated  forms  from  the  latter 
place. — Mr.  Priske,  a  short  series  from  Richmond  Park,  including  one 
specimen  with  the  basal  half  of  the  fore  wings  dark,  and  the  only 
example  of  southern  origin  approaching  var.  fuscata. — Mr.  Adkin,  bred 
series  from  Yorkshire,  and  read  notes  on  the  brood,  together  with 
series  from  Rannoch,  Kent,  and  Surrey.  —  Messrs.  Dennis,  Rayward, 
Edwards,  and  Turner  also  exhibited  series  from  various  southern 
localities.  —  A  discussion  took  place,  and  it  was  noted  (1)  that  all  the 
southern  specimens  had  light  hind  wings,  while  in  all  var.  fuscata 
forms  they  were  dark  ;  (2)  all  but  var.  fuscata  had  the  submarginal 
row  of  light  wedge-shaped  marks  on  the  fore  wings ;  and  (3)  a  general 
absence  of  intermediate  forms  between  the  general  type  and  the  dark 
var.  —  Mr.  Priske,  a  specimen  of  Helops  striatus  in  which  the  left 
antenna  was  bifurcated  about  one-third  of  its  length  from  the  apex. — 
Mr.  Main  exhibited  specimens  of  various  species  of  scorpions,  and  also 
an  example  of  the  kmg-crab  (Lirmdvs),  and  by  means  of  a  series  of 


SOCIETIES.  119 

diagrams  showed  that  many  of  their  characters  appeared  to  point  out 
a  somewhat  closer  relationship  than  was  formerly  considered  to  he  the 
case. — Hy.  J.  Tukner,  Hon.  Rep.  Sec. 

Lancashire  and  Cheshire  Entomological  Society.  —  The  second 
ordinary  meeting  of  the  session  was  held  in  the  Royal  Institution, 
Liverpool,  on  Monday,  February  20th,  Mr.  Richard  Wilding,  Vice- 
President,  in  the  chair. — Mr.  G.  Lissant  Cox,  of  Oxton,  was  elected  a 
member  of  the  Society. — Donations  to  the  library  were  announced 
from  Messrs.  J.  W.  Carter,  F.E.S.,  H.  B.  Score,  F.R.G.S.,  and  E.  J. 
B.  Sopp,  F.R.Met.  S. — A  paper  was  communicated  by  Mr.  William 
Mansbridge,  F.E.S.,  on  "  The  Tortrices  of  the  Liverpool  District,"  in 
which,  in  addition  to  the  enumeration  of  the  species  met  with,  much 
valuable  information  was  given  on  the  habits  of  many  of  the  more 
noteworthy  insects,  both  in  the  larval  and  imaginal  states.  Several 
allied  groups  of  the  Micro-Lepidoptera  were  also  discussed,  and  notes 
of  considerable  interest  relating  to  life  history  given.  Altogether  four 
Pyrales,  six  Crambida3,  three  Pterophori,  forty-three  Tortrices  (of 
which  fifteen  were  bred),  and  twenty-six  Tinese  were  dealt  with.  The 
Chairman  congratulated  Mr.  Mansbridge  on  his  paper,  and  the  Society 
on  possessing  such  a  keen  worker  amongst  the  Micro-Lepidoptera  of  the 
district.  After  remarks  by  Messrs.  F.  N.  Pierce,  W.  H.  Holt,  and  Dr. 
J.  Cotton,  a  hearty  vote  of  thanks  was  accorded  the  lecturer. — Amongst 
the  many  interesting  exhibits  on  view  were  the  following  : — Several 
cases  of  Micro-Lepidoptera,  to  illustrate  the  paper,  including  fine 
series  of  Phycis  fusca  =  carbouariella,  Kphestia  elutella,  Teras  contami- 
nana,.  Bictyopteryx  bergmanniana  (a  very  pallid  form),  Catoptria  cemu- 
lana,  &c,  by  Mr.  Mansbridge  ;  varieties  of  Abraxas  grossulariata,  in- 
cluding fine  light  forms,  in  which  the  dark  markings  were  almost 
obliterated,  by  Mr.  Mountfield ;  Morpho  cypris  (Columbia),  Caligo  tele- 
monius,  Hypolimnas  salmacis,  and  Dismorphia  nemesis  (South  America), 
by  Mr.  J.  J.  Richardson,  who  also  showed  a  live  specimen  of  Dermestes 
peruviana  from  Liverpool  ;  Antoricum  sulcatum  (Oliv.),  and  Longitarsus 
aruginosus,  and  other  recent  additions  to  the  British  list,  by  Mr.  W.  E. 
Sharp,  F.E.S.  ;  (Edemera  virescens,  L.  (pair),  and  Malachius  barnvillei, 
Putore,  recent  additions  to  the  British  list,  and  a  specimen  of  the  very 
rare  Bagous  luto&us,  Gyll.,  by  Mr.  W.  Thouless,  F.E.S. ;  Anchomenus 
gracilipes,  Duft,  of  which  only  one  or  two  specimens  have  been  recorded 
for  Britain  ;  Quedius  nigrocmruleus,  Rey,  of  which  only  three  British 
specimens  are  known  ;  and  Bernbidium  quadripustulatum,  one  of  the 
rarest  of  our  Bembidia  ;  all  three  species  captured  and  exhibited  by 
Mr.  E.  C.  Bedwell,  F.E.S. ;  Triplax  bicolor,  Gyll.  (with  T.  russica  and 
T.  cenea  for  comparison),  recently  reinstated  in  the  British  list  on  its 
occurrence  to  Mr.  R.  S.  Bagnall,  for  whom  the  insects  were  exhibited 
by  the  Secretary.  Leucophaa  surinamensis,  an  exotic  cockraoch,  just 
received  from  the  Liverpool  Docks,  was  shown  by  Mr.  Sopp. — E.  J.  B. 
Sopp  and  J.  R.  le  B.  Tomlin,  Hoyi.  Sees. 

Birmingham  Entomological  Society. — February  20th,  1905. — Mr. 
G.  T.  Bethuue-Baker,  President,  in  the  chair. — Annual  Meeting.  The 
various  annual  reports  were  received,  and  the  officers  and  council  were 
elected  for  the  ensuing  year. — Mr.  W.  E.  Collinge,  The  University,  was 
elected  a  member. — A  resolution  was  carried  to  invite  the  following 


120  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

gentlemen  to  become  honorary  members  of  the  Society : — Mr.  H.  St. 
J.  K.  Donisthorpe,  F.Z.S.,  F.E.S. ;  Kev.  F.  D.  Morice,  M.A.,  F.E.S.  ; 
Messrs.  E.  Saunders,  F.R.S.,  F.L.S.,  F.E.S.,  and  J.  W.  Tutt,  F.E.S. 
— Mr.  G.  H.  Kenrick  exhibited  a  few  insects  collected  by  himself  in 
the  North  of  Scotland  last  year  in  the  intervals  of  shooting ;  he  said 
the  most  interesting  perhaps  were  nice  silvery  forms  of  Larentia 
autumnata,  Bkh.  They  also  included  Calocumpa  solidaginis,  which  was 
not  uncommon,  and  Anaitis  paludata  var.  imbutata,  Hb.  —  Mr.  J.  T. 
Fountain  exhibited  Adopted  thaumas  (linea)  and  A.  lineola,  taken  to- 
gether in  the  Wye  Valley  ;  also  bred  Actias  selene,  Hb.,  reared  in  this 
country  from  Indian  ova. — Mr.  A.  H.  Martineau  exhibited  a  spray  of 
oak  with  three  different  kinds  of  galls  on  close  together  ;  they  were 
probably  made  by  Neuroterus  lenticularis,  01.,  Andiicus  fecundatrix, 
Hart.,  and  Dryophanta  divisa,  Hart.  ;  he  also  showed  Pemphredon 
lethifer,  Schenck.,  bred  from  bramble-stems  gathered  at  Marston  Green, 
together  with  its  parasites,  the  chrysid  Ellampus  auratus,  L.,  and  the 
ichneumon  Perithous  divinator,  Rossi.  —  Mr.  W.  Harrison  showed  a 
nice  series  of  Eriogaster  lanestris,  L.,  breed  from  a  brood  of  larvae  found 
at  Trench  Woods  ;  some  had  emerged  in  1902,  and  others  in  1901. — 
Colbran  J.  Wainwright,  Hon.  Sec. 

Hawaiian  Entomological  Society.  —  A  preliminary  meeting  was 
held  in  December  last,  and  the  constitution  of  the  Society  was  formu- 
lated on  January  26th.  The  following  are  the  officers  for  1905 : — 
President :  R.  0.  L.  Perkins  (Supt.  of  Entomology,  Hawaiian  Sugar 
Planters'  Experimental  Sta.),  who  appointed  Alexander  Craw  (Supt. 
of  Entomology,  Bureau  of  Agriculture  and  Forestry)  as  Vice-President; 
Secretary  and  Treasurer  :  Jacob  Kotinsky  (Asst.  Entomologist,  Bureau 
of  Agriculture  and  Forestry) ;  Committee:  D.  L.  Van  Dine  (Entomo- 
logist U.S.  Experiment  Sta.),  and  Otto  H.  Swezey  (Asst.  Entomologist, 
Hawaiian  Planters'  Sta.).  Twelve  members  constitute  the  Society  so 
far,  which  meets  the  first  Thursday  in  every  month,  at  the  Bureau  of 
Agriculture  and  Forestry,  Honolulu,  7.30  to  10  p.m.,  for  the  study  of 
the  Arthropoda,  especially  of  the  Pacific  Region. — G.  W.  Kirkaldy. 


OBITUARY. 


With  much  regret  we  have  recently  heard  that  Mr.  Alfred  Beaumont, 
of  Gosfield,  Essex,  died  early  in  March  of  this  year.  He  was  a  most 
indefatigable  worker,  and  his  interest  was  extended  to  all  orders  of  the 
Insecta,  although  Coleoptera  was  possibly  his  strong  point.  He  was 
especially  keen  in  his  investigations,  and  was  sometimes  rewarded  by 
the  discovery  of  additions  to  the  British  lists  of  Diptera  and  Hymeno- 
ptera,  or  more  frequently  by  the  capture  of  very  rare  species  in  those 
orders  or  in  Coleoptera.  There  are  many  notes  from  his  pen  in  the 
'Entomologists'  Monthly  Magazine'  subsequent  to  the  year  1882;  and 
there  are  also  a  few  of  his  contributions  in  the  '  Entomologist,'  the 
latest  of  which  was  published  in  the  number  for  December,  1904.  He 
was  a  Fellow  of  the  Entomological  Society  of  London,  and  one  of  the 
oldest,  having  been  elected  in  1851.  A  man  of  high  principle,  stead- 
fast courage,  and  great  tenacity  of  purpose,  Mr.  Beaumont  was  highly 
esteemed  by  all  who  knew  him. 


W  ATKINS     &     DONCASTER, 

Naturalists'  and  Manufacturers  of  Entomological  Apparatus  and  Cabinets. 

Plain  King  Nets,  wire  or  cane,  including  Stick,  Is.  3d.,  2s.,  2s.  6d.  Folding  Nets, 
3s.  6d.,  4s.  Umbrella  Nets  (self-acting),  7s.  Pocket  Boxes,  6d.,  ihl.,  Is.,  Is.  6u. 
Zinc  Relaxing  Boxes,  (Jd.,  Is.,  Is.  6d.,  2s,.  Nested  Chip  Boxes,  7d.  per  four  dozen, 
Entomological  Pius,  assorted  or  mixed,  Is.,  Is.  6d.  per  oz.  Pocket  Lanterns,  2s.  6d. 
to  8s.  Sugaring  Tin,  with  brush,  Is.  6d.,  2s.  Sugaring  Mixture,  ready  for  use, 
Is.  9d.  per  tin.  Store  Boxes,  with  camphor  oells,  2s.  oM.,  4s.,  os.,  fjs.  Setting 
Boards,  flat  or  oval,  1  in.,  6d. ;  1  &  in.,  8d.  ;  2  in.,  lOd. ;  2£  in..  Is. ;  8$  in.,  Is.  4d. ; 
4  in.,  Is.  (id.  ;  5  in.,  Is.  lOd. ;  Complete  Set  of  fourteen  Boards,  10s.  6d.  Setting 
Houses,  9s.  6d.,  lis.  t!d. ;  corked  back,  14s.  Zinc  Larva  Boxes,  9d.,  Is.,  Is.  6d. 
Breeding  Cage,  2s.  6d.,  4s.,  5s.,  7s.  6d.  Coleopterist's  Collecting  Bottle,  with  tube, 
Is.  tid.,  Is.  8d.  Botanical  Cases,  japanned,  double  tin,  ls.6d.,  2s.  9d.,  3s.  6d.,  4s.  6d. 
,  Botanical  Paper,  Is.  Id.,  Is.  4d.,  Is.  9d.,  2s.  2d.,  per  quire.  Insect  Glazed  Oases, 
2s.  6d.  to  lis.  Cement  for  replacing  Antennas,  4d.  per  bottle.  Steel  Forceps, 
Is.  6d.,  2s.,  2s.  6d.  per  pair.  Cabinet  Cork,  7by3£,  best  quality,  Is.  id.  per  dozen 
sheets.  Brass  Chloroform  Bottle,  2s.  6d.  Insect  Lens,  Is.  to  8s.  Glass-top  and 
Glass-bottomed  Boxes  from  Is.  per  dozen.  Zinc  Killing  Box,  9d.,  Is.  Pupa 
Digger,  in  leather  sheath,  Is.  9d.  Taxidermist's  Companion,  containing  most 
neoessary  implements  for  skinning,  10s.  6d.  Scalpels,  Is.  3d\  ;  Scissors,  2s.  per 
pair;  Egg-drills,  2d.,  3d.,  9d ;  Blowpipes,  4d.,  Od. ;  Artificial  Eyes  for  Birds  and 
Animals ;  Label-lists  of  British  Butterflies,  2d. ;  ditto  of  Birds'  Eggs,  2d.,  3d.,  6d.  ; 
ditto  of  Lund  and  Fresh-water  Shells,  2d. ;   Useful  Books  on  Insects,  Eggs,  <fcc. 

The  AVAND  TELESCOPIC  NET— An  innovation  in  Butterfly  Nets.— We  beg 
to  call  your  attention  to  our  new  Telescopic  Handle  for  Butterfly  Nets.  It  is 
made  entirely  in  brass,  and  is  light  and  strong ;  and  moreover  it  can  be  shut  up  to 
carry  in  small  compass,  A  very  compact  pattern,  effecting  great  saving  of  weight 
and  bulk.  Prices. — With  two  joints,  8s.  6d.  ;  with  three  joints,  9s.  fkl.  :  with  four 
joints,  10s.  6d.  Complete  with  improved  Cane  Folding  Ring,  and  Bag.  We  shall 
be  pleased  to  send  on  approval. 

SHOW       ROOM       FOR       CABINETS 

Of  every  description  for  Insects,  Birds'  Eaas,  Coins,  Microscopical  Objects, 
Fossils,  &c.     Catalogue  (96  pp.)  sent  on  application,  post  free. 

A    LARGE     STOCK    OF    INSECTS    AND    BIRDS'    EGGS 

(BRITISH,    EUROPEAN,    AND    EXOTIC). 

Birds,  Mammals,  <£c,  Preserved  and  Mounted  by  First-class  Workmen. 

Only  Address  : — 

36  STRAND,  W.C.,  LONDON  (5  doors  from  Charing  Cross). 

HERBERT    W.    MARSDEN, 

NATURAL     HISTORY     AGENT     AND     BOOKSELLER, 
40.    TRIANGLE    West,   CLIFTON.   BRISTOL. 

Moderate  Prices. 

Cabinets  and  Apparatus  for  Entomologists,  Oologists,  Ornithologists,  Botanists,  Ac. 
Botanical  Cases,  Drying  Paper,  Ac— British  &  Exotic  Shells. 

The  most  remablk  Stock  of  BIRDS'  SKINS  and  BIRDS'  EGGS  is  Britain. 
New  and  Second-hand  Books.— Exchange  and  Label  Lists. 
Ornithological  Catalogue,  1905.  now  ready:  also  Shell  Catalogue. 
N.B. — Mr    Marsden's  large  Stock  of  Insects  has  now  been  made  up  into  numerous 
useful  lots;  also  many  lots  of  Birds'  Skins  and  Eggs,  all  of  which  are  offered  at  excep- 
tionally low  prices.     Lists  on  application. 

OVA,     LARV/E,     AND     PUP/E, 

A  Large  Assortment  always  on  hand.     Send  for  Price  List  to 

H.    W.    HEAD,    Entomologist,    SCARBOROUGH, 

The  Largest  Breeder  of  LEPIDOPTERA  in  the  British  Isles. 
Full   List   of  LEPIDOPTERA,  Apparatus,  Cabinets,  &c,  sent  on   application. 


CONTENTS. 

Descriptions  of  Two  New  Beetles  from  Angola  (with  illustration),  E.  A.  Hea  \  97. 
Notes  on  some  Stephensian  Types  of  Tortricina  in  the  National  Colli  tion, 
lilchard  South,  98.  New  Cuhcidae  from  the  West  Coast  of  Africa,  .Fm?.  V. 
Theobald.  101.  Preoccupied  Names  in  Coleoptera,  T.  I).  A.  CockereU,  104. 
New  Species  of  Hvmenoptera  (Aculeate,  Ichneuuionida?,  and  Braconidae)  from 
India  (concluded),  P.  Cameron,  105.  A  List  of  the  "  Macro-Lepidoptera"  of 
Lancaster  and  District  (continued),  C.  H.  Forsythe,  108. 

Notes  and  Observations. — Breeding  Dragonflies  from  the  Egg,  L.  Doncaster, 
110.  Western  Sinerinthids,  T.  D.  A.  CockereU,  111.  Leucopheea  surinam- 
ensis,  L.,  breeding  in  Britain,  E.  J.  B.  Sopp,  111.     The  Mason  Collection,  112. 

Captures  and  Field  Reports.  —  Tortrices  in  the  Liverpool  District,  William 
Manshridge,  115. 

Societies. — Entomological  Society  of  London,  116.     South  Loudon  Entomological . 
and  Natural  History  Society,  117.     Lancashire  and   Cheshire  Entomological 
Society,  119.     Birmingham  Entomological  Society,  119.     Hawaiian  Entomo- 
logical Society.  120. 

Obituary,  120. 

DELAMERE     FOREST     LARV/E    AND     PUP>E. 

Nebulosa,  Is.  6d.  doz.,  Var.  Eobsoui,  5s.,  Var.  Tliompsoni,  20s. ; 
Festiva  (melanic),  2s.  6d.  ;  Baia,  Brunuea,  Triangulum,  9d  ;  Augur, 
Fimbria,  Is.  ;  Repandata,  Rhomboidaria,  Is.  6d.  ;  Fasciaria,  2s.  (3d.  ; 
Firmata,  2s.  Pupae  (each):  Piniperda,  3d.  ;  Liturata  (melanic),  6d. ;  Dela- 
merensis,  4d. ;  Bidentata,  2d.     Also  fresh  killed  insects. 

J.  THOMPSON,  20,  South  View,  Chester. 

BAST  IN  BROTHERS,  The  Hatherley  Rooms,  Reading. 

Plain  Nets,  1/3  and  2/6.  Folding  Nets,  2/-  to  4/6.  Umbrella  Nets,  7/-.  Water  and 
Sweeping  Nets,  2/6  and  4/0.  Pocket  Boxes,  6d.,  9d.,  1/-,  1/6.  Zinc  Eelaxing  Boxes, 
'.td.,  1/-,  1,6,  2/-.  Entomological  Pins,  1/-  and  1/6  per  ounce,  mixed.  Killing  Bott!>  - 
(empty),  4d.  to  1/-.  Sugaring  Lanterns,  2  6  to  8/-.  Zinc  Killing  Boxes,. 9d.  and 
Sugaring  Tins,  1/6  and  2/-.  Sugaring  Mixture,  1/9  per  tin.  Store  Boxes  with  Camphor 
Cells,  2/6,  4/-,  5/-,  6/-.  Setting  Boards,  14  sizes,  from  6d.  to  1/10 ;  complete  set,  one 
of  each  size,  10/6.  Setting  Houses,  9/6,  11/6,  (with  store  box  back)  14/-.  Zinc  Larvse 
Boxes,  9d.  and  1/-.  Breeding  Cages,  2/6  to  7/6;  Japanned  Collecting  Box,  with  strap, 
5/6.  Glass  top  and  bottom  Boxes,  from  1/4  per  dozen.  Purple  Shouldered  Boxes  (best 
make),  nested,  4  dozen,  1/3.  "Chip"  Boxes,  nested,  4  dozen,  7d.  Glass  Tubes 
dozen,  Od.  to  3/-.     Split  Cork,  1/-  to  2/8  per  dozen  sheets.     Pupae  diggers,  1/9. 

All  kinds  of  Entomological  Apparatus  kept  in  Stock.     Lists  free. 

The  YOUNG  ENTOMOLOGISTS  COMPANION,  comprising  Net,  Killing  Bottle, 
Si  t ting  Boards,  Pocket,  Store,  and  Zinc  Boxes,  Pins,  &c,  post  free,  10/6. . 

.1  very  large  vtock  of  EXOTIC  LKPIDOPTERA,  COLEOPTERA,  and  other 
interesting  ln.<ects  is  always  available.     Lists  free.     Correspondence  incited. 

BASTIN    BROTHERS,   The   Hatherley   Rooms,   READING. 

JAMES     GARDNER, 

MANUFACTURER  of  ALL  KINDS  of  ENTOMOLOGICAL  APPARATl  S 

29  (late  426),  OXFOKD    STKEET 
(Nearly   opposite    Tottenham    Court    Road). 

PRICED   LISTS    ON    APPLICATION. 

All  Articles  Guaranteed ;  exchanged  if  not  approved  of.     Friends  and  Customers 
are  requested  to  note  the  Address,  as  mistakes  occur  daily. 


Subscription  6s. ,  post  free,  including  double  numbers,  should  be  sent  to 

West,  Newman  &  Co. 


Vol.   XXXVIII]  MAY,    1905.  [No.   504. 


THE 


ENTOMOLOGIST 


UHmsiratri)  journal 


i 


GENERAL    ENTOMOLOGY. 


EDITED     BY     RICHARD     SOUTH,     F.E.S. 

WITH    THE    ASSISTANCE    OF 

ROBERT   ADKIN,  F.E.S.  I   W.  F.  KIRBY,  F.L.S.,  F.E.S. 

W.  L.  DISTANT,  F.E.S.,  <&c.  G.  W.  KIRKALDY,  F.E.S. 

EDWARD  A.  FITCH,  F.L.S.,  F.E.S.       W.  J.  LUCAS,  B.A.,  F.E.S. 
F.  W.FROHAWK,  F.E.S.,  M.B.O.U. 
MARTIN  JACOBY,  F.E.S. 


Dr.  I).  SHARP,  F.R.S.,  F.E.S.,  &c. 
G.  H.  VERRALL,  F.E.S. 


"  By  mutual  confidence  and  mutual  aid 
G*eat  deeds  are  done  and  great  discoveries  made.' 


LONDON: 
WEST,    NEWMAN    &    CO.,    54,    HATTON 
SIMPK1N,   MARSHALL,    HAMILTON,    KENT   &   CO.,   Limited. 


Price  Sixpence. 


J.    &   W.    DAVIS  (NT 


IATURALISTS    &\ 
TAXIDERMISTS,/ 

MANUFACTURERS     OF     ENTOMOLOGICAL    APPARATUS    AND 
NATURALISTS'   REQUISITES,  &c, 

31  &  33,  Hythe  Street,  DARTFORD,  Kent. 

Telegrams:    "  DAVIS,  NATURALISTS,  DARTFORD."  National  Telephone  :     "  108  DARTFORD." 

liOCALITY       L.ABEL.S. 

2/6  per  1,000.     4  to  10  sorts,  equal  numbers,  anv  wording,  see  specimens  below: — 

Smith.  Smith,  Smith,  Smith. 

Durenth  Wood.  New  Forest,  Kent.  Rarmoch. 

UK)  190  190  190 

Neatly  print ■  <\  similar  to  the  nuove.      Wo  have  supplied  these  Labels  to  Entomologists  in  all  parts  of  Great 

Britain.  , 

"Data"   Blanks  for  Plants,   Birds'  Eggs,  Nests,  and  Skins,   from  8d.  per  100 

"Data"  Labels,   with  Collector's  Name  and   Locality^  printed  in.  from  1/6  per  100 

50  British  Butterflies,  all  different,  named,  5s.     Setting-house,  good  condition,  6s.  6d. 

Larvae  Collector's  Guide  and  Calendar,  Illustrated,  Is.    Birdstuffing  and  Mounting. 

Illustrated,  Is.    Animal,  Fish,  and  Reptile  Stuffing,  Illustrated,  Is.  6d.    Label  List, 

British  Macro-Lepidoptera,  6d. 
Naturalists'  Diary  and  Year  Book,  Is.    Our  Country's  Butterflies  and  Moths,  1000 

Coloured  Specimens,  6s. 

FERTILE  OVA.— Per  do; — Antiqua  "2d.  Pyramidea,  Tragopogonis,  3d.  Tiliaria, 
Angularia,  Autumnaria.  Nnpta,  4d.  F«  scant  aria,  6d.  Erosaria,  8d.  Cassinea,  Is.  3d. 
Versicolor,  9d.  Badiata,  Illunaria,  Multistrigaria,  Lithorhiza,  4d.  Silkworms'  Eggs 
4d.  per  100. 

HEALTHY  LARV/E.  —  Per  doz.  —  Villica,  Qnercus,  Sambucata,  rotatoria,  Is. 
Caja,  Dominula,  8d.     Dispar,  Monacha  (young),  6d.     Iris,  9d.  each. 

HEALTHY  PUP/E.—  Each—  Chaonia,  Ju  waria,  Cuculla,  5d.  Callunse,  Carpini, 
Ocellatus,  4d.  Ligustri,  Populi,  Advenaria,  Cblorana,  3d.  Dolabraria,  6d.  Dictaea, 
Ziczac,  Tetralunaria,  2id.  Vinula,  Pisi,  Batis,  Falcula,  Pigra,  Camelina,  Albicillata, 
Prasinana,  2d.     Bidentata,  Hirtaria,  Ferrugata,  TJnidentaria,  l£d. 

BRITISH  LEPIDOPTERA.— One  hundred  named  Specimens,  all  different,  5s. 
post  free.     See  our  New  List  and  discounts. 

EXOTIC  BUTTERFLIES. — We  have  some  thousands  of  these  as  received  in 
papers,  assorted  dozens,  fid.,  Is.,  and  Is.  6d. 

GENUINE     BRITISH     "WILD"    STOCK. 

CHEAPEST  HOUSE  IN  THE  TRADE. 

Every  Reader  of  the  '  Entomologist  '  is  requested  to  send  for 
our  Spring  List  of  Ova,  Larvae,  Pupae,  and  fresh  killed  Insects. 
The  List   is  too  long   to   include  in  our  usual  Advertisement. 

Apartments  for  Entomological  Visitors  to  the  New  Forest.   Expeditions  arranged 
and  accompanied.      Terms  on  Application. 

MORRIS    &    WEIR,    ENTOMOLOGISTS, 

BROCKENHURST,    NEW    FOREST. 

IMPORTANT  COLLECTION  OF  LEPIDOPTERA. 

Tuesday  and  Wednesday,  May  16th  and  17th,  at  one  o'clock. 

R.  J.  C.  5TEVENS  will  offer  at  his  Rooms,  38,  King  Street, 
Covent  Garden,  London.  W.C.,  the  second  portion  of  the  unrivalled 
COLLECTION  of  BRITISH  LEPIDOPTERA,  formed  by  the  late 
PHILIP  B.  MASON,  Esq.,  M.R.C.S.,  F.C.S.,  F.Z.S.,  F.E.S.,  &c,  of  Trent 
House,  Burton-on-Trent,  comprising  long  and  superb  series  of  most  of  the 
rare  and  extinct  species,  tine  varieties  and  local  forms  in  the  beat  state  of 
preservation;  also  many  valuable  and  historic  specimens  and  types  from  the 
Haworth  and  other  Collections,  together  with  the  first-rate  Standish  and 
other  Cabinets  in  which  they  are  arranged. 

On  view  the  Monday  prior,  and  mornings  of  sale.  Catalogues  ready  a 
week  prior  to  sale,  post-free  on  application. 


M1 


THE    ENTOMOLOGIST 


Vol.  XXXVIII.] 


MAY,     1905 


[No.  504. 


DESCRIPTION    OF    A    NEW    SPECIES    OF     CICADID^E. 
By  W.  L.  Distant. 


Subfani.  G^anin^e. 

Div.    GiEANARIA. 

Gaana  vestita,  sp.  n. 

$  .  Body  and  legs  black  ;  head  with  an  oblique  spot  on  each  side 
of  vertex  at  inner  margins  of  eyes,  mesonotum  with  a  curved  trans- 
verse series  of  four  spots,  and  two  central  spots  to  cruciform  elevation 
golden  yellow  ;  posterior  abdominal  segmental  margins  narrowly 
luteous  ;  abdomen  beneath  with  two  discal  spots  on  second,  third, 
fourth,  and  fifth  segments  and  an  apical  lateral  spot  on  each  side, 
stramineous  ;  tegmina  black  on  basal,  dark  fuscous  on  apical  area 
with  the  venation  black ;  radial  area,  large  elongate  spots  in  the  two 
lower  ulnar  and  claval  areas,  and  a  broad  transverse  fascia  near 
middle,  stramineous ;  wings  with  more  than  basal  half  stramineous, 

ENTOM. — MAY,    1905.  L 


122  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

remaining  area  dark  fuscous  with  the  venation  black ;   rostrum  just 
passing  the  intermediate  coxas  ;  opercula  small,  obliquely  transverse. 
Long.  excl.  tegm.  $  ,  40  millim.     Exp.  tegm.  102  millim. 

Hah.     Yunnan;  Yunnansen  (Excoffier  ;  Paris  Mus.). 
This  beautiful  species  is  allied  to  G.  sulphured,  Hope. 


BUTTERFLIES  COLLECTED  BY  SURGEON  LAMBERT, 
R.N.,  AT  VLADIMAR  BAY,  &c,  AUGUST,  1897. 

By  Henry  Charles  Lang,  M.D.,  F.E.S.,  M.R.C.S.,  &c. 

This  small  collection  came  into  my  hands  through  Mr.  0.  E. 
Janson  in  1900  ;  it  consists  of  one  hundred  and  five  specimens, 
collected  by  Surgeon  Lambert  at  Vladimar  Bay,  in  Russian 
Tartary,  between  the  dates  of  August  1st  and  9th,  1897,  and  a 
few  from  Port  Hamilton,  in  Corea,  on  June  16th  and  17th  of  the 
same  year.  Owing  to  the  care  with  which  these  specimens  were 
labelled,  I  am  able  to  give  the  exact  dates.  He  also  collected  in 
Japan  and  China,  but  at  the  time  of  seeing  the  collection  I  was 
not  interested  in  these  latter,  as  I  did  not  then  consider  that  the 
butterflies  of  Japan  and  China  should  be  included  in  the  Palae- 
arctic  Region,  though  I  have  now  altered  my  views  in  this  respect 
as  regards  Japan. 

Papilionid^:. 

Papilio  xuthus,  L. — Eight  males,  one  female  ;  August  5th  to  8th, 
1897.  Vladimar  Bay.  On  comparing  these  with  four  males  and  five 
females  from  Pryer's  collection,  taken  near  Tokio,  I  find  that  the 
Japanese  specimens  differ  as  regards  the  males  from  those  from 
Vladimar  Bay  in  having  the  marginal  band  of  the  hind  wings  broader, 
and  reaching  to  the  discoidal  cell,  just  as  in  P.  machaon  var.  sphyrus. 
Four  of  the  Japanese  females  differ  in  no  way  from  that  from  the 
Amur,  and  the  fifth  only  in  being  somewhat  larger,  and  in  the  deeper 
yellow  of  the  ground  colour. 

P.  machaon,  L. — One  female;  August  3rd,  1897.  Vladimar  Bay. 
Differs  in  nothing  from  ordinary  large  European  specimens  ;  expanse, 
3^  in.     Certainly  not  to  be  considered  as  var.  hippocrates. 

P.  bianor,  Cram. — One  female.  Port  Hamilton,  Corea,  June  16th, 
1897.     The  ordinary  typical  form. 

P.  bianor  var.  maackii,  Men. — Vladimar  Bay.  Two  males,  August 
8th  and  9th,  1897;  two  females,  August  9th,  1897.  These  resemble 
specimens  from  Japan. 

Parnassius  nomion,  Fisch. — Vladimar  Bay.  Two  males,  August 
5th  and  6th,  1897  ;  three  females,  August  5th  and  9th,  1897. 

PlERID/E. 

Pieris  rapce,  L. — Vladimar  Bay.  One  female,  August  8th,  1897 — 
usual  typical  form  ;    one  female,   August  8th,  1897 — var.  orientalis, 


BUTTERFLIES  COLLECTED  AT  VLADIMAR  BAY,  ETC.      123 

Oberfch.  Larger,  bases  of  anterior  wings  dusky  ;  resembles  some  of 
Pryer's  specimens  from  Japan. 

P.  melete,  Men. — Vladimar  Bay.     One  male,  August  5th,  1897. 

Leptidia  sinapis,  L.,  gen.  ffist.  diniensis,  B. —  Vladimar  Bay.  One 
male,  August  9th,  1897.  This  specimen  differs  in  no  way  from 
European  examples. 

L.  amurensis,  Men. — Vladimar  Bay.  Two  specimens,  August  5th  ; 
two,  August  8th  ;  one,  August  9th ;  two  without  date.  These  seven 
specimens  do  not  differ  from  those  in  a  series  of  twenty-eight  speci- 
mens taken  by  Pryer  at  Oiwaki,  Japan,  or  from  others  received  from 
the  late  Dr.  Staudinger  from  the  Amur.  I  have  never  been  able  to 
understand  why  Staudinger  should  suggest  that  amurensis  is  a  var.  of 
sinapis,  and  yet  gives  duponcheli  specific  rank.  From  Vladimar  Bay  it 
will  be  noticed  that  we  have  sinapis  in  its  summer  form,  taken  at  the 
same  time  as  amurensis,  which  is  altogether  different  in  its  appearance 
and  conformation. 

Colias  hyale  var.  poliographus,  Mots. — Port  Hamilton,  Corea.  June 
6th,  17th. 

C.  aurora,  Esp. — Vladimar  Bay.    August,  1897.    One  worn  female. 

Nymphalid-e. 

Limenitis  sydi  var.  latefasciata,  Men. — Vladimar  Bay.  One  female, 
August  8th,  1897. 

Melitaa  plotina,  Brem.  —  Vladimar  Bay.  One  female,  August  6th, 
1897. 

Argi/nnis  selene,  Schiff. — Vladimar  Bay.  One  female,  August  6th, 
1897. 

A.  daphne,  Schiff. — Vladimar  Bay.  Ten  males,  August  5th  ;  one 
male  and  three  females,  August  8th.  The  males  are  smaller,  and 
both  sexes  are  less  vividly  fulvous  than  the  specimens  taken  by  myself 
in  Provence  and  Hungary. 

A.  aqlaia  var.  fortuna,  Jans. — Vladimar  Bay.  One  female,  August 
9th,  1897. 

A.  adippe  var.  xanthodippe,  Fixs.  —  Vladimar  Bay.  Two  males, 
August  5th  ;  one,  August  3rd,  one  female  which  I  put  down  to  this 
var.,  as  the  silvery  markings  are  absent  except  the  marginal  lunules. 
Some  specimens  of  this  come  very  near  to  the  Spanish  ab.  cleodippe. 
This  form  differs  from  the  next,  not  only  in  the  absence  of  the  silvery 
spots,  but  in  having  the  androconia  on  veins  2  and  3  of  the  fore  wings. 
A  form  received  from  Staudinger  in  1898  from  Kentei  resembles  the 
above,  and  was  named  cleodippe.  The  present  edition  calls  it  xantho- 
dippe, retaining  cleodippe  for  the  Spanish  var. 

?  A.  adippe  var.  pallescens,  Butl.  —  Vladimar  Bay.  Two  males  on 
August  1st,  and  six  on  August  5th  ;  one  female,  August  3rd.  I  place 
these  under  this  head  on  the  strength  of  Staudinger's  remark,  "  $ 
lunul.  marginalibus  argenteis."  All  these  males  have  the  androconia 
only  on  vein  2.  Mr.  Elwes  (Trans.  Ent.  Soc.  342,  1899)  says  : 
"  Those  with  the  androconia  only  on  vein  2  seem  to  occur  in  Amurland, 
Korea,  and  in  North  and  Central  China  and  Japan."  He  expresses 
an  opinion  that  they  may  belong  to  another  species.  It  is  to  be 
remarked  that  typical  adippe  and  vars.  cleodoxa  and  chlorodippe  have 

l  2 


124  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

the  androconia  on  veins  2  and  3.  In  1898  I  received  a  form  from  the 
Transbaical  named  chrysodippe,  with  the  androconia  as  in  the  present 
form. 

A.  laodice,  Pallas. — Vladimar  Bay.  Four  males,  August  5th,  8th, 
9th,  1897.  These  do  not  differ  from  European  specimens  except  in 
the  paleness  of  the  colour  of  the  upper  surface. 

Melanargia  halimede,  Men. — Vladimar  Bay.  Three  males,  three 
females,  August  5th,  1897. 

M.  meridionalis,  Feld.  —  One  male,  Port  Hamilton,  Corea,  June 
17th  ;  two  males,  four  females,  Vladimar  Bay,  August  3rd,  5th, 
and  8th. 

Satyrus  dryas,  Esp.  —  Vladimar  Bay.  Four  males,  August  8th, 
1897.     Three  of  these  have  the  under  side  of  hind  wings  unicolorons. 

Pararge  achine,  Sc,  var.  achinoides,  Butl.  —  Two  females,  rather 
worn,  August  5th,  1897,  Vladimar  Bay.  ("Var.  major,  ocellis  majori- 
bus,"  St.  Cat.). 

Aphantopus  hyperanthus,  L.,  var.  ocellatus,  Butl.  —  One  male,  three 
females,  August  5th,  1897,  Vladimar  Bay.  These  agree  with  Stau- 
dinger's  remark,  "  major,  subt.  obscurior,  ocellis  majoribus,"  as  regards 
the  ocelli,  which  are  larger  ;  but  the  ground  colour  is  certainly  not 
"obscurior,"  but  rather  lighter  tban  usual. 

Coenonympha  cedippus,  F. — Vladimar  Bay.  Two  males,  August  5th, 
1897.  These  do  not  in  any  way  differ  from  European  specimens.  I 
think  that  it  is  worthy  of  remark  that  the  three  species  last  enumerated, 
which  have  so  strong  a  superficial  resemblance  to  one  another,  should 
have  all  been  taken  in  the  same  locality,  and  at  the  same  time. 

LiYCiENID^. 

Chrysophamis  dispar,  Haw.,  var.  auratus,  Leech.  —  One  male,  one 
female,  August  8th,  1897,  Vladimar  Bay.  These  exactly  tally  with 
Staudinger's  diagnosis  ("  3  supra  impunctatus,  ?  al.  post,  nigri- 
cantoribus ;  sub.  al.  post,  griseis,  non  caerulescentibus ").  This 
appears  to  me  much  nearer  the  true  British  type  than  the  Euro- Asiatic 
rutilus  in  the  general  appearance  and  size,  and  in  the  width  of  the 
submarginal  band  on  the  under  side  hind  wings ;  but  there  is  only  a 
trace  of  a  discoidal  spot  in  the  male,  and  an  entire  absence  of  the  blue 
basal  shading  found  in  true  dispar.  The  hind  wings  of  the  female 
above  more  resemble  those  of  female  hippothoe. 

C.  hippothoe,  L.,  var.  amurensis,  Stgr. — Two  males,  rather  worn, 
Vladimar  Bay,  August  8th  and  9th,  1897.  This  var.  is  distinguished 
from  the  type  by  its  larger  size,  more  brilliant  colour,  and  by  a  double 
discoidal  spot  on  the  hind  wings.  It  greatly  resembles  var.  caudens  as 
far  as  the  male  is  concerned,  but  has  less  of  the  violet  reflection  seen  in 
that  form. 

Lycana  arygyronomon,  Bgst.  —  Vladimar  Bay.  Two  males,  rather 
large  and  brightly  coloured,  August  5th,  1897. 

L.  cleubis,  Brem. — Vladimar  Bay.  Two  males,  five  females,  August 
8th,  1897.     A  very  variable  species. 

L.  euphemns,  Hb.,  var.  obscurata,  Stgr.  —  Vladimar  Bay.  Three 
females,  rather  worn,  August  6th. 


125 

PAPILIO    STEINBACHI,     spec.  kov. 
By  the  Hon.  Walter  Rothschild. 

Allied  to  P.  quadratus,  Staud. 

cT  .  Fore  wing  a  little  broader  than  in  quadratus ;  no  fringe-spots  ; 
a  white  patch  divided  by  M2,  not  reaching  to  M1,  but  occasionally 
extending  to  SMa.  Hind  wing  strongly  dentate,  subcaudate  ;  a  row 
of  spots  round  apex  of  cell  from  R2  to  (SM1),  and  a  dot  in  cell,  which 
is  sometimes  missing,  posterior  spot  and  base  of  spot  JVP-M2  white, 
the  other  spots  red  ;  fringe-spots  white  ;  wool  in  abdominal  fold  short, 
dirty  grey,  no  tuft  of  spreading  hairs  at  base  of  fold  as  is  the  case  in 
quadratus ;  vein  M2  much  less  distal  than  in  quadratus.  Under  side 
like  upper,  a  little  paler,  white  spots  of  fore  wing  somewhat  larger, 
spots  of  hind  wing  much  paler,  an  additional  red  spot  at  anal  angle. 
Palpus  and  abdomen  quite  black. 

$  .  Fore  wing  with  a  large  white  patch  traversed  by  veins  M1  and 
M2,  and  a  minute  spot  in  cell ;  no  fringe-spots.  Hind  wing  with  white 
fringe-spots;  a  red  band  distally  of  cell  from  near  tl1  to  (SM1),  spot 
R3-M1  being  the  longest,  last  spot  slightly  white  at  posterior  edge. 
Under  side  of  fore  wing  like  upper,  but  paler  ;  band  of  hind  wing  pale 
rosy  pink,  last  spot  and  bases  of  the  two  preceding  ones  whitish  pink, 
a  separate  red  spot  close  to  anal  angle.  Palpus  black,  eighth  sternite 
of  abdomen  and  edge  of  seventh  red  (vaginal  spot). 

Herr  J.  Steinbach  found  four  males  and  one  female  of  this 
interesting  species  near  Santa  Cruz  de  la  Sierra,  East  Bolivia, 
between  February  and  June,  1904. 


NOTES     ON     LEPID0PTE11A     IN    1904. 
By  J.  C.  F.  &  H.  F.  Fryer. 

As  far  as  our  experience  went  the  season  of  1904  was  below 
the  average,  especially  in  "Micros,"  possibly  owing  to  the  cold 
and  wet  of  the  previous  year. 

Two  facts  were  remarked,  and  are  perhaps  worth  mentioning 
— a  greater  tendency  than  usual  in  all  variable  species  to  pro- 
duce dark  forms — and  the  prevalence  in  many  species  of  more 
than  the  usual  number  of  broods,  the  latter  perhaps  on  account 
of  the  long  hot  summer.  For  instance,  among  such  species  as 
Orrhodia  ligula  (spadicea)  and  Anchocelis  pistacina  several  freshly 
emerged  Leucania  pattens  seemed  sadly  out  of  place.  Various 
localities  such  as  Monk's  Wood,  Wicken,  and  the  Norfolk  Broads 
were  well  worked,  but  only  in  the  daytime,  and  nothing  of 
general  interest  was  obtained.  Sugar  and  light  were  also  given 
a  good  trial  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Chatteris,  but  the  fact  that 
there    are  no    woods  or  fens  near  probably    accounts    for    the 


126  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

absence  of  any  species  worthy  of  remark,  for,  although  most  of 
the  commoner  Noctusewere  abundant,  one  specimen  of  Acronycta 
strigosa  was  the  only  rarity  taken.  The  number  of  species 
observed  was  upwards  of  four  hundred,  but  the  following  only 
seem  to  deserve  mention  : — 

Sesia  formiciformis. — This  species  appears  to  occur  plentifully  in 
nearly  all  willow-holts,  but  we  find  it  hard  to  obtain  in  good  condition. 
Trochilium  bembeciformis,  which  usually  occurs  with  it,  is  easily  bred, 
but  the  few  larva  of  S.  formiciformis  which  we  have  taken  have  died 
in  the  willow-stumps  before  becoming  pupse. 

Acronycta  strigosa. — One  specimen  at  sugar  near  Chatteris.  As  far 
as  we  are  aware,  this  is  the  only  record  for  some  thirty  years  in  this 
district.  When  it  is  remembered  that  its  food-plant  (hawthorn)  is  so 
universally  distributed,  and  that  the  species  is  reported  to  be  not  hard 
to  breed  in  confinement,  it  seems  curious  that  it  should  occur  so  in- 
frequently. 

Senta  maritime/,  (ulvas). — Although  the  food-plant  is  common  in  the 
district,  this  species  occurs  in  one  locality  only,  and  that  one  of 
extremely  limited  extent.  It  would  seem  natural  to  attribute  the 
absence  of  this  and  other  reed  species  such  as  Lencania  straminea  and 
L.  obsoleta  to  the  fact  that  the  reeds  are  cut  nearly  every  year  when 
the  dykes  are  cleansed,  but  if  this  be  so,  it  is  difficult  to  explain  the 
profusion  of  Caiamia  phragmitidis,  which  feeds  in  a  very  similar  way. 

Ccenobia  despecta. — The  above  remark  applies  as  to  locality,  but 
despecta  occurs  there  in  much  greater  numbers.  The  insect  appears  to 
be  confined  to  that  part  of  the  habitat  where  the  food-plant  is  liable 
during  a  considerable  portion  of  the  year  to  be  covered  with  water. 
Last  year  we  succeeded  in  breeding  several  specimens  from  plants  of 
Jancus  lamprocarpus  (?). 

Hydnecia  nictitans. — -Noted  only  on  account  of  the  occurrence  of 
the  greyish  yellow  form  at  Hunstanton,  and  one  of  a  dark  chocolate  at 
Waxham.  It  is  strange  that,  considering  that  the  localities  are  so  very 
similar  in  character,  that  not  a  single  dark  specimen  was  taken  at 
Hunstanton,  nor  yellow  one  at  Waxham. 

Noctua  xanthographa. — Occurred  at  Waxham  in  immense  numbers. 
On  each  of  thirteen  posts  there  was  an  average  of  over  thirty  insects  on 
several  evenings,  so  that  there  was  really  no  room  for  any  other  species. 

Aglossa  aiprealis.  ■ — Plentiful  in  one  cake  and  meal  granary.  We 
have  endeavoured  to  establish  ''colonies"  in  similar  situations,  but 
hitherto  without  much  success. 

Aceentropus  niveus,  —  About  thirty  years  ago  this  occurred  in  large 
numbers  at  light.  Since  then,  although  the  dykes  containing  its  food- 
plant  have  many  times  been  diligently  searched,  no  specimen  has  been 
seen.  Our  ?urprise  was  therefore  great  on  taking  a  single  specimen  at 
an  acetylene  light  exposed  on  the  top  of  a  house  between  fifty  and  sixty 
feet  high,  the  house  itself  standing  some  twenty-five  feet  above  the 
level  of  the  surrounding  fen-land.  One  would  hardly  associate  such 
powers  of  flight  with  this  insect. 

Crambus  salinellus.  —  A  single  specimen  at  Weybourne,  and  that  a 
variety.  Although  we  have  collected  in  salt-marshes  for  years,  we 
have  not  found  the  way  of  taking  this  species. 


CURRENT    NOTES.  127 

Bactra  furfurana.  —  Hunstanton.  Very  local  and  very  small  in 
size  in  the  locality  in  which  we  found  it. 

Ephippiphora  inopiana.  —  Weybourne,  among  Inula  and  Artemisia. 
Both  have  been  mentioned  as  its  food-plant,  but  we  are  uncertain  on 
which  it  feeds. 

Xanthosetia  zcegana.  —  Chatteris.  Besides  the  type  there  was  a 
noticeable  proportion  of  the  form  ferrugana,  as  well  as  forms  inter- 
mediate between  the  two. 

Conchylis  alternana. — Waxham.     Taken  on  heads  of  Centaurea. 

Anesychia  funerella. — Common  in  the  fen-dykes  around  Chatteris, 
both  larva  and  imago,  but  for  some  reason  we  have  not  succeeded  in 
breeding  it. 

Depressaria  Jiavella. — For  the  last  two  years  we  have  bred  this 
species,  together  with  Sciaphike,  from  the  spun-up  heads  of  Ranun- 
culus, as  well  as  from  rolled  leaves  of  Centaurea.  Two  kinds  of  larvae 
were  noticed,  a  pink  one  and  a  dark  green  ;  neither  of  these,  however, 
on  pupation,  attained  the  size  of  the  Jiavella  larva  when  feeding  on  its 
usual  food-plant,  Centaurea. 

Depressaria  badiella. — A  curious  form  of  this  species  was  also  bred 
from  the  buttercup-heads  above  referred  to,  the  larva  having  been 
probably  introduced  by  mistake. 

The  Priory,  Chatteris  :   April  6th,  1905. 


CURRENT    NOTES. 

By    G.    W.    K.IRKA.LDY. 

(Continued  from  p.  58.) 

1.  E.  Krodel  :  "Duvch  Einwirkung  niederer  Teinperaturen 
auf  das  Puppenstadium  erzielte  Aberrationen  der  Lycama- 
arten"  (Allgem.  Zeitschr.  fur  Entom.  ix.  pp.  49-55,  103- 
110,  134-7  ;  text-figs.  1-21.  (Feb.  to  April,  1904)  [Lepi- 
doptera] ) . 

2.  H.  Schouteden  :  "  Faune  entom.  de  l'Afrique  tropicale  : 
Rhynchota  aethiopica  "  i.  (Ann.  Mus.  Congo  Zool.  (iii.)  i. 
pp.  1-131 ;   Index  and  Corrigenda ;    pis.  i.  and  ii.  (Nov. 

1903)  [HemipteraJ). 

3.  W.  W.  Froggatt  :    "  Locusts  and  Grasshoppers,  part  2  " 

(Agr.  Gaz.  N.S.  Wales,  xv.  pp.  240-3,  with  coloured  plate 
(unnumbered)  (March  2,  1904)   [Orthoptera]). 

4.  F.  M.  Jones  :  "  Pitcher-Plant  Insects  "  (Ent.  News,  xv. 
pp.  14-7  ;  pis.  iii.  and  iv.  (Jan.  1904) ). 

5.  M.  Gillmer  :  "  Ein  gynandromorphes  Examplar  von  dem 
Hybriden  Smerinthus  hybridus,  Stephens"  (1850)  (Allg. 
Zeitschr.  f.  Ent.  ix.  pp.  140-3 ;  text-figs.  1-3.    Apl.  15, 

1904)  [Lepidoptera]). 

6.  E.  P.  Van  Duzee  :  "Annotated  list  of  the   Pentatomidse 


128  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

recorded  from  America,  North  of  Mexico,"  &c.  (Trans. 
Amer.  Bnt.  Soc.  xxx.  pp.  1-80  (1904)  [Hemiptera]). 

7.  W.  M.  Schoyen  :  "  Beretning  om  Skadeinsekter  og  Plante- 
sygdomme "  ;  1903  (Aarsher,  Offent.  Foranst.  Landbr. 
Fremme;  [sep.  p.  1-36]  (1904). 

8.  T.  W.  Kirk:  "  Kep.  Biology,"  &c.  (11th  Bep.  Dep.  Agr. 
1903,  pp.  363-461 ;  40  plates  and  5  text-figs.  (1903) ). 

9.  "  Proc.  16th  Annual  Meeting  Assn.  Economic  Entomolo- 
gists "  (Bull.  Div.  Ent.  U.S.  no.  46,  pp.  1-113 ;  plates  i. 
and  ii.  ;  l  text-fig.  (1904) ). 

10.  E.  D.  Sanderson:  "Report  of  the  Entomologist"  (14 
Ann.  Rep.  Delaware  Agr.  Exp.  Sta.  for  1902,  pp.  109-51  ; 
figs.  10-16  (1903)  ). 

11.  W.  E.  Britton  :  "  3  Rep.  State  Entom."  (Rep.  Connecti- 
cut Agr.  Exp.  Sta.  for  1903,  pp.  i-iv  and  199-286,  pis. 
i.-viii. ;   text-figs.  27-42  (1904)  ). 

12.  C.   S.   Banks  :    "  Preliminary  Bulletin  on  Insects  of  the 

Cacao  "  (Bui.  Biol.  Lab.  Dep.  Interior  Philippine  Isles, 
no.  1,  pp.  1-58  ;  coloured  frontispiece,  and  figs.  1-60 
(totalling  51  plates)  (1904)  ). 

13.  J.  H.  Maiden:  "The  Flora  of  Norfolk  Island,  parti" 
(Proc.  Linn.  Soc.  N.S.W.,  xxviii.  pp.  692-785,  pi.  38 
(April  28th,  1904) ). 

14.  F.  L.  Washburn  :  "  Injurious  Insects  of  1903  "  (Bull. 
Minnesota  Agr.  Exp.  Sta.  84,  pp.  i-viii  and  1-184; 
coloured  plate  and  text-figs.  1-119  (Dec.  1903) ). 

15.  H.  A.  Ballou  :  "Further  Notes  on  Pests  attacking  the 
Cotton  Plant  in  the  West  Indies  "  (West  Indian  Bull.  iv. 
pp.  326-48  (1904) ). 

16.  D.  Sharp:  "Description  of  a  new  Genus  and  Species  of 
Coleoptera  (Family  Hispidae)  from  New  Britain  "  (Proc. 
Linn.  Soc.  N.S.W.  xxviii.  pp.  924-5  (April  28th,  1904)). 

17.  F.   Mum  &  D.  Sharp:    "On    the   Egg-cases   and   Early 

Stages  of  some  Cassididae  "  (Tr.  Ent.  Soc.  Lond.  pp.  1-23, 
pi.  i.-v.  (April  27th,  1904)  [Coleoptera] ). 

18.  C.  L.  Marlatt  :  "  Importations  of  Beneficial  Insects  into 
California"  (Bull.  U.S.  Div.  Ent.  44,  pp.  1-99,  text-figs. 
1-19  (1904)). 

19.  O.    F.  Cook  :    "  An  Enemy  of  the  Cotton  Boll  Weevil " 

(Rep.  U.  S.  Dep.  Agric.  78,  pp.  1-7  (May  27th,  1904) 
[Hymen,  and  Col.]  ). 

20.  C.  Sasaki  :  "  On  the  Wax  producing  Coccid,  Ericerus  jte-la, 
Westwood  "  (Bull.  Col.  Agr.  Tokyo  Imp.  Univ.  vi.  pp.  1- 
13,  pi.  1-2  (coloured)  (March,  1904)). 

21.  F.  E.  Bemis  :  "  The  Aleyrodids,  or  Mealy-winged  Flies,  of 
California,  with  references  to  other  American  Species" 
(Proc.  U.S.  Mus.  xxvii.  pp.  471-537,  pis.  27-37  (1904) ). 

22.  T.  Pergande  :  "On  some  of  the  Aphides  affecting  Grains 


CURRENT    NOTES.  129 

and  Grasses  of  the  United  States  "  (Bull.  U.S.  Div.  Ent. 
44  pp.). 

23.  G.  Leonardi  :  "  Generi  e  specie  di  Diaspiti  "  (Ann.  Scuola 
Agric.  Portici,  v.  1908)  [Herniptera] ). 

24.  P.  Spauluing  :  "Two  Fungi  growing  in  Holes  made  by 

Wood-boring  Insects"    (15th   Ann.   Rep.    Missouri   Bot. 
Gardens,  pp.  73-7,  pis.  25-7  (1904)   [Col.] ). 

25.  H.Osborn:  "The  Economic  Status  of  the  Fulgoridae"  (Proc. 
25th  Meeting  Soc.  Prom.  Agr.  Sc.pp.  32-6(1904)  [Hem]). 

26.  A.  H.  Kirkland  :  "Usefulness  of  the  American  Toad" 

(Farmers'  Bull.  196,  U.S.  Dep.  Agr.  pp.  1-16  (1904)  ). 

27.  H.  E.  Hodgkiss  :  "  The  Life-history  Treatment  of  a  Com- 
mon Palm  Scale  (Ckrysomphalus  dictyospermi,  Morgan)  " 
(41st  Ann.  Piep.  Massachusetts  Agr.  Coll.  [Publ.  Doc.  31], 
pp.  95-106,  pis.  1  and  2  (Jan.  1904) ). 

28.  R.  A.  Cooley  :  "  First  Annual  Rep.  State  Entom."  (Bull. 

Montana  Agr.  Exp.  Sta.  51,  pp.  199-274 ;  frontispiece  and 
pis.  i.-vii. ;  text-figs.  2-10  (Jan.  1904) ). 

29.  G.  A.  Baer  :  "Note  sur  un  Membracide,  myrmecophile 
de  la  Republkjue  Argentine  [Hemipt.]  "  (Bull.  Soc.  Ent. 
France,  1903,  pp.  306-8). 

30.  J.  G.  Sanders  :  "  Coccidae  of  Ohio,  I."  (Ohio  State  Acad. 

Sci.,  Special  Papers  8,  pp.  25-92,  pis.  1-9   (May  16th, 
1904)  [Hem.]). 

31.  J.  R.  de  la  Torre   Bueno  :  "A  Palaearctic  Notonecta " 

(Ent.  News,  xv.  220-1  (June,  1904)  [Hem.]). 

32.  C.  Sasaki  :  "  On  the  Feeding  of  Silkworms  with  the  Leaves 
of  Cudrania  triloba,  Hance  "  (Bull.  Coll.  Agr.  Tokyo  Imp. 
Univ.  vi.  pp.  15-9,  pis.  3  and  4  (March,  1904)). 

33.  Ditto  :  "  Corean  Race  of  Silkworms  "  (op.  cit.  21-6,  pi.  5). 

34.  Ditto  :  "  The  Beggar  Race  (Kojikiko)  of  Silkworms  "  (op. 
cit.  27-31). 

35.  Ditto:  "Double  Cocoon  Race  of  Silkworms"  (op.  cit. 
33-6,  pi.  6). 

36.  Ditto  :  "On  the  Feeding  of  the  Silkworms  with  the  Leaves 
of  wild  and  cultivated  Mulberry-trees"  (op.  cit.  37-41). 

37.  Ditto  :  "  Some  Observations  on  Anthcrcea  (Bombyx) 
yamamai,  G.  M.,  and  the  Methods  of  its  Rearing  in 
Japan"  (op.  cit.  43-50,  pi.  7). 

38.  C.  M.  Weed  :  "  The  Brown-tail  Moth  in  New  Hampshire  " 

(Bull.  N.  H.  Agr.   Sta.  107,  pp.   45-60,  text-figs.    1-10 
(Feb.  1904)   [Lepid.]). 

39.  Ditto  :  "  The  Pernicious  or  San  Jose  Scale  in  New  Hamp- 

shire "  (op.    cit.  109,  pp.  73-83,  text-figs.  1-3    (March, 
1904)   [Hem.]). 

Krodel  (1)  discusses  the  aberrations  of  Lyccena  corydon  and 
damon  caused  by  low  temperature  experiments  on  their  pupae. 
Twenty-one  under  sides  are  figured. 


130  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Schouteden  (2)  has  published  the  first  part  of  a  proposed 
monograph  of  the  Ethiopian  Heniiptera,  prepared  on  the  largest 
scale.  In  this  the  ScutellerinaB  and  Graphosomatinse  subfamilies 
of  the  Cimicidae  are  detailed,  with  two  finely  coloured  plates. 

E.  P.  Van  Duzee  (6)  has  given  us  a  much-needed  list  of  the 
Cimicidre  (or  Pentatomidse  as  he  calls  them)  of  North  America, 
twelve  species  and  one  variety  being  here  added.  191  species  are 
recorded,  163  being  known  to  the  author.  The  paper  is  charac- 
terized by  extreme  care  and  precision  in  the  description  and 
notes,  but  it  is  regretted  that  the  author  has  rejected  the  nomen- 
clature of  Bergroth  and  Kirkaldy,  based  upon  priority,  and  fallen 
back  on  the  irregular  nomenclature  of  Lethierry  and  Severin. 

Schoyen  (7)  discusses  the  injurious  insects  of  Norway  during 
1903,  on  corn,  grass,  cabbage,  fruit-trees,  &c.  There  are  ex- 
tended notes  on  the  biology  of  many  of  the  species,  most  of 
which  are  also  British.* 

T.  W.  Kirk's  Keport  (8)  is  largely  concerned  with  fruits  and 
their  inspection  ;  as  regards  entomology,  Phylloxera  is,  as  usual, 
dealt  with  at  some  length,  and  there  is  also  a  brief  notice  (with 
figures)  of  the  Fulgorid  Pochazia  australis,  the  vinehopper. 
There  are  also  interesting  notes,  with  photographs,  of  some  of 
the  South  Sea  Islands.  "  Pests  and  diseases  are  worst  on  the 
Island  of  Rarotonga,  which  appears  to  be  a  perfect  paradise 
for  all  species.  We  understand  that  there  is  a  little  scale  on 
Aitutaki,  but  the  other  islands  visited  are,  so  far  as  our  ob- 
servations went,  practically  free  from  pests,  except  black  aphis." 

The  Proceedings  of  the  recent  meeting  of  the  Association 
of  Economic  Entomologists  (9)  contain,  as  usual,  a  mass  of 
interesting  details  on  all  topics.  0.  H.  ^^wezey  presents  ob- 
servations on  the  life-history  of  IAburnia  campcstris  and 
lutulenta  (Heniiptera),  which  are  parasitised  by  a  Proctotrypid 
Hymenopteron,  Gonotopus  bicolor.  This  is  the  form  which 
has  recently  been  introduced  into  the  Hawaiian  Islands  to 
check  the  ravages  of  Perkinslella  saccharicida,  a  Fulgorid  pest 
on  sugar-cane. 

Sanderson's  Pieport  (10)  deals  principally  with  Hemiptera ; 
the  seventeen-year  Cicada  (Tibicen  septendecim)  and  the  harle- 
quin cabbage-bug  (Murgantia  histrionica)  ;  both  these  are  illus- 
trated by  photographs. 

Britton  (11)  details  at  length  the  fight  with  the  San  Jose 
scale  (Aspidiotus  perniciosus)  during  1903,  with  shorter  notes  on 
various  insects. 

Banks  (12)  publishes  a  bulletin  on  Cacao  insects.  This  is  the 
result  of  only  three  months'  investigation,  and  naturally  many 

*  I  believe  the  reference  quoted  (7)  is  correct,  but  the  copy  before  rne, 
which  I  owe  to  the  kindness  of  the  author,  has  only  the  appearance  of  a 
separate  publication.  The  title-page  is  dated  1903,  but  the  last  page  is 
"  Gte  Januar,  1904." 


CURRENT      NOTES.  131 

of  the  insects  are  not  fully  determined.  The  principal  enemies  of 
Cacao  in  the  Philippines  are  a  Cicadid  which  attacks  the  roots ; 
a  Cerambycid  larva  and  Termites  which  destroy  the  trunk  and 
branches ;  and  various  caterpillars  and  aphides  ravishing  the 
leaves. 

In  a  monographic  paper  on  the  "  Flora  of  Norfolk  Island  " — 
a  small  island  almost  equidistant  from  New  Zealand  and  New 
Caledonia— Maiden  (13)  notes  (pp.  769-70)  that  at_ present  the 
islanders  are  little  cursed  with  insect-pests.  He  noticed  "  mealy 
bug"  on  oranges  and  lemons,  and  "black  scale"  on  Lisbon 
lemons.  Onions  are  liable  also  to  the  attacks  of  a  scale-insect, 
while  water-melons  are  attacked  by  aphids.  White  ants  are 
absent,  and  mosquitoes  very  rare. 

Washburn's  latest  Bulletin  (14)  contains  much  information 
upon  various  entomological  topics ;  the  coloured  plate  contains 
fourteen  drawings  of  larvse  of  Lepidoptera  and  Hymenoptera. 
Ballou  (15)  discusses  at  some  length  the  recent  serious  outbreaks 
of  the  cotton-worm  (Aletia  argillacea)  that  have  been  experienced 
in  the  West  Indies,  St.  Vincent  being  the  only  cotton-growing 
island  to  escape.  D.  Sharp  (16)  describes  a  new  beetle  which 
has  severely  ravaged  young  palms  in  Beraia ;  "  the  insect 
deposits  its  eggs  upon  the  young  shoots  of  the  plant  upon  which 
the  larvae  feed." 

The  same  author  collaborates  with  F.  Muir  (17)  in  an  im- 
portant and  well-illustrated  paper  on  the  metamorphoses  of 
certain  Coleoptera. 

Marlatt  (18)  notes  that  the  Coccinellid  Vedalia  cardinalis  is 
maintaining  its  usefulness  in  California,  being  regularly  bred  up 
by  Mr.  Craw  and  others.  "  The  rapidity  with  which  a  colony  of 
scales  is  cleared  up  by  these  insects  is  something  marvellous,  a 
few  weeks  only  being  sufficient  for  it  to  clear  up  a  considerable 
area  of  infestation."  Of  more  recent  importations,  Scutellista 
cyanea  "  is  apparently  duplicating  against  the  black  scale  the 
wonderful  work  of  the  Vedalia  against  the  white  scale  in  Cali- 
fornia." 

0.  F.  Cook  (19)  has  discovered  a  formidable  enemy  in  Guate- 
mala of  the  destructive  cotton-boll  weevil  (Anthonomus  grandis). 
This  foe  is  an  ant,  which  spreads  over  the  cotton-fields,  and, 
attacking  the  weevils,  paralyses  them  after  the  manner  of  so 
many  other  Aculeate  Hymenoptera.  Arrangements  are  appa- 
rently being  made  to  introduce  this  beneficial  insect  into  Texas, 
where  the  ravages  of  the  weevil  have,  been  so  appalling. 

Sasaki  (20)  concludes  that  the  Chinese  wax-scale  is  a  native 
of  both  China  and  Japan.  His  excellent  paper  is  illustrated  by 
two  fine  plates.  Miss  Bemis  (21)  adds  nineteen  species  of 
Aleyrodidffi  to  the  North  American  fauna,  these  being  described 
in,  mostly,  all  their  stages  very  fully.  Pergande  has  (22)  un- 
ravelled a  vast  amount  of  confusion  in  certain  Aphidae.     He  has 


132  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

proved  that  Siphocoryne  avence,  Fabr.,  feeds  on  a  great  number 
of  plants,  including  apple,  pear,  cberry,  hawthorn,  celery,  wheat, 
oats,  and  various  grasses,  and  is  the  Aphis  mali,  Fitch,  pruni- 
folice,  Fitch,  &c.  The  genuine  Aphis  mali,  DeGeer,  has  only 
quite  recently  appeared  in  America.  Macrosiphum  granaria, 
Buckton*  (formerly  confused  with  Siphocoryne  avence) ,  M.  cerealis, 
Kalt.,  and  trifolii,  Perg.,  n.  sp.,  are  fully  discussed.  It  seems  a 
pity  to  introduce  "  vulgar  "  names  with  almost  every  species,  as 
is  the  custom  with  the  American  entomologists ;  "  German 
grain  louse,"  "English  grain  louse,"  and  "European  grain 
louse  "  are  not  only  not  distinctive,  but  even  misleading. 

The  School  of  Agriculture  in  Portici,  near  Naples,  are  rapidly 
turning  out  entomological  studies  second  to  none  in  accuracy 
and  thoroughness.  Two  of  the  recent  publications  embrace  a 
monographical  revision  (23)  of  the  Parlatoria  and  Mytilaspis 
(recte  Lepidosaphes)  groups  of  the  Coccidas.  Unfortunately  only 
reprints  (separately  paged,  alas  !)  are  before  me,  so  that  it  can 
only  be  said  that  the  Parlatoria  paper  extends  to  59  pages  with 
16  cuts,  the  Mytilaspis  114  with  42  cuts. 

Spaulding  (24)  remarks  that  the  relations  existing  between 
some  of  the  fungi  and  the  wood-boring  insects  is  as  yet  but  little 
understood,  and  its  economic  significance  probably  much  under- 
rated. He  states  that  on  rotting  logs  of  Pinus  palustris,  in 
Texas,  two  species  of  fleshy  Agaricoid  fungi  were  growing  out 
numerously  from  the  holes  of  wood-boring  insects.  The  latter 
are  present  in  every  log  in  large  numbers,  and,  although  many 
of  the  holes  had  no  fungus  growing  in  them,  the  two  fungi  were, 
with  a  single  exception,  never  found  growing  otherwise.  Various 
other  cases  are  cited,  including  the  "Ambrosia-beetles,"  which 
prepare  beds  for  and  plant  the  spores,  feeding  exclusively,  so 
far  as  is  known,  on  the  fruiting  portions  of  the  fungi. 

Osborn  (25)  discusses  the  prominence  into  which  the  Ful- 
gorida3  have  risen  through  the  comparatively  recent  discovery  of 
their  economic  importance. 

Montana  is  one  of  the  last  of  the  United  States  to  appoint  an 
entomologist,  in  the  person  of  Mr.  R.  A.  Cooley,  the  well-known 
student  of  Coccidae.  A  large  portion  of  his  first  report  (28) 
deals  with  "Locusts,"  and  with  notes  on  fruit-pests,  &c.  It  is 
largely  illustrated.  Baer  (29)  publishes  a  brief  note  on  the 
relations  between  Enchenopa  ferruginea,  Buckton,  and  Campo- 
notus  punctulatus,  Mayr,  with  remarks  on  other  Myrmecophiles. 
Bueno  (31)  records  the  occurrence,  in  British  Columbia,  of  Noto- 
necta  lutea,  Miiller,  a  European  form. 

*  This  name  cannot  be  considered  valid,  as  Buckton  refers  his  species  to 
granaria,  Kirby.     I  propose  avenivorum,  n.  n. 


133 


A    LIST     OF     THE     "  MACRO-LEPIDOPTERA "     OF 
LANCASTER    AND     DISTRICT. 

By  C.  H.  Forsythe. 

(Continued  from  p.  110.) 

Ncmagria  arundinis  (typha). —  "Near  Cockerham  in  September" 
(G.  Loxham). 

Tapinostola  fulva. — Local  near  Rush-a-lee  in  September.  Our 
local  form  is  nearly  white. 

Gortyna  ochracea.—"  The  larvae  are  common  near  Cockerham  Moss 
in  July  and  August"  (G.  Loxham). 

Hydrcecia  nictitans. — Common  and  fairly  well  distributed  in  July, 
August,  and  early  September. 

H.  petasitis. — Near  Hest  Bank  and  Carlisle  Bridge.  The  larvas 
occur  in  the  roots  of  the  butter-bur  {Petasites  vulgaris)  in  June  and 
July. 

H.  micacea. — Common  everywhere  in  August  and  September,  and 
comes  to  sugar  and  bloom  freely. 

Xylophasia  rurea. — Common  everywhere  in  May  and  June ;  the 
var.  combusta  is  fairly  common. 

X.  lithoxylea. — Comes  to  sugar  in  the  County  Asylum  grounds,  at 
Bowerham,  Blea  Tarn,  &c,  end  of  July  and  August. 

X.  sublustris. — Uncommon  ;  near  Halton,  County  Asylum  grounds 
and  Witherslack,  in  June  and  July. 

X.  monoglypha  (polyodon). — Abundant  and  very  variable  in  colour — 
from  light  grey  to  black — in  June,  July,  and  August. 

Epineuronia  [Neuronia)  popularis. — Fairly  common  some  years,  not 
so  in  others  ;  Halton,  Quernmore,  Blea  Tarn,  County  Asylum  grounds, 
&c,  in  August  and  September. 

Charteas  graminis. — Generally  distributed  but  nowhere  common,  in 
July  and  August. 

Luperina  testacea. — Comes  freely  to  street  lamps  in  August  and 
September,  and  is  generally  distributed. 

Mamestra  furva. — Local,  near  Clougha  at  sugar  in  July.  "  Fairly 
common  at  Witherslack  "  (G.  Loxham). 

M.  brassica. — Plentiful  everywhere  ;  all  through  August  and  Sep- 
tember the  larvae  are  to  be  found  feeding  upon  cabbage  and  other 
Cruciferae  in  nearly  every  garden. 

M.  persicaritB. — I  have  only  bred  this  species  from  Methop  and 
Witherslack  larvae  taken  in  September.  The  imago  appears  in  June 
and  July. 

Apamea  basilinea. — Fairly  common  in  Grimshaw  Lane,  Blea  Tarn, 
Bowerham,  &c,  in  June. 

A.  gemina. — Fairly  common  and  generally  distributed  in  June 
and  July. 

A.  didyma  (pculea), — Abundant  and  very  variable;  comes  freely  to 
sugar  everywhere  in  July  and  August. 

Miana  strigilis. — Fairly  plentiful  at  sugar,  County  Asylum  grounds, 
Halton,  near  Clougha,  Blea  Tarn,  Bowerham,  &c,  in  June  and  July. 
The  var.  cethiops  is  common. 


134  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

.1/.  fasciuncnla. — Fairly  common  at  sugar  at  Blea  Tarn,  Hal  ton, 
Quernmore,  County  Asylum  grounds,  &c.,  in  June. 

M.  literosa. — Not  common  but  generally  distributed ;  comes  to 
sugar  and  bloom  in  July  and  August. 

M.  furuncula. — Uncommon,  County  Asylum  grounds  in  July. 

Phothedes  captiuncula. — Local,  near  Whitbarrow  (Witherslack)  and 
at  Arnside  in  July  and  August. 

Celana  haworthii, — Uncommon  ;  I  have  taken  odd  examples  at 
Methop  and  near  Clougha  in  July. 

Grammesia  trigrammica  (trilinea). — Not  plentiful ;  comes  to  bloom 
and  sugar  in  July  in  the  County  Asylum  grounds  and  near  Blea  Tarn. 
I  have  bred  it  from  Methop  larvae  taken  in  May. 

Caradrina  morpheus. — Uncommon ;  I  have  only  taken  it  in  Grimshaw 
Lane,  and  bred  it  from  larvae  (same  locality)  taken  in  September.  The 
moth  appears  in  June. 

C.  quadripunctata  I cubic ularis). — Fairly  plentiful  at  sugar  in  late 
May  and  again  in  September.  County  Asylum  grounds,  Halton,  Blea 
Tarn,  Quernmore,  Freeman's  Wood,  &c. 

Rush  i  a  tenebrosa. — Fairly  common  at  sugar,  County  Asylum  grounds, 
Blea  Tarn,  and  Halton,  and  I  have  bred  it  from  Methop  larvae.  The 
moth  appears  in  June  and  July. 

Agrotis  vestigialis  (valligera). — Fairly  plentiful  at  Heysham  on  the 
flowers  of  ragwort  (Senecio  jacobtece),  in  July  and  August. 

A.  puta. — Not  plentiful  at  Heysbam  in  late  July. 

A.  suffusa. — Comes  to  sugar  in  September;  County  Asylum  grounds, 
Blea  Tarn,  &c,  and  is  fairly  common. 

A.  saucia. — Comes  to  sugar  in  September.     Not  common. 

A.  segetxun. — Common  at  sugar  in  September;  some  of  the  forms 
show  a  tendency  to  melanism. 

A.  exclamationis. — Common  at  Heysbam  in  June  ;  comes  to  sugar 
and  bloom. 

A.  cursoria. — Occurs  at  Heysham  in  July. 

A.  corticea. — Not  common  about  Heysbam  in  early  July. 

A.  nigricans. — Comes  to  ragwort  flowers  freely  in  July ;  Heysham,  &c. 

A.  tritici. — Fairly  common  about  Heysbam  in  July.  Comes  to  the 
flowers  of  the  ragwort. ' 

A.  aquilina. — Uncommon  ;  about  Heysham  in  July  and  August. 

Noctua  glareosa. — Not  common.  I  have  taken  odd  specimens  at 
Blea  Tarn  and  in  the  County  Asylum  grounds,  and  bred  it  from 
Witherslack  larvae.     The  moth  appears  in  August  and  September. 

2V.  augur. — Common  at  sugar  in  July ;  Blea  Tarn,  Quernmore, 
County  Asylum  grounds,  &c. 

N.  plecta. — Fairly  common  at  sugar  in  July  ;  County  Asylum 
grounds,  Grimshaw  Lane,  Halton,  &c.  I  have  also  bred  it  from 
Methop  and  Witherslack  larvae. 

.V.  e-nigrum. — Fairly  common  at  sugar  everywhere  during  late 
summer  and  autumn. 

N.  brunnea. — Generally  distributed  but  not  plentiful  ;  comes  to 
sugar  in  July. 

A7,  festiva. — Fairly  common  throughout  the  district.  I  have  taken 
it  at  sugar  in  July  in  nearly  all  the  localities  in  which  I  have 
collected. 


NOTES    AND    OBSERVATIONS.  135 

N.    ruH.  —  Plentiful    at    sugar   during   August ;    County    Asylum 
grounds,  Quernmore,  Blea  Tarn,  &c. 

N.    umbrosa.  —  Comes    to  sugar  and   bloom    in   August;    County 
Asylum  grounds,  Grimshaw  Lane,  Blea  Tarn,  Freeman's  Wood,  &c. 

X.  baja. — Fairly  common  and  generally  distributed  in  July. 

N.  xanthographa. — Abundant  at  sugar  everywhere  in  late  July  and 
August. 

(To  be  continued.) 


NOTES     AND     OBSERVATIONS. 

On  bebalf  of  the  late  Mr.  C.  G.  Barrett's  family,  I  bave  great 
pleasure  in  announcing  that  we  have  been  able  to  persuade  Mr. 
Richard  South  to  superintend  the  publication  of  the  remaining  manu- 
scripts of  the  '  Lepidoptera  of  the  British  Islands,'  which  will  carry 
the  work  to  the  completion  of  the  Tortricina. — C.  G.  B. 

Note  on  Agrotis  puta. — Lame  of  A.  puta,  a  brood  of  which  I 
have  been  rearing,  were  full-fed  early  in  December,  about  the  10th,  I 
think.  They  are  only  just  beginning  to  pupate.  The  first  changed  on 
March  17th,  and  so  far  only  three  out  of  about  eighty  have  pupated. — 
H.  V.  Plum  ;  The  College,  Epsom,  March  20th. 

Notes  on  Tortrix  podana.  —  Some  weeks  ago,  finding  I  wanted  a 
few  specimens  of  Tortrix  forsterana  to  complete  my  series,  I  collected 
about  half  a  dozen  larv»  from  ivy,  and  placed  them  in  a  warm  green- 
house to  hasten  their  emergence.  The  moths  began  to  appear  early  in 
the  present  month,  and  I  was  greatly  surprised  to  find  not  only 
T.  forsterana  in  the  breeding-cage,  but  also  T.  podana.  It  is  well 
known  that  T.  podana  is  extremely  polyphagous  in  its  habits,  but, 
with  the  exception  of  once  breeding  the  species  from  yew,  I  have 
never  before  known  it  to  occur  on  an  evergreen  plant.  For  the  past 
two  or  three  years  T.  podana  has  been  very  troublesome  in  the  vineries 
here.  The  larva?,  when  young,  feed  between  united  vine-leaves,  and 
in  the  warmth  necessary  for  forced  vines  quickly  attain  their  full 
development,  and  if  not  checked  thus  produce  two  or  three  broods  in  a 
season.  When  the  larva?  are  about  half-grown  they  frequently  forsake 
the  leaves  of  the  plant  and  attack  the  fruit.  At  the  present  time, 
when  the  bunches  of  grapes  are  just  setting,  they  not  infrequently  bite 
through  the  tender  stalks,  thus  ruining  the  entire  bunch.  Later, 
when  the  grapes  are  about  half-developed  and  still  green,  they  bore 
into  the  individual  berries,  causing  each  one  attacked  to  mould  and 
decay.  During  last  year  I  frequently  noticed,  in  the  pages  of  '  The 
Garden'  and  'Gardener's  Chronicle,'  queries  respecting  a  Tortricid 
larva  which  was  causing  great  havoc  in  vineries.  The  answers  almost 
invariably  given  were  that  the  species  was  referable  to  T.  forsterana. 
Judging  from  my  own  experience,  I  have  little  doubt  that  T.  podana 
was  the  real  culprit.  The  larva?  of  both  species  are  much  alike,  and 
might  readily  be  mistaken  for  one  another  by  anyone  not  very  well 
acquainted  with  Tortricid  larva?.  Whilst,  however,  it  is  most  unusual 
for  P.  podana  to  be  found  on  evergreen  plants,  it  is  equally  unusual  to 


136  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

find  T.  forsterana  on  deciduous  ones.  Ivy  is,  of  course,  its  usual  food- 
plant,  and  I  have  also  found  it  on  laurustinus  ;  honeysuckle  is  given 
by  many  authorities,  but,  so  far  as  my  experience  goes,  this  is  no 
exception  to  the  rule,  as  it  only  occurs  on  Lonicera  fragrantissima, 
which  is  an  evergreen  species. — E.  Maude  Alderson  ;  April  11th. 

The  Mason  Collection.  — Fifteen  specimens  of  Deiopeia  pulchella 
sold  at  from  8/-  to  a  guinea  apiece.  An  example  of  Emydia  grammica, 
from  E.  Shepherd's  coll.,  together  with  a  specimen  of  D.  pulchella,  said 
to  have  been  taken  at  Camden  Town,  only  made  10/-.  A  male  E.  gram- 
mica  (Tunbridge  Wells)  14/-,  and  a  female  of  the  same  species  from 
Windsor 9/-.  Ablack  aberration  of  Callimorpha  dominula  realized£3 10s. 
while  another  variety,  with  brown  hind  wings,  made  30/-.  There  were 
a  good  many  interesting  aberrations  of  Arctia  caia,  and  thirteen  of  the 
best  of  these  brought  in  a  total  of  £27  17s.  The  highest  price  being 
5  guineas  for  one  example,  and  the  lowest  20/-  for  two  specimens. 
The  type  of  Spilosoma  menthastri  var.  u-alkeri,  Curtis,  went  for  21/-. 
Twenty-four  specimens  of  Lcelia  ccenosa,  put  up  in  pairs,  sold  at  from 
10/6  to  £3  per  pair.  Of  Epicnaptera  (Gastropacha)  ilicifolia  there 
were  ten  examples,  and  the  price  for  these  ranged  from  25/-  to  70/-  a 
couple.  Twelve  specimens  of  Drepana  harpagula  (sicula)  from  the 
Bristol  locality  made  20/-  to  40/-  per  pair,  while  three  males  were 
secured  for  1  guinea.  Centra  bicuspis,  of  which  there  were  eighteen 
Tilgate  specimens,  made  5/-  to  15/-  each.  A  specimen  of  Glyphisa 
crenata  ("Isle  of  Man,  E.  G.  Meek,  1870"),  when  offered  alone  did 
not  obtain  a  bid,  but  when  included  with  ninety-nine  other  specimens 
of  desirable  species,  the  round  hundred  made  20/-.  Four  specimens 
of  Leucodonta  (Xotodonta)  bicolor  (three  from  Staffs,  and  one  from  Ire- 
land), realized  £8  10s.  For  a  specimen  of  Notodonta  trilophus,  "  reared 
from  a  larva  found  in  Essex,  J.  W.  Douglas,"  the  bidding  rose  to 
£6  10s. ;  but  another  example  of  the  same  species  ("  Ergham,  Norfolk, 
Gurney  "),  only  made  £2  10s.,  and  a  third  specimen  (from  E.  Brown's 
coll.)  had  to  be  put  up  with  two  other  lots  of  nice  Notodonts,  when 
the  combined  lots  sold  for  17/-.  Five  Synia  musculosa  were  disposed 
of  at  5/-  to  11/-  each.  Leucania  vitelline/,  sold  at  11-  and  9/-  a  couple 
but  single  specimens  included  with  half-a-dozen  L.  turca  produced  8/-, 
10/-,  and  11/-  per  lot.  The  specimen  of  Leucania  extranea  recorded 
by  the  late  Mr.  W.  P.  Weston  (Entom.  xii.  19),  only  realized  9/-. 
Nonagria  sparganii,  from  Dover,  made  4/-  to  8/-  each,  but  four  other 
specimens  without  data  went  for  8/-.  One  example  of  Luperina 
dumerili  and  one  of  L.  gueneei,  each  with  a  history,  fetched  12/-,  and 
for  one  specimen  of  the  last-named,  from  Sang's  coll.,  5/-  was  given. 
Four  Hydrilla  palustris,  with  data,  sold  at  22/-  and  24/-  per  pair, 
while  two  lots,  each  including  two  males  of  this  species,  with  other 
things,  only  made  7/-  and  8/-  the  lot.  The  specimen  of  Noctxia  sab- 
gothica,  from  which  the  figure  in  Stephens'  "Illustrations"  was 
drawn,  with  another  example  of  the  same  species,  brought  in  a  guinea; 
but  the  type  of  Agrotis  lunigera,  Steph.,  was  bought  for  the  Tring 
Museum  at  £3.  Of  Noctua  stibrosea,  a  moth  that  appears  to  be  now 
extinct  in  Britain,  there  was  a  nice  series  of  fourteen  specimens.  The 
first  of  these  were  the  male  and  female  types  from  Yaxley  Fen,  de- 
scribed by   Stephens ;  these  made  £5  10s.,  and  go   into   the    Tring 


CAPTURES  AND  FIELD  REPORTS.  137 

Museum.  The  others  were  offered  singly,  and  realized  all  sorts  of 
prices,  from  30/-  up  to  £4,  for  specimens  that  might  be  described  as 
decent  to  fine;  two  somewhat  poor  specimens  only  made  10/-  and  14/- 
each. 


CAPTURES  AND  FIELD  REPORTS. 

Hertfordshire  Coleoptera. — Eight  new  species  have  been  added 
to  the  Hertfordshire  list  during  1904  by  Mr.  E.  G.  Elliman,  of  The 
Broadway,  Chesham.  They  are  : — Harpalus  sabulicola  (Ross  way,  near 
Berkhampstead),  Cercyon  nigriceps  (Tring),  Homalota  consanguinea  (two 
examples  in  much-decayed  beech-leaves  at  Tring),  Placusa  pumilio 
(under  bark  of  oak  at  Rossway),  Myllana  minuta  (Wiggington),  Catops 
sericatus  (taken  by  sweeping  at  Aldbury),  Coccinella  hieroglyphica  (Aid- 
bury  Owers),  and  Hister  bissexstriatus  (St.  Albans).  With  the  exception 
of  the  last-named  species,  which  was  captured  by  myself,  all  the  above 
were  discovered  by  Mr.  Elliman.  —  A.  E.  Gibbs;  Kitchener's  Meads, 
St.  Albans. 

Lepidoptera  in  Hertfordshire. — At  a  meeting  of  the  members  of 
the  Hertfordshire  Natural  History  Society  and  Field  Club,  held  at 
Watford  on  March  29th,  Mr.  A.  E.  Gibbs,  F.L.S.,  of  St.  Albans,  pre- 
sented a  report  on  the  Lepidoptera  observed  in  the  county  chiefly 
during  1904.  Although  tbe  season,  generally  speaking,  was  an  un- 
favourable one,  seven  additional  species,  mustly  recorded  during  1904, 
were  added  to  the  county  list.  They  are: — 1.  Xylina semibrunnea ; 
four  specimens  taken  at  sugar  at  Baldock,  in  August  and  September,  by 
Mr.  A.  H.  Foster,  of  The  Grange.  2.  Melanippe  galiata,  taken  by 
Miss  Alice  Dickinson  at  New  Farm,  St.  Albans.  3.  Anticlea  sinuata, 
taken  both  at  St.  Albans  by  Miss  Dickinson,  and  at  Hexton  by  Mr. 
Foster  ;  at  the  latter  locality  five  specimens  were  beaten  from  a  hedge 
on  the  chalk-hills.  4.  Cidaria  siderata,  taken  at  Tring  in  the  larval 
stage  by  Mr.  A.  T.  Goodson.  5.  Scoparia  angustea,  captured  at  Wat- 
ford in  1900  by  Mr.  V.  P.  Kitchin.  6.  Aceptiiia  galactodactyla,  taken  at 
St.  Albans  by  Miss  Dickinson.  7.  Tinea  granella,  caught  at  St. 
Albans  by  Mr.  Gibbs.  These  seven  records  brought  up  the  total 
number  of  species  on  the  list  kept  by  the  Society  to  1165.  So  far  as 
the  Rhopalocera  were  concerned,  Mr.  Gibbs  said  he  had  little  to  report, 
most  of  his  correspondents  being  agreed  as  to  their  comparative 
scarcity,  the  only  exception  to  this  being  Pieris  rapes,  the  second 
brood  of  which  were  stated  by  Miss  Dickinson  to  have  been  unusually 
abundant.  Mr.  Gibbs  showed  a  series  of  specimens  of  males  of  the 
early  brood  of  this  species,  taken  in  his  garden  at  St.  Albans,  in  which 
the  black  markings  were  either  very  faintly  indicated  or  entirely 
wanting.  The  extreme  form  was  known  as  ab.  immaculata,  and  by 
way  of  contrast  some  strongly  marked  specimens  of  the  second  brood 
were  also  exhibited.  Alluding  to  the  occurrence  of  Deilephila  livornica 
in  the  British  Isles  in  1904,  Mr.  Gibbs  said  he  could  not  hear  of  any 
stragglers  having  reached  Hertfordshire,  but  he  exhibited  a  specimen 
taken  by  Miss  Ada  Selby  in  her  garden  at  Bottler's  Green  in  1898, 
and  mentioned  that  a  second  example  has  since  been  taken  by  her  at 

ENTOM. — MAY,    1905.  M 


138  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

the  same  place.  The  only  previous  record  of  which  he  was  aware  of 
the  capture  of  this  moth  in  the  county  was  at  Cheshunt,  where  Mr. 
W.  C.  Boyd  was  fortunate  enough  to  secure  one  on  August  25th,  1868. 
Sphinx  convolvuli  was  several  times  reported  during  1904,  and  Chcero- 
campa  porcellus  was  taken  on  July  2nd  by  Mr.  Arthur  Cottam,  of  Wat- 
ford, flying  over  a  honeysuckle-bush.  The  rapid  spread  of  Plusia 
moneta,  which  was  becoming  one  of  the  commonest  garden  insects  in 
the  district,  was  alluded  to,  and  a  long  series  of  specimens  reared  from 
larvae  captured  on  aconite  in  the  recorder's  garden  at  Kitchener's 
Meads,  St.  Albans,  was  shown,  a  short  account  of  the  life-history  of 
the  species  being  given.  Among  the  records  of  the  year  was  the  cap- 
ture of  Panolis  piniperda  near  St.  Albans,  an  insect  which  possessed  a 
special  interest  for  them,  as  the  first  British  specimen  was  taken 
at  Hertford  in  1810  by  Mr.  J.  F.  Stevens,  the  father  of  English  ento- 
mology. Detailed  reports  of  observations  made  during  1904  by  Miss 
A.  Dickinson,  of  New  Farm,  near  St.  Albans  ;  Mr.  Arthur  Cottam,  of 
Eldercroft,  Watford  (who  is  unfortunately  leaving  the  neighbourhood 
very  shortly  to  reside  in  Somersetshire)  ;  Mr.  P.  J.  Barraud,  of  Bushey 
Heath  ;  Mr.  V.  P.  Kitchin,  of  Watford  ;  Mr.  A.  T.  Goodson,  of  Tring ; 
Mr.  W.  C.  Boyd,  of  Waltham  Cross  ;  Mr.  A.  H.  Foster,  of  Hitchm  ; 
and  the  recorder  were  then  presented  to  the  Society. —  A.  E.  Gibbs  ; 
Kitchener's  Meads,  St.  Albans. 

Erratum. — P.  120,  line  14  from  bottom,  for  "early  in  March" 
read  "  on  February  21st." 


SOCIETIES. 


Entomological  Society  of  London. — March  15th,  1905. — Mr.  F. 
Merrifield,  President,  in  the  chair. — Sehor  Don  Ignacio  Bolivar,  of 
Paseo  de  Becoletos  Bajo,  20,  and  Calle  Jorge  Juan,  17,  Madrid,  was 
elected  an  Honorary  Fellow  of  the  Society,  in  the  place  of  Professor 
F.  M.  Brauer,  deceased.  Mr.  Frank  P.  Dodd,  of  Kuranda,  via  Cairns, 
Queensland  ;  Mr.  Cecil  Floersheim,  of  16,  Kensington  Court  Mansions, 
S.W. ;  Mr.  Joseph  Lane  Hancock,  of  3757,  Indiana  Avenue,  Chicago ; 
and  Mr.  Herbert  C.  Bobinson,  Curator  of  the  State  Museum,  Kuala 
Lumpur,  Selangor,  were  elected  Fellows  of  the  Society.  —  Mr.  C.  O. 
Waterhouse  announced  tbat  the  late  Mr.  Alexander  Fry,  a  Fellow  of 
the  Society,  had  bequeathed  his  large  and  important  collections  of 
Coleoptera  to  the  British  Museum. — Dr.  F.  A.  Dixey  exhibited  some 
butterflies  from  Natal  which  had  been  presented  by  Mr.  G.  A.  K. 
Marshall  to  the  Hope  Department  at  Oxford,  illustrating  certain  ex- 
periments made  with  a  view  to  determine  whether  the  assumption  of  the 
wet  or  dry  season  form  of  various  African  butterflies  could  be  con- 
trolled by  exposure  in  the  pupal  state  to  artificial  conditions  of  tempe- 
rature and  moisture. — Mr.  W.  E.  Sharp,  a  specimen  of  the  North 
American  Longicorn,  Neoclytus  erythrocephalus.  He  said  the  species 
had  been  discovered  in  a  sound  ash-tree  seven  inches  from  the  bark, 
grown  in  the  neighbourhood  of  St.  Helens,  Lancashire.  Some  palings 
of  American  ash  in  the  vicinity  suggested  the  origin  of  the  progenitors 


SOCIETIES.  139 

of  the  colony  ;  but  it  was  not  known  how  long  they  had  been  erected. 
He  also  showed  examples  of  Amara  anthobia,  Villa,  with  a  series  of  A. 
familiaris,  Duf.,  and  A.  htcida  for  comparison.  They  had  been  sent 
him  by  the  Eev.  G.  A.  Crawsbaw  from  Leighton  Buzzard,  where  they 
occurred  not  infrequently  at  the  roots  of  grass  in  sandy  places. — Mr. 
M.  Burr,  a  number  of  multilated  Stenobothrus  from  the  Picos  de 
Europa,  Spain.  Of  the  grasshoppers  occurring  on  this  spot,  almost 
every  specimen  had  the  wings  and  elytra  more  or  less  mutilated,  some- 
times actually  torn  to  shreds,  entirely  altering  their  appearance.  A 
notable  exception  was  S.  bicolor,  of  which  no  single  specimen  was 
found  mutilated.  This  species  also  frequently  indulged  in  flight, 
which  the  others  were  unable  to  do ;  and  he  suggested  that  its  immu- 
nity might  be  due  to  the  vitality  which  has  enabled  it  to  become  the 
most  abundant  and  widespread  grasshopper  in  Europe.  —  Mr.  F.  W. 
Pierce,  drawings  of  the  genitalia  of  Noctuid  moths,  and  also  with  the 
lantern  a  number  of  slides  showing  the  respective  peculiarities  of 
many  members  of  the  genus. 

April  5th. — Mr.  P.  Merrifield,  President,  in  the  chair. — The  decease  of 
Dr.  Alpheus  S.  Packard,  an  Honorary  Fellow,  and  of  Mr.  Alfred  Beau- 
mont, and  M.  Alfred  Preudhomme  de  Borre,  Fellows  of  the  Society,  was 
announced. — Mr.  H.  St.  J.Douistborpe  exhibited  specimens  of  amelanic 
Grammoptera,  discovered  by  Mr.  J.  C.  T.  Poole  at  Enfield,  which  appeared 
to  be  quite  distinct  from  any  member  of  the  genus  taken  in  Britain. — 
Mr.  M.  Jacoby  brought  for  exhibition  a  specimen  oiMegalopus  melipoma, 
Bates,  an  insect  which  so  much  resembles  a  bee  that  Bates  had  said  they 
were  indistinguishable  in  nature. — Mr.  A.  Bacot  exhibited,  on  behalf 
of  Dr.  Culpin,  specimens  of  Papilio  macleayana  and  Hypocysta  metirius 
captured  in  Queensland,  illustrating  the  use  of  "  directive  "  markings 
in  the  Rhopalocera  in  influencing  their  enemies  to  attack  non-vital 
parts. — Mr.  G.  J.  Arrow,  an  example  of  CeratopUrus  stahli,  Wast.,  a 
beetle  from  Australia  possessing  notable  powers  of  crepitation. — Mr. 
A.  H.  Jones  and  Mr.  H.  Rowland-Brown  showed  a  series  of  Erehia 
alecto  {ylacialis)  var.  nicholli,  Obth.,  taken  by  them  at  about  8000  ft., 
at  Campiglio,  South  Tyrol,  with  specimens  of  Dasydia  tenebraria  var. 
wockearia,  caught  in  the  company  of  the  Erebias  in  the  same  localities. 
Mr.  Jones  also  exhibited  examples  of  Krebia  melas  from  the  Parnassus 
Mountains,  Greece,  for  comparison,  and  fine  forms  of  butterflies  found 
at  Mendel,  near  Botzen. — Mr.  W.  J.  Kaye  exhibited  a  series  of  bred 
Morpho  adonis  from  British  Guiana,  with  the  very  rare  dimorphic 
black-and-white  female. — Dr.  F.  A.  Dixey,  the  social  web  and  pupal 
shells  of  Eacheira  socialis,  Westw.,  together  with  specimens  of  the 
perfect  insect,  being  the  actual  nest  from  Mexico  described  and  figured 
by  Westwood  in  the  Transactions  for  1836,  in  connection  with  which 
exhibit  the  Rev.  W.  T.  Holland,  of  Pittsburgh,  U.S.A.,  gave  an 
account  of  a  social  silk  cocoon  spinning  species  he  had  met  with 
also  from  Mexico. — Professor  E.  B.  Poulton,  F.R.S.,  read  a  note 
recently  received  from  Mr.  S.  A.  Neave,  giving  further  interesting 
evidence  of  the  superstitious  dread  of  larva?  with  terrifying  eye-like 
markings  entertained  by  the  natives  of  Rhodesia. — The  President  read 
a  note  on  experiments  conducted  by  him  to  ascertain  the  vitality  of 
pupas  subjected  to  submersion. — Mr.  H.  A.  Byatt,  B.A.,  read  a  paper 
on  "  Pseudacrcea  poggei  and  Limnas  chrysippus;  the  Numerical  Proportion 


140  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

of  Mimic  to  Model." — Mr.  G.  Bethune-Baker  contributed  "A  Mono- 
graph on  the  Genus  Ogyris." — H.  Rowland-Brown,  M.A.,  Hon.  Sec. 

South  London  Entomological  and  Natural  History  Society. — 
March  9th.— Mr.  Hugh  Main,  B.  Sc,  F.E.S.,  President,  in  the  chair.— 
Mr.  Harrison  exhibited  a  living  specimen  of  a  large  green  orthopterou 
found  among  bananas  imported  from  Jamaica. — Mr.  Main,  a  box  in 
which  a  living  Javan  spider  had  been  kept.  A  number  of  ova  had 
been  deposited,  and  a  brood  of  young  spiders  had  emerged.  These  had 
spun  a  dense  mass  of  web,  and  then  shed  their  skins.  He  also  showed 
a  photograph  of  the  larva  of  Apatura  iris  in  its  hybernating  position 
on  a  leaf  of  sallow. — The  remainder  of  the  evening  was  spent  in  an 
exhibition  of  lantern  slides  by  Messrs.  Dennis,  Lucas,  Tonge,  Harri- 
son, and  Main. 

March  2Srd. — The  President  in  the  chair.  — Mr.  H.  Moore,  a  large 
globe-fish  {Tetrodon  fahaka)  from  the  Red  Sea,  and  contributed  notes. — 
Messrs.  Harrison,  Main,  and  Cowham,  long  bred  series  of  Colias  edusa, 
from  ova  deposited  by  an  example  of  helice  sent  by  Dr.  Chapman  from 
South  France  in  1904.  Seventy-nine  were  males,  seventy-one  females. 
Of  the  latter,  nineteen  were  typical,  fifty-two  helice.  Only  one  or  two 
specimens  were  in  any  degree  intermediate  in  shade.  Mr.  Edwards, 
Papilio  peranthus  from  Java,  P.  pelon  from  New  Caledonia,  P.  encelades 
from  Celebes,  and  P.  acaiuia  from  the  United  States.  —  Mr.  West 
(Greenwich),  some  large  species  of  Homoptera  and  Heteroptera  from 
South  Africa. — Mr.  Kaye,  preserved  larva?  of  Triphana  interjecta,  and 
pointed  out  the  distinguishing  characters  from  the  larva  of  T.  orbona, 
also  exhibited. — Mr.  J.  W.  Tutt  gave  an  address  on  "  Our  British 
Plumes,"  illustrating  his  remarks  on  classification  by  a  philogenetic 
tree. — Hy.  Turner,  Hon.  Rep.  Sec. 

Entomological  Club. — A  meeting  was  held  on  March  21st,  1905, 
at  58,  Kensington  Mansions,  South  Kensington,  the  residence  of 
Mr.  Horace  St.  John  K.  Donisthorpe,  the  president  and  host  of  the 
evening.  The  members  present  were — Messrs.  Adkin,  Chitty,  Donis- 
thorpe, and  Verrall,  and  there  were  about  a  dozen  visitors. 


RECENT     LITERATURE. 
Works  on  Mosquitoes. 


The   Mosquitoes  or    Oulicida  of   New    York    State.      By   E.  P.  Felt. 

Bull.  79,  Entom.  22.     New  York  State  Museum.     Pp.  400  + 

57  plates.  Albany  (1904). 
This  work  deals  in  a  most  able  and  sound  scientific  manner  with 
the  mosquitoes  of  the  State  of  New  York.  The  plates,  taken  from 
photos  of  the  wings,  male  genitalia,  scales,  and  larval  characters,  are 
beautiful  reproductions.  It  forms  an  almost  complete  natural  history 
of  the  New  York  State  species  of  a  high  scientific  standard.  A  most 
interesting  part  is  the  appendix,  which  consists  of  a  "  Generic  Revision 
of  Culicidre  "  of  the  State.      Only  true  Anopheles  occur,  but  of  the 


RECENT    LITERATURE.  141 

Culicinae  we  find  Janthinosoma,  Psorophora,  Grabhamia,  Stegomyia, 
Culex,  Uranotania,  Wyeomyia,  and  .Edes  recorded.  To  these  the  author 
adds  some  new  genera  split  off  from  the  unwieldy  genus  Culex.  For 
Culex  serratus,  Theobald,  he  proposes  the  genus  Protoculex  ;  in  another, 
Culiseta,  he  includes  Culex  incidens  ;  this  comes  in  Neven-Lemaire's 
genus  Theobaldia,  so  some  modification  must  be  made  for  the  others  he 
includes,  or  the  genus  must  sink.  C.  dyari,  Coquillett,  is  taken  as  the 
type  of  a  genus  Cidicella ;  C.  sytvestris,  Theob.,  the  type  of  Ecculex  ;  and 
Meigen's  cantans  the  type  of  Culicada,  a  most  necessary  separation. 
The  common  North  and  Soutli  American  and  West  Indian  Culex 
ttmiorhynchus,  Wied.,  he  places  in  a  genus  Culicelsa. 

The  work  is  so  sound  and  excellent  that  it  shouid  prove  one  of  the 
greatest  advances  in  recent  years.  It  is  unfortunate  that  the  author 
lays  such  stress  on  the  male  genitalia,  as  males  are  often  so  difficult  to 
obtain. 


Report  on  the  Mosquitoes  occurring  within  the  State  of  New  Jersey,  their 
Habits,  Life-History,  &c.     By  John  B.  Smith,  Sc.D.     Pp.  482  + 
133  figs,  and  4  maps.     Trenton,  New  Jersey  (1901). 
This  is  a  large  and  valuable  work,  dealing  with  mosquitoes  gener- 
ally, and  especially  with  those  of  New  Jersey  State.     The  work  is 
divided  into  four  parts.     The  first  deals  with  Mosquito  Characteristics 
and  Habits  ;  the  second,  Checks  and  Remedies ;  the  third,  Classifica- 
tion and  Descriptions  ;  the  fourth,  Local  Problems  and  Surveys.     The 
genera  dealt  with  are  true  Anopheles,  Janthinosoma,  Psorophora,   Culex, 
Urayiotania,   Wyeomyia,  and  Mdes.      No  genera  related  to  Culex  are 
given,  Grabhamia  not  being  employed,  nor  Tceniorhynchus. 

The  illustrations,  like  the  text,  are  excellent,  and  there  is  much 
valuable  matter  regarding  the  destruction  of  Culicid  larvae. 


A  Monograph  of  the  Anopheles  Mosquitoes  of  India.  By  S.  P.  James, 
M.B.,  I.M.S.,  and  W.  Glen  Liston,  M.D.,  I.M.S.  Pp.  123  + 
30  plates.  Calcutta  (1904). 
This  work  deals  with  most  of  the  known  Indian  Anopheles.  It  is 
excellently  got  up  as  far  as  binding  and  plates  go,  and  has  evidently 
been  issued  after  much  painstaking  research.  The  book  is  divided  into 
two  parts.  The  first  deals  with  "  General  Matter,"  the  second  is 
"Systematic."  Part  of  the  former  is  excellent,  the  latter  shows  a 
superficial  knowledge.  The  information  is  not  up  to  date,  so  the  work 
loses  much  of  its  value  ;  for  instance,  the  primitive  classification  given 
on  page  5  is  now  considerably  altered  {vide  '  Genera  Insectorum.' 
Family  Culicidae).  Some  pages  (19  to  21)  are  devoted  to  showing  the 
invalid  nature  of  scale-structure;  they  need  no  further  notice,  as  they 
show  such  want  of  knowledge  that  one  is  really  surprised  at  reading 
them. 

Chapter  II.  deals  with  collecting,  mounting,  examining,  and  the 
identification  of  Anopheles  larvaa.  The  authors  give  a  table  for  identi- 
fying species,  partly  based  on  the  colour  banding  of  the  palpi.  This  is 
no   more   uniform  in  Indian   Anophelinae  than  it  is   in   any  others, 


142 


THK    ENTOMOLOGIST. 


according  to  recent  examinations.  For  some  reason  the  authors  miss 
out  Walker's  A.  vanus,  and  in  a  weird  way  ignore  a  distinct  genus  and 
marked  species  (Atdrichia  error).  On  page  112  they  say  :  "  This  genus 
is  hased  on  a  single  specimen  which  was  found  amongst  the  types  of 
A.  rossii  deposited  in  the  British  Museum."  We  should  like  to  know 
which  therefore  they  consider  rossii.  Is  it  Aldrichia  error,  or  one  of 
the  other  five  specimens  left  under  A.  rossii  ?  If  Aldrichia  error,  which 
is  not  a  unique  specimen,  is  only  an  abnormality  of  rossii,  why  not  place 
Stegomyia  fasciata  as  an  abnormality  of  Cule.v  pipiens  ?  There  is  quite 
as  much  similarity.  The  authors  apparently  have  not  seen  the  types. 
In  a  similar  vein  these  investigators  state  (p.  61)  :  "  Another  instance 
of  a  monstrosity  even  more  marked  than  the  above  is  the  specimen  upon 
which  Mr.  Theobald  has  founded  a  new  subfamily  called  Heptaphle- 
bomyia.  The  single  insect,"  &c.  The  authors  are  evidently  quite  ignorant 
of  the  fact  that  the  single  insect  is  a  very  common  species  in  Sierra 
Leone  ;  they  are  also  equally  unaware  that  Ventrillon  has  described 
two  very  marked  species  of  Heptaphlebomyia  from  Madagascar,  and 
that  a  third  occurs  there.  They  also  do  not  seem  to  be  aware  of  the 
fact  that  types  are  single  specimens.  Such  matters  as  these  make  us 
at  once  chary  of  the  whole  work. 

The  authors  in  a  most  painstaking  manner  describe  the  larva},  but 
unless  we  know  the  exact  stage  described  such  work  is  of  no  value. 
The  frontal  hairs,  as  Dr.  Grabham  has  found,  vary  in  form  in  different 
stages  of  the  same  species.  Do  they  or  do  they  not  do  so  in  India  ? 
Until  we  have  a  more  sound  account  of  these  Indian  larval  Anophelines 
we  cannot  accept  the  validity  of  "  frontal  hair"  characters.  Let  the 
authors  by  all  means  go  back  for  medical  purposes  to  Anopheles,  Culex, 
and  Mdes,  and  let  them  alter  the  original  descriptions  to  suit  them- 
selves, but  it  will  not  do  for  zoological  purposes. 

It  is  regrettable  to  write  this  of  such  a  book ;  but  where  there  is  such 
unsound  judgment  and  such  errors  it  is  impossible  to  look  upon  it  as  a 
whole  in  any  other  way. 

The  coloured  plates  (fifteen)  are  beautifully  drawn  by  Dr.  D.  A. 
Turkhud,  M.B.,  of  which  some  of  the  wings  were  reproduced  from 
the  original  drawings  (given  to  the  British  Museum)  in  error  by  the 
artist  who  illustrated  the  present  writer's  monograph  without  proper 
acknowledgment  in  the  work. 

Fred.  V.  Theobald. 


Twenty -eighth  Annual  Report  and  Proceedings  of  the  Lancashire  and 
Cheshire  Entomological  Society.  Session  1904.  Pp.  56. 
This  well-known  local  Society  is  to  be  congratulated  not  only  on 
the  considerable  progress  it  has  made  in  the  matter  of  membership, 
but  also  as  regards  the  useful  nature  of  the  work  its  members  are 
engaged  upon.  Not  the  least  valuable  of  the  Society's  efforts  is  the 
proposed  compilation  of  accurate  lists  of  the  insect  fauna  of  the 
counties  which  it  represents.  An  important  contribution  to  this 
series  is  "A  Preliminary  List  of  the  Orthoptera,"  by  Mr.  E.  J.  B. 
Sopp,  published  in  the  volume  before  us.  Another  interesting  paper 
by  this  author  is  on  the  "  Callipers  of  Earwigs."  In  an  address  Mr. 
Robert  Tait(Vice-President)  discourses  most  pleasantly  and  instructively 


OBITUAKY.  143 

on  a  lepidopterist's  work  during  1904.  The  volume  contains  an  ex- 
cellent portrait  of  Mr.  Samuel  J.  Capper,  F.E.S.,  the  perennial  Presi- 
dent of  the  Society. 


Entomologen-Adrcssbuch.     Pp.  296.     Berlin  :  W.  Junk.     1905. 

This  exceedingly  useful  Entomologist  Directory  gives  the  names 
and  addresses  of  some  9000  individuals  living  in  various  parts  of  the 
world  who  are  occupied  in  the  study  of  Entomology  or  are  interested 
in  collecting  insects.  Of  these  about  2000  are  credited  to  Germany, 
something  like  lbOO  to  Great  Britain,  and  rather  less  than  1000 
to  France.  The  number  for  the  United  States  very  slightly  exceeds 
that  for  our  own  country. 


OBITUABY. 

Alpheus  Spring  Packard. 


This  celebrated  American  entomologist  died  at  Providence,  Khode 
Island,  on  February  14th  last,  having  held  the  position  of  Professor  of 
Zoology  and  Geology  in  Brown  University  since  1878.  He  was  born 
at  Brunswick,  Maine,  where  his  father,  who  bore  the  same  name  as 
himself,  was  then  a  Professor.  He  graduated  there  in  1861,  and  sub- 
sequently qualified  in  medicine,  and  served  as  Assistant-Surgeon 
during  1864  and  1865  in  the  United  States  Army  ;  but  otherwise  he 
devoted  his  time  wholly  to  science,  and  very  largely  to  entomology, 
where  he  won  for  himself  a  position  not  unlike  that  so  long  filled 
by  Prof.  Westwood  in  Britain  ;  and  it  is  only  of  his  entomological 
work  that  we  propose  to  speak  here. 

Entomologists  of  the  present  day  do  not  perhaps  know  that  fifty 
years  ago  there  was  a  small  penny  paper,  '  The  Entomologist's  Weekly 
Intelligencer,'  edited  by  H.  T.  Stamton,  which  ran  for  ten  volumes, 
and  was  the  immediate  ancestor  of  the  '  Entomologists'  Monthly 
Magazine.'  The  influence  of  this  small  forgotten  paper  on  the  progress 
of  entomology  both  in  Britain  and  America  was  almost  incalculable, 
and  in  vol.  vii.,  pp.  14,  15  (Oct.  8th,  1859),  we  find  a  letter  from 
young  Packard,  saying  that  he  wished  to  make  a  special  study  of  the 
Geometrinse,  and  appealing  to  British  entomologists  for  assistance. 
Packard  was  thus  one  of  the  earliest  of  the  great  band  of  entomolo- 
gists— Scudder,  W.  H.  Edwards,  H.  Edwards,  Grote,  Cresson,  Osten- 
Sacken,  Walsh,  Riley,  and  others — who  have  worked  during  the  last 
half-century  till  the  insects  of  the  United  States  are  more  thoroughly 
and  exhaustively  studied  and  known  than  those  of  any  part  of  the 
world,  not  excepting  Britain  itself.  To  this  result  Packard  himself 
very  largely  contributed.  He  was  one  of  the  founders  of  the  '  American 
Naturalist,'  which  he  edited  for  twenty  years.  (Part  of  the  informa- 
tion in  the  present  article  is  taken  from  the  March  number  of  that 
Journal.)  From  1868  to  1872  Packard  edited  a  '  Record  of  American 
Entomology,'    and  his  contributions  to  leading  American  scientific 


144  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

periodicals  on  insects  of  all  orders,  Crustacea,  Myriopoda,  Economic 
Entomology,  Zoology  in  general,  Anatomy,  Embryology,  Anthro- 
pology, Geology,  Palaeontology,  and  other  allied  subjects  are  extremely 
numerous.  The  list  of  Packard's  entomological  books  and  papers  fills 
nearly  ten  pages  of  the  Library  Catalogues  of  the  Entomological 
Society  of  London ;  but  among  the  most  important  of  these  are  perhaps 
the  following  : — 'A  Monograph  of  the  Geometrid  Moths  or  Phalaenidaa 
of  the  United  States,'  4to,  1876,  thirteen  plates ;"  '  Guide  to  the 
Study  of  Insects,'  1869,  a  thick  8vo  volume,  profusely  illustrated, 
which  has  gone  through  many  editions,  and  did  for  America  what 
Westwood's  '  Modern  Classification '  did  for  general  entomology  ; 
'  Monograph  of  the  Bombycine  Moths  of  America,  North  of  Mexico  ; 
Part  I.  Notodontidaa,'  4to,  1895,  with  forty-nine  plates,  mostly  beauti- 
fully coloured,  and  maps ;  and  '  Text-book  of  Entomology,  including 
the  Anatomy,  Physiology,  Embryology,  and  Metamorphoses  of  Insects, 
for  use  in  Agricultural  and  Technical  Schools,  as  well  as  by  the 
working  Entomologist,'  8vo,  1898.  One  of  his  last  books  was  on 
'  Lamarck,  the  Founder  of  Evolution  ;  his  Life  and  Work.' 

W.  F.  K. 


A.  U.  Battley. 

It  is  with  the  deepest  regret  that  we  record  the  untimely  death  of 
Mr.  Arthur  Unwin  Battley,  which  took  place  at  his  residence  at  Heme 
Bay,  on  April  1st,  at  the  early  age  of  thirty-nine.  Mr.  Battley  had 
been  an  ardent  field-naturalist  from  his  boyhood,  and  although  the 
Lepidoptera  were  his  favourite  study,  his  acquaintance  with  ornitho- 
logy was  of  no  mean  order,  and  botany  and  geology  also  claimed  a 
share  of  his  attention.  Notes  from  his  pen  are  scattered  in  our  maga- 
zines and  transactions  of  societies,  the  latest  being  "  On  Assembling 
in  Lasiocampa  quercus"  (Entom.  xxxvii.  820),  whilst  another  very 
interesting  contribution  was  the  careful  paper,  "Notes  on  the  Life- 
history  of  Aporia  cratcegi  "  (ibid,  xxxvi.  249).  Thoroughly  practical  in 
everything  in  which  he  interested  himself,  he  was  always  ready  to 
impart  information  and  advice  whenever  it  was  within  his  power ;  and 
his  geniality  and  unselfishness  endeared  him  to  a  wide  circle  of 
acquaintance.  Perhaps  some  of  his  best  work  was  in  the  promotion 
of  nature  study  through  his  encouragement  of  the  smaller  societies, 
and  especially  his  interest  in,  and  help  to  the  young  beginners.  He 
was  a  Secretary  of  the  City  of  London  Entomological  and  Natural 
History  Society  from  1890  to  1895,  President  of  the  North  London 
Natural  History  Society  in  1893,  and  a  valued  member  of  that  society 
up  to  the  time  of  his  death.  During  his  residence  at  Hanwell  and  at 
Heme  Bay  he  was  associated  with  the  Ealing  Natural  Science  Society 
and  the  East  Kent  Natural  History  Society  respectively ;  and  only  just 
before  his  death  he  had  organized  a  new  "Heme  Bay  and  District 
Field  Club,"  of  which  he  was  to  act  as  Hon.  Secretary  and  Treasurer. 
His  loss  will  be  keenly  felt  by  many  who  had  come  under  the  magnetic 
influence  of  his  enthusiasm,  or  who  were  indebted  to  his  unvarying 
kindness. 


WATKIiNS     &     DONCAf.ER, 

Naturalists  and  Manufacturers  of  Entomological  Apparatus  ;md  Cabinets. 

Plain  King  Nets,  wire  or  cane,  including  Stick,  Is.  3d.,  2s.,  2s.  6d.  Folding  Nets, 
3s.  6d.,  4s.  Umbrella  Nets  (self-acting),  7s.  Pooket  Boxes,  Gd.,  9d.,  Is.,  Is.  6d. 
Zinc  Relaxing  Boxes,  9d.,  Is.,  Is.  6d.,  2s.  Nested  Chip  Boxes,  7d.  per  four  dozen. 
Entomological  Pins,  assorted  or  mixed,  Is.,  Is.  6d.  per  oz.  Pocket  LauternB,  2s.  6d. 
to  8s.  Sugaring  Tin,  with  brush,  Is.  tid.,  2s.  Sugaring  Mixture,  ready  for  use, 
Is.  9d.  per  tin.  Store  Boxes,  with  camphor  cells,  2s.  6d.,  4s.,  5s.,  6s.  Setting 
Boards,  flat  or  oval,  1  in.,  6d. ;  1  i  in.,  8d. ;  2  in.,  lOd. ;  2\  in.,  Is. ;  3i  in.,  Is.  4d. ; 
4  in.,  Is.  6d. ;  5  in.,  Is.  lOd. ;  Complete  Set  of  fourteen  Boards,  10s.  6d.  Setting 
Houses,  9s.  6d.,  lis.  6d. ;  oorked  back,  14s.  Zinc  Larva  Boxes,  96!.,  Is.,  Is.  6d. 
Breeding  Cage,  2s.  6d..  4s.,  5s.,  7s.  6d.  Ooleopterist's  Collecting  Bottle,  witli  tube, 
1b.  fid.,  Is.  8d.  Botanical  Cases,  japanned,  double  tin,  Is.  6d.,  2s.  9d.,  3s.  6d.,  4s.  6d. 
Botanical  Paper,  Is.  Id.,  Is.  4d.,  Is.  9d.,  2s.  2d.,  per  quire.  Insect  Glazed  Cases, 
2s.  6d.  to  lis.  Cement  for  replaciug  Antennae,  4d.  per  bottle.  Steel  Forceps, 
Is.  6d.,  2s.,  2s.  6d.  per  pair.  Cabinet  Cork,  7  by  3£,  best  quality,  ls.4d.  per  dozen 
sheet6.  Brass  Chloroform  Bottle,  2s.  6d.  Insect  Lens,  Is.  to  8s.  Glass-top  and 
Glass-bottomed  Boxes  from  Is.  per  dozen.  Zinc  Killing  Box,  9d.,  Is.  Pupa 
Digger,  in  leather  sheath,  Is.  9d.  Taxidermist's  Companion,  containing  most 
necessary  implements  for  skinning,  10s.  6d.  Scalpels,  Is.  3d.  ;  Scissors,  2s.  per 
pair;  Egg-drills,  2d.,  3d.,  9d;  Blowpipes,  4d.,  (!d. ;  Artificial  Eyes  for  Birds  and 
Animals;  Label-lists  of  Britisb  Butterflies,  2d. ;  ditto  of  Birds'  Eggs,  2d.,  3d.,  6d. ; 
ditto  of  Land  and  Fresh-water  Shells,  2d. ;  Useful  Books  on  Insects,  Eggs,  &c. 

The  WAND  TELESCOPIC  NET— An  innovation  in  Butterfly  Nets.— We  beg 
to  call  your  attention  to  our  new  Telescopic  Handle  for  Butterfly  Nets.  It  is 
made  entirely  in  brass,  and  is  light  and  strong ;  and  moreover  it  can  be  shut  up  to 
carry  in  small  compass,  A  very  compact  pattern,  effecting  great  saving  of  weight 
and  bulk.  Prices. — With  two  joints,  8s.  6d. ;  with  three  joints,  9s.  6d. ;  with  four 
joints,  10s.  6d.  Complete  with  improved  Cane  Folding  Ring,  and  Bag.  We  shall 
be  pleased  to  send  on  approval. 

SHOW       ROOM       FOR       CABINETS 

Of  every  description  for  Insects,  Bikds'  Egos,  Coins,  Microscopical  Objects, 
Fossils,  &c.     Catalogue  (96  pp.)  sent  on  application,  post  free. 

A    LARGE     STOCK    OF    INSECTS    AND     BIRDS'    EGGS 

(BRITISH,    KOROPKAN,    AND    KXOTIC). 

Birds,  Mammals,  Jtc,  Preserved  and  Mounted  by  First-class  Workmen. 

Only  Address : — 
36  STKAND,  W.O.,  LONDON  (o  doors  from  Charing  Ohohs). 

* 

HERBERT    W.    MARSDEN, 

NATURAL     HISTORY     AGENT     AND     BOOKSELLER, 
40,    TRIANGLE    West,   CLIFTON,   BRISTOL. 

Moderate  Prices. 

Cabinets  and  Apparatus  for  Entomologists,  Oologists.  Ornithologists,  Botanists,  Ac. 
Botanical  Cases,  Drying  Paper,  Ac— British  &  Exotic  Shells. 
The  most  reliable  Stock  of  BIRDS'  SKINS  and  BIRDS'  EGGS  in  Britain. 
New  and  Second-hand  Books. — Exchange  and  Label  Lists. 
Ornithological  Catalogue,  1905,  now  ready;  also  Shell  Catalogue. 
N.B. — Mr    Marsden's  large  Stock  of  Insects  has  now  been  made  up  into  numerous 
useful  lots;  also  many  lots  of  Birds'' Skins  and  Eggs,  all  of  which  are  offered  at  excep- 
tionally low  prices.     Lists  on  application. 

OVA,     LARV/E,     AND     PUP/E. 

A  Large  Assortment  always  on  hand.     Send  for  Price  List  to 

H.    W.    HEAD,    Entomologist,    SCARBOROUGH, 

The  Largest  Breeder  of  LEPIDOPTERA  in  the  British  Isles. 
Full   List   of  LEPIDOPTERA,  Apparatus,  Cabinets,  &c,  sent  on   application. 


CONTENTS. 

Description  of  „,  New  Species  of  Cieadidae  (with  illustration),  W.  L.  Distant,  121. 
Butterflies  Collected  by  Surgeon  Lambert,  R.N.,  at  Vladimar  Bay,  &c.  August, 
1897,  Henry  Charles  Lang,  122.  Papilio  steinbachi,  spec,  nov,,  Hon.  Walter 
hschild,  125.  Notes  on  Lepidoptera  in  1904,  J.  C.  F.  d  H.  l<\  Fryer,  125. 
Current  Notes,  G.  W.  Kirhaldy,  127.  A  List  of  the  "  Macro-LepidopteiV  of 
Lancaster  and  District  (continued),  C.  H.  Forsytke,  133. 

Notes  and  Observations. — Note  on  Agrotis  puta,  H.   V.  Plum,  135.     Notes  on 
Tortrix  podana.  PL  Maude  'Alder&on,  135.     The  Mason  Collection,  136. 

Captures  and  Fiki.d  Reports. — Hertfordshire  Ooleoptera  ;  Lepidoptera  in  Hert- 
fordshire,^. /;.  Gibbe,  137. 

Societies. — Entomological  Society  of  London,  138.     South  London  Entomological 
and  Natural  History  Society,  140.     Entomological  Club,  140. 

Recent  Literature,  140  Obituary,  14.".. 

CENTRAL     PARAGUAYAN     SPECIMENS, 

Mr.  YYILIAM  FOSTER  will  arrive  in  London  about  end  of  June  with 
a  large  Collection  of  Central  Paraguayan  Mammals,  Birds,  Lepidoptera, 
Coleoptera,  Orthoptera,  Neuroptera,  and  a  number  of  Hemiptera  and 
Hymenoptera. 

Students  of  South  American  forms  would  do  well  to  revise  their  collec- 
tions and  make  their  wants  known  to — 

CHARLES  A.  POSTER,  9,  Austin  Friars,  London,  E.C. 

BA3TIN  BROTHERS,  The  Hatherley  Rooms,  Reading. 

Plain  Nets,  1/3  and  2/6.  Folding  Nets,  2/-  to  4/6.  Umbrella  Nets,  7/-.  Water  and 
Sweeping  Nets,  2  6  and  I  '•>.  Pocket  Boxes,  (id.,  9d„  1/-,  1/6.  Zinc  Relaxing  Boxes, 
9d.,  1/-,  1  6,  '_'.  .  Kntomological  Pins,  1/-  and  1/6  per  ounce,  mixed.  Killing  Bottles 
(empty),  Id.  to  1/-.  Sugaring  Lanterns,  2/6  to  8/-.  Zinc  Killing  Boxes,  9d.  and  1/-. 
Sugaring  Tins,  1/6  and  2/-.  Sugaring  Mixture,  1/9  per  tin.  Store  Boxes  with  Camphor 
Cells,  2/6,  4/-,  5/-,  6/-.  Setting  Boards,  11  -i/.es,  from  6d.  to  1/10;  complete  set,  one 
of  each  size,  10/6.  Sitting  Houses,  9/6,  11/6,  (with  store  box  back)  14/-.  Zinc  Larvse 
Boxes,  9d.  and  1/-.  Breeding  Cages,  2/6  to  7/6.  Japanned  Collecting  Box,  with  strap, 
5/6.  Glass  top  and  bottom  Boxes,  from  1/4  per  dozen.  Purple  Shouldered  Boxes  (best 
make),  nested,  4  dozen,  1/8.  ''Chip"  Boxes,  nested,  4  dozen,  7d.  Glass  Tubes,  per 
dozen,  6d.  to  3/-.     Split  Cork,  1/-  to  2/8  per  dozen  sheets.     Pupa1  diggers,  1/9. 

All  kinds  of  Entomological  Apparatus  kept  in  Stock.     Lists  free. 

The  YOUNG  ENTOMOLOGIST'S  COMPANION,  comprising  Net,  Killing  Bottle, 
Setting  Boards,  Pocket,  Store,  and  Zinc  Boxes,  Pins,  dfec,  post  free,  10/6. 

A  very  large  stock  of  EXOTIC  LEPIDOPTERA,  COLEOPTERA,  a7id  other 
interesting  Insects  is  always  available.     Lists  free.     Correspondence  invited. 

BASTIN    BROTHERS,   The   Hatherley   Rooms,   READING. 

JAMES     GARDNER, 

MANUFACTURER  of  ALL  KINDS  of  ENTOMOLOGICAL  APPARATUS 

29  (late  426),  OXFORD    STREET 
(Nearly   opposite    Tottenham    Court    Road). 

PRICED   L1ST8    ON   APPLICATION. 

All  Articles  Guaranteed ;  exchanged  if  not  approved  of.     Friends  and  Customers 
are  requested  to  note  the  Address,  as  mistakes  occur  daily. 


Subscription  6s.,  post  free,  including  double  numbers,  shoulc 

West,  Newman  &  Co, 


Vol.    XXXVIII]  JUNE,    1905.  [No.   505. 


THU 


ENTOMOLOGIST 


Illustrate  $0itrmtl 


GENERAL    ENTOMOLOGY 


EDITED     BY     RICHARD     SOUTH,     F.E.S. 

WITH    THE    ASSISTANCE    OF 
ROBERT   ADKIN,  F.E.S.  W.  F.  KIRBY,  F.L.S.,  F.E.S. 


W.  L.  DISTANT,  F.E.S.,  &c. 
EDWARD  A.  FITCH,  F.L.S.,  F.E.S. 
F.  W.FROHAWK,  F.E.S.,  M.B.O.U. 
MARTIN  JACOBY,  F.E.S. 


G.  W.  KIRKALDY,  F.E.S. 
W.  J.  LUCAS,  B.A.,  F.E.S. 
Dr.  D.  SHARP,  F.R.S.,  F.E.S.,  Ac. 
G.  H.  VERRALL,  F.E.S. 


"By  mutual  confidence  and  mutual  aid 
Great  deeds  are  done  and  great  discoveries  made." 


LONDON:  \&Ton 

WEST,    NEWMAN    &    CO.,    54,    HATTON  \ARDEN ; 
SIMPK1N,   MARSHALL,   HAMILTON,    KENT   &   Cb.,   Limited. 


Price  Sixpence. 


De„      J.    &    W.    DAVIS  ("T™*J;:™.0 

MANUFACTURERS     OF     ENTOMOLOGICAL    APPARATUS    AND 
NATURALISTS'  REQUISITES,  &c, 

31  &  33,  Hythe  Street,  DARTFORD,  Kent. 

Telegrams:     "  DAVIS,  NATURALISTS,  DARTFORD."  National  Telephone  :     "  108  DARTFORD." 

LOCALITY       LABELS. 
2'6  per  1,000.     4  to  10  sorts,  equal  numbers,  any  wording,  see  specimens  below:— 

Smith.  Smith.  Smith,  Smith. 

Darenth  Wood,  New  Forest.  Kent.  Rannoeh. 

190  138  1»0  ISO 

Neatly  printed  fcimilar  to  the  above.      Wje  have  supplied  these  Labels  to  Entomologists  in  all  parts  of  Great 

Britain. 

'Data"    Blank3  for   Plants.   Birds'  Eggs,  Nests,  and  Skins,   from  8d.  per  100 
•Data"  Labels,  with  Collector's  Name  and   Locality  printed  in „  from  1/6  per  100 

"  Data  "   Books  for  Entomological  Collection,  printed  headings,  Is. ;  post  3d. 

Ditto,  for  Ornithological  Collection,  Is. ;  post  3d. 

50  British  Butterflies,  all  different,  named.  5s.  Setting-house,  good  condition,  6s.  6d. 
Larvae  Collector's  Guide  and  Calendar,  Illustrated,  Is.  Birdstuffing  and  Mounting. 
Illustrated,  Is.     Animal,  Fish,  and  Reptile  Stuffing,  Illustrated,  Is.  6d.     Label  List, 

British  Macro- Lepidoptera,  6d. 
Naturalists'  Diary  and  Year  Book,  Is.    Our  Country's  Butterflies  and  Moths,  1000 

Coloured  Specimens,  6s. 
FERTILE    OVA.— Per  do: .— Ocellatus,   Populi,   Carpini.   Vinula,   Camelina,   Id. 
Hirtaria.  3d.     Falcula,  Antiqua,  2d.     Tili.-e,  fid.     Chaonia,  Is.     Cuculiia,  9d. 

HEALTHY   LARV/E.  —  Per  doz.  —  Quercus,  Tiliaria,  Angularia.  Autumnaria.  Is, 
Erosaria.  Versicolor,  Is.  fid.     AuiiDia  (Irish).  2s.     Lapponaria  (young),  Is.  6d. 

HEALTHY  PUP/E.— Each.— Dominula,  Villlca,  rotatoria,  Prasinana,  2d.   Aurinia 
(Irish),  B.  Quercus,  Advenaria,  Chlorana,  3d.     Silkworms'  Eggs  4d.  per  100. 
Full  List  of  Oca.  Larnr  and  Pupir,  at;  Application. 
BRITISH  LEPIDOPTERA.- One  hundred   named   Specimens,  all  different,  os. 
post  free.     See  our  New  List  and  discounts. 

EXOTIC   BUTTERFLIES.— We  have  some  thousands  of  these  as  received  in 
papers,  assorted  dozens,  fid.,  Is.,  and  Is.  fid.. 

GENUINE    BRITISH    "WILD"    STOCK. 

CHEAPEST  HOUSE  IN  THE  TRADE. 

Every  Reader  of  the  '  Entomologist  '  is  requested  to  send  for 
our  Spring  List  of  Ova,  Larvae,  Pupae,  and  fresh  killed  Insects. 
The   List   is  too   long  to   include  in  our   usual  Advertisement. 

Apartments  for  Entomological  Visitors  to  the  New  Forest.    Expeditions  arranged 
and  accompanied.      Terms  on  Application. 

MORRIS    &    WEIR,    ENTOMOLOGISTS, 

imOCKBNHURST,    NEW    FOREST. 
THE 

'Entomologist'  SYNONYMIC  LIST  of  BRITISH  LEPIDOPTERA 

By   RICHARD    SOUTH   F.E.S. 

Demy  8vo.     For  Reference  only,  6d. ;  in  Duplicate  (printed  on  one 
side  only),  for  Labels,  and  on  both  sides  for  Reference,  2s. 

Postage  :    Reference,  Id. ;    Label,  2d. 
LONDON:  WEST,  NEWMAN  &  CO.,  54,  HATTON  GARDEN,  E.C. 


THE    ENTOMOLOGIST 


Vol.  XXXVIII]  JUNE,     19  05  [No.  505. 

NEW    AND     LITTLE-KNOWN     AMERICAN     BEES. 
By  T.  D.  A.  Cockerell. 

Perdita  mentzeliarum,  Ckll.,  var.  lauta,  n.  var. 

2 .  Anterior  and  middle  femora  without  dark  markings,  or 
slightly  marked  with  black  or  blackish  in  front ;  abdomen  creamy- 
white,  with  the  bands  much  reduced,  usually  represented  by  two  pairs 
of  lateral  or  sublateral  spots  on  the  first  segment,  and  one  pair  each 
near  the  hind  margins  of  the  second  and  third ;  lateral  face-marks 
usually  pointed  above. 

<?  .  Head  very  large  ;  cheeks  with  a  short  spine  ;  yellow  going 
above  level  of  antennae  in  median  line,  the  process  blunt. 

Hub.     Collected  by  Professor  E.  0.  Wooton  "  on  Mentzelia 

(wrightii  or  multiflora),  five  or  six  miles  above  Tularosa,  New 
Mexico,  on  road  to  mountains,  end  of  August  "  ;  seven  females, 
two  males.  Flying  with  them,  over  the  same  flowers,  were 
P.  mentzeliarum,  Ckll.,  two  females ;  P.  mentzelia,  Ckll.,  one 
male,  one  female  ;  and  several  P.  wootonce,  Ckll. 

The  mentzelia  (i.  e.  Touterca)  species  of  Perdita  are  very 
variable.  At  Piaton,  N.  M.,  Aug.  29th,  I  took  a  variety  of 
P.  mentzelice,  much  larger  in  both  sexes  than  that  found  near 
Tularosa,  the  male  having  a  very  large  head,  like  the  pulchrior 
form  of  P.  pallidior.  At  flowers  of  Touterea  multiflora,  at  La 
Cueva,  Organ  Mts.,  Sept.  2nd,  Prof.  C.  H.  T.  Townsend  took  a 
male  P.  mentzeliarum,  in  which  the  abdomen  is  orange,  wholly 
without  bands  or  spots,  except  an  arched  dark  band  on  the  first 
segment. 

Melissodes  agilis,  Cresson,  var.  subagilis,  n.var. 
$ .     Length  about   %\  mm. ;    labrum.  entirely  black,   mandibles 
without  a  yellow  spot ;    third  submarginal  cell  less  narrowed  above  ; 
eyes  (when  dry)  light  green. 

Hab.  Fort  Collins,  Colorado,  Aug.  21st,  1903.  (Colorado 
Agricultural  College.) 

By  the  black  labrum  and  spotless  mandibles  this  agrees  with 
the  Mexican  M.  floris,  Ckll. ;  it  differs  from  floris  by  the  rufous 

entom. — JUNE,   1905.  N 


146  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

edge  of  the  clypeus,  absence  of  black  hairs  on  thorax,  and 
generally  lighter  colour.  The  type  specimen  was  taken  at 
flowers  of  Grindelia%squarrosa  by  Mr.  F.  C.  Bishopp. 

Melissodes  mysops,  n.  sp. 

$ .  Length  nearly  14  mm.,  pubescence  dull  white,  some  black  on 
scutellnm,  and  black  on  the  basal  parts  of  the  abdominal  segments 
except  the  first;  clypeus  lemon-yellow,  its  upper  margin  black;  labrum 
black  ;  mandibles  without  a  yellow  spot ;  flagellum  red  beneath.  Very 
close  to  M.  cnici,  Kob.,  from  which  it  differs  thus:  yellow  of  clypeus 
only  obscurely  trilobed  ;  face  broader ;  eyes  (when  dry)  pale  bluish- 
grey  ;  antennas  darker ;  ventral  hair  of  thorax  not  black ;  scutellum 
with  black  hair  in  middle  ;  hair  of  legs  not  black ;  disc  of  mesothorax 
and  scutellum  more  shining,  the  punctures  more  separated  ;  abdomen 
narrower  and  longer,  with  weak  light  hair-bands,  failing  in  the  middle; 
lateral  subapical  teeth  longer  and  narrower. 

$  .  Length  about  14  mm. ;  face  broad,  facial  quadrangle  much 
broader  than  long;  eyes  light  grey  ;  flagellum  stained  with  red  beneath; 
hind  part  of  mesothorax,  and  scutellum,  shining,  with  well-separated 
punctures,  and  sparsely  clothed  with  erect  black  bair ;  pubescence  of 
legs  black,  but  scopa  on  outer  side  of  hind  tibiaa  and  base  of  tarsi  long, 
strongly  plumose,  and  light  reddish,  in  striking  contrast;  hair  on 
under  side  of  abdomen  and  lower  part  of  pleura  black,  that  at  apex  of 
abdomen  dark  fuscous  or  black.  Differs  from  J\f.  cnici,  Kob.,  by  the 
conspicuous  black  hair  on  disc  of  thorax,  the  more  shining  and  less 
closely  and  coarsely  punctured  scutellum,  and  the  narrower  abdomen, 
with  distinct  pale  hair-bands,  especially  on  the  third  and  fourth 
segments. 

Hab.  Maybell,  Colorado  (type  locality),  Aug.  1st,  1904,  both 
sexes;  Virginia  Dale,  Colorado,  Aug.  2nd,  1903,  two  females. 
M.  cnici  is  an  oligotropic  visitor  of  thistles ;  the  pollen  collected 
by  the  present  species  at  Maybell  looks  like  thistle-pollen.  My 
M.  cnici,  used  for  comparison,  are  Nebraska  specimens  received 
from  Mr.  J.  C.  Crawford.  In  dry  specimens  the  eyes  of  M. 
mysops  are  light  grey  in  both  sexes ;  in  M.  cnici  they  are  light 
reddish  ;  in  M.  dentiventris  (female)  they  are  light  green. 

Since  writing  the  above  I  have  ascertained  that  the  Maybell 
material  was  collected  by  Mr.  S.  A.  Johnson  at  flowers  of  thistle, 
while  the  Virginia  Dale  specimens  were  collected  by  Mr.  F.  C. 
Bishopp  at  flowers  of  white  thistle. 

Synhalonia  territella,  n.  sp. 
$ .  Length  slightly  less  than  10  mm.  ;  black,  the  head,  thorax, 
base  of  abdomen,  and  legs  with  abundant  long  erect  greyish-white 
hair,  not  at  all  fulvous,  even  on  mesothorax  ;  eyes  (dry)  dark  plumbe- 
ous ;  facial  quadrangle  about  square ;  clypeus  lemon-yellow,  without 
any  black  border  above,  but  with  the  usual  narrow  brown  anterior 
edge  ;  antennas  long,  entirely  black,  third  joint  comparatively  long, 
considerably  over  twice  length  of  second  ;  labrum  light  yellow,  with 
the  lateral  margins  black ;   mandibles  black  ;   last  joint  of  maxillary 


NEW    AND    LITTLE-KNOWN    AMERICAN    BEES.  147 

palpi  long,  apparently  a  little  longer  than  the  fifth,  fourth  and  fifth 
together  about  as  long  as  third  ;  tegulne  dark ;  wings  clear ;  abdomen 
subglobose,  black,  the  erect  white  hair  covering  first  segment  and 
basal  two-thirds  of  second,  the  apical  third  of  second  covered  with 
black  hair ;  third  and  fourth  segments  with  short  black  hair,  and  no 
pale  hair-bands ;  fifth  with  a  subapical  band  of  very  thin  light  hair ; 
sixth  witli  a  more  pronounced  band  or  fringe ;  last  ventral  segment 
with  the  lateral  margins  elevated  ;  legs  normal,  hair  on  inner  side  of 
basal  joint  of  tarsi  orange. 

Hab.  Palisade,  Colorado,  May  7th,  1901,  two  males.  (Colo- 
rado Agricultural  College.) 

Similar  in  many  respects  to  S.  edwardsii,  but  smaller,  with 
the  third  antennal  joint  longer,  the  yellow  of  the  clypeus  paler, 
&c.  The  type  specimen  was  taken  by  Prof.  C.  P.  Gillette  at 
flowers  of  plum. 

Synhalonia  trutt^e,  n.  sp. 

Synhalonia  frater  (not  of  Cresson),  Ckll.,  Amer.  Naturalist, 
vol.  36,  p.  815  (no  description). 

df .  Length  about  12  mm.;  black,  the  head,  thorax,  base  of 
abdomen  and  legs  with  abundant  long  erect  greyish-white  hair,  not  at 
all  fulvous,  even  on  mesothorax ;  eyes  (dry)  reddish-black ;  facial 
quadrangle  broader  than  long ;  clypeus  very  bright  lemon-yellow,  the 
upper  border  narrowly  black,  this  black  broadening  before  it  ends 
laterally  ;  narrow  anterior  margin  very  pale  brownish ;  labrum  re- 
tracted in  the  specimen  described;  mandibles  black;  last  joint  of 
maxillary  palpi  at  least  as  long  as  the  fifth  ;  antennae  long,  entirely 
black,  third  joint  of  moderate  length  ;  wings  slightly  dusky;  abdomen 
quite  without  light  hair-bands  ;  first  two  segments  with  erect  light 
hair,  but  extreme  apical  margin  of  first,  and  base  and  apex  of  second, 
with  black  hair  ;  last  ventral  segment  with  no  distinct  lateral  eleva- 
tions ;  legs  normal;  pectinigerous  spur  on  anterior  tibia  ending  in  two 
long  slender  spines,  one  of  which  terminates  the  comb,  while  the  other 
is  prolonged  in  the  line  of  the  spur  ;  hind  spurs  normal.  Although 
the  abdomen  is  without  hair-bands,  properly  speaking,  the  sides  of  the 
third  and  fourth  segments,  viewed  laterally  (obliquely)  show  glittering 
white  hairs.  This  is  extremely  like  the  male  of  S.  edwardsii,  but  the 
pubescence  is  paler,  and  the  second  abdominal  segment  has  it  black  at 
base;  the  scape  also  is  considerably  less  swollen. 

?  .  Differs  from  that  of  .V;  frater  by  its  rather  smaller  size ; 
reduced  abdominal  hair-bands,  those  on  the  third  and  fourth  segments 
being  narrow  and  more  or  less  broken  in  the  middle  line  ;  apical  plate 
much  more  rounded,  less  conical  in  outline  ;  hind  spur  of  hind  tibia 
long  and  straight,  not  curved  at  the  tip  ;  mandibles  without  a  light 
streak.  The  reduced  abdominal  bands,  the  shape  of  the  apical  plate, 
and  the  long  straight  hind  spur,  also  distinguish  it  from  S.  belfragei. 
The  ventral  abdominal  segments  are  fringed  with  pale  hair,  greyish- 
white  at  the  sides,  more  or  less  fulvous  in  the  middle.  The  second 
dorsal  abdominal  segment  has  a  complete  transverse  area  covered  with 
light  hair  to  the  exclusion  of  the  black,  which  is  belore  and  behind  it, 
but  this  light  hair  is  thin  and  erect,  so  that  it  does  not  seem  to  form 

n  2 


148  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

a  band  when  the  insect  is  seen  from  above,  as  it  does  in  frater  and 
belfragei',  this  area  of  light  hair  is  gently  concave  behind,  and  is  con- 
siderably narrowed  laterally. 

Hah.  Trout  Spring,  Gallinas  Caiion,  New  Mexico,  May  24th 
(Cockerell).  It  visits  the  flowers  of  Iris  missouriensis.  Evidently 
the  New  Mexico  representative  of  S.  edwardsii,  Cresson.. 

Synhalonia  speciosa  (Cresson). 
$ .  Length  about  14  mm. ;  black,  with  dull  white  pubescence, 
tinged  with  ochreous  on  thorax  above ;  facial  quadrangle  longer  than 
broad  ;  clypeus  bright  lemon-yellow,  the  yellow  notched  deeply  on 
each  side  above  ;  labrum  pale  yellow  ;  mandibles  black,  with  the  apical 
part  reddish,  and  furnished  below  with  a  number  of  shining  red  hairs ; 
maxillary  palpi  6-jointed,  the  second  and  third  joints  long  and  about 
equal,  the  last  three  together  about  as  long  as  the  third,  and  succes- 
sively smaller,  the  last  being  narrow  and  minute ;  antenna?  reaching 
to  base  of  abdomen,  entirely  black,  apical  part  of  flagellum  crenulated, 
and  obscurely  longitudinally  ridged  above  ;  scape  short  and  broad  ; 
third  joint  about  one-third  length  of  fourth;  mesothorax  and  scutellum 
with  very  close  shallow  punctures  ;  tegula?  dark  anteriorly,  pallid  and 
subhyaline  posteriorly  ;  wings  tinged  with  brown,  the  nervures  piceous ; 
abdomen  with  black  hair  mixed  with  the  pale  on  the  basal  parts  of 
segments  three  to  six  ;  apex  of  second  segment  with  coarse  black 
hair  ;  third  to  sixth  segments  with  apical  or  subapical  bands  of  white 
tomentum  (such  as  are  seen  in  females  of  Synhalonia),  these  bands 
successively  stronger  on  each  segment  going  backwards  ;  apical  plate 
black,  broadly  truncate,  very  little  narrowed  posteriorly ;  last  ventral 
segment  with  a  short  square  tooth  or  process  on  each  extreme  lateral 
margin  ;  legs  black,  the  tarsi  ferruginous,  the  basal  joints  black  or 
blackish  on  the  outer  side,  the  hair  on  inner  side  of  basal  joints 
orange-ferruginous ;  middle  tarsi  slender  but  normal,  first  joint  with 
no  apical  process  ;  both  spurs  of  hind  tibiae  hooked  apically ;  basal 
joint  of  hind  tarsus  with  a  couple  of  red  curved  bristles  at  apex, 
simulating  a  curved  spine. 

Hob.  Fort  Collins,  Colorado,  May  29th,  1901,  and  May  28th, 
1901  (Colorado  Agricultural  College)  ;  Boulder,  Colorado,  May 
17th,  1902  (S.  A.  Johnson,  496). 

Allied  to  S.  gillettei,  Ckll.,  but  easily  distinguished  by  the 
smaller  size,  hooked  spurs,  &c.  The  May  29th  example  is 
recorded  as  from  mountain  ash,  taken  by  Mr.  Titus.  I  had 
described  this  as  a  new  species,  but  having  some  misgivings  lest 
the  remarkable  character  of  the  hind  spur  might  have  been  over- 
looked in  the  description  of  one  of  Cresson's,  I  asked  Mr.  Viereck 
to  examine  Cresson's  types  with  this  question  in  mind.  He  has 
very  kindly  done  so,  and  reports  that  in  S.  frater,  dilecta,  lepida, 
and  all  the  other  species  of  Synhalonia  in  the  collection  at  Phila- 
delphia the  spurs  are  simple  ;  except  in  the  male  of  S.  speciosa 
as  determined  by  Kobertson,  who  has  taken  the  sexes  in  coitu. 
In  this  male  speciosa  the  spurs  and  the  peculiarities  of  the  hind 
tarsi  are  just  as  described  above,  and  it  is  evident  that  the  species 


STEAY   NOTES    ON    ACULEATES.  149 

is  the  same.  It  had  not  occurred  to  rne  to  refer  the  insect  to 
speciosa,  because  the  only  description  of  that  species  given  by 
Cresson  is  that  of  a  female,  and  Robertson  had  published  the 
opinion  that  it  is  a  synonym  of  /rater.  It  is  now  evident  that 
frater  can  readily  be  distinguished  from  speciosa  in  the  male  by 
the  character  of  its  spurs. 

Boulder,  Colorado  :  March  6th,  1905. 


STRAY    NOTES    ON     ACULEATES. 
By  Percy  E.  Freke,  F.E.S. 

I  have  always  found  Vespa  vulgaris  more  numerous  than 
other  wasps.  In  some  places  V.  germanica  seems  to  be  as  abun- 
dant or,  indeed,  more  so,  but  this  is,  I  believe,  more  apparent 
than  real,  the  latter  coming  much  more  into  houses  and  shops 
in  search  of  sweets.  At  Tramore,  Co.  Waterford,  it  seemed  to  be 
almost  the  only  wasp  in  the  town,  but  on  examining  the  country 
hedgerows,  I  found  V.  vulgaris  maintained  its  numerical  supe- 
riority. V.  germanica  might  well  be  called  the  "  house  -wasp," 
or  the  "town-wasp,"  and  V.  vulgaris  the  "  country-wasp."  At 
Borris,  Co.  Carlow,  I  examined  many  nests,  and  found  that 
V.  vulgaris  was  responsible  for  81  "5  per  cent,  of  them,  V.  ger- 
manica coming  next,  but  a  long  way  behind.  There  V.  rufa  and 
V.  sylvestris  are  about  equally  common,  probably  rather  less  so 
than  V.  germanica,  whereas  about  Dublin  V.  rufa  is  rare,  and 
V.  sylvestris  and  V.  norvcgica  (the  last  the  least  common  at  Borris), 
are  about  equal,  and  V.  germanica  is  about  half  as  common  as 
vulgaris.  In  one  place  one  seems  more  numerous,  whereas  in 
another  place  the  reverse  is  the  case,  but  always  vulgaris  holds 
the  lead  more  or  less.  Why  is  this  ?  I  believe  because  it  is 
the  most  "hardy"  of  our  wasps.  I  have  noticed  it  flying  in 
some  numbers  quite  late  in  the  season,  when  others  of  its  genus 
had  ceased  to  appear  weeks  before,  and  I  think  it  probable  that 
this  character  enables  a  larger  proportion  of  females  to  survive 
the  winter.  I  believe  vulgaris  has  also  a  larger  family.  Certain 
it  is  that  the  males  of  this  species  are  more  commonly  seen  on 
the  wing  in  autumn  than  germanica  even  in  the  latter's  most 
favoured  districts. 

With  regard  to  the  face-markings,  I  have  found  the  females 
and  workers  of  germanica  to  vary  more  than  vulgaris,  and  I 
believe  variation  is  by  nests,  and  not  individually.  I  examined 
a  nest  of  rather  abnormally  marked  germanica,  and  found 
80  per  cent,  of  the  workers  were  thus  marked.  In  the  normally 
marked  nests  I  found  no  abnormally  marked  individuals. 

Generally,  wasps  are  very  good-tempered,   unless  the  nest 


150  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

itself  is  actually  attacked,  or  they  have  been  irritated  by  former 
attacks  upon  their  home.  I  have  often  stood  in  front  of  the 
nest  and  captured  numbers  of  the  inmates  as  they  came  or  went, 
without  the  others  interfering.  I  have  never  know  a  wasp  make 
a  totally  unprovoked  attack.  Hive-bees  constantly  do  so,  and 
are  far  worse  tempered  than  wasps.  A  wasp,  on  coming  into  a 
room,  shows  far  more  sagacity  than  a  hive-bee  about  getting  out 
again.  The  latter  seems  to  lose  its  head  completely  and,  being 
frightened,  gets  very  cross.  But  a  wasp  may  lose  its  temper, 
even  when  its  safety  is  not  threatened.  I  saw  one  of  them 
feeding  on  fallen  apples,  in  company  with  some  large  flies.  One 
of  the  flies  carelessly  jostled  the  wasp,  who  turned  savagely 
upon  it  and  bit  off  one  of  its  wings  and  then  left  it  and  returned 
to  the  apple. 

I  think  V.  sylvcstris  is  perhaps  our  most  savage  wasp,  and 
V.  norvegica  the  least  so.  Indeed,  when  a  boy,  I  have,  with  the 
help  of  one  of  the  grooms,  cut  away  a  nest  of  norvegica,  and 
carried  it  home  half  a  mile,  defending  ourselves  with  pieces  of 
brushwood,  and  have  not  received  a  single  sting.  We  ran  all 
the  way  home,  and  any  wasps  that  were  in  the  nest  when  we 
started,  came  out,  but  did  not  attack  us. 

Wasps  are  very  gentle  towards  individuals  of  their  own 
species.  I  have  seen  them,  having  fallen  into  the  gardener's 
bottle  of  sugar  and  water,  and  have  noticed  that  when  one  tried 
to  save  itself  by  climbing  on  to  its  neighbour,  the  latter  would 
turn  on  it  with  open  jaws,  yet  if  it  were  one  of  its  own  species 
(possibly  its  own  nest),  it  was  never  attacked.  Not  so,  however, 
if  one  of  them  were  vulgaris  and  the  other  germanica.  Then 
.they  closed  in  mortal  combat,  and  I  have  often  seen  them  lying 
drowned,  locked  in  each  others  grasp. 

When  a  wasp  attacks  a  large  fly,  it  attempts  to  disable  it  by 
biting  through  the  principal  nervures  of  one  wing.  This  is  not 
as  easy  as  one  might  suppose,  and  I  have  often  seen  the  contest 
last  a  considerable  time.  I  once  saw  a  wasp  attack  a  large  fly 
(Sarcophaga  camaria),  and  it  seemed  incapable  of  disabling  it 
thus.  The  fly  dragged  it  about  over  the  ground  for  some  time, 
until  at  last  the  wasp,  desparing  of  success  in  the  usual  way, 
shifted  its  grasp  forward,  and  seized  the  fly  by  the  neck  and  bit 
its  head  off  at  once.  Why  is  not  this  the  usual  mode  of  attack  ? 
It  seemed  so  much  easier  than  the  other.  Probably  it  offers 
more  chance  for  the  victim  to  slip  from  its  antagonist's  grasp 
before  she  can  seize  the  neck. 

Generally,  a  wasp  bites  its  captive  almost  into  a  shapeless 
mass,  and  then  carries  it  home  to  its  nest.  I  saw  one  attempt 
to  fly  across  a  river  with  an  unusually  heavy  burden  of  that 
kind.  It  started  from  a  high  bank,  but  was  not  equal  to  the 
task,  and  got  lower  and  lower,  until,  just  as  they  touched  the 
water,  a  big  trout  rose  and  sucked  them  both  down. 


STRAY  NOTES  ON  ACULEATES.  151 

The  males  of  some  of  the  Aculeates  are  very  quarrelsome. 
I  have  seen  a  pair  of  Pompilus  gibbus  fight  furiously  for  the 
possession  of  a  female  which  was  present,  and,  on  examining 
them,  have  found  that  they  had  both  suffered  severely ;  indeed, 
the  smaller  of  the  two  had  no  wings  left,  only  the  remnants  of 
nervures. 

I  have  seen  the  males  of  Mellinus  arvensis,  when  cruising  up 
and  down  in  front  of  the  burrows  of  their  females,  seize  each 
other  and,  fighting  fiercely,  roll  down  the  bank  together.  The 
most  combative  of  our  Aculeates  is,  I  think,  Andrena  ivilkella. 
I  have  often  seen  the  males  fight  with  each  other  in  a  most 
determined  manner.  But  they  do  not  confine  their  quarrels  to 
those  of  their  own  race.  I  once  saw  a  large  female  of  Bombus 
terrestris  struggling  on  the  ground,  buzzing,  and  trying  to  get 
away  from  something  that  held  her.  I  found  a  male  of  A.  ivil- 
kella had  seized  her  by  the  hind  leg,  and  refused  to  let  go,  until 
I  captured  them  both.  She  was  able  to  crawl  about,  but  could 
not  fly  away  with  her  antagonist  holding  on,  and  did  not  appear 
to  offer  any  resistance.  I  put  the  angry  Andrena  into  a  bottle 
which  already  contained  a  worker  of  Vespa  vulgaris,  thinking  he 
would  soon  have  the  tables  turned  on  him,  but  he  unhesitatingly 
attacked  the  wasp,  which,  to  my  surprise,  seemed  quite  afraid 
of  him,  and  disposed  to  keep  out  of  his  way,  and  he  renewed 
the  attack  every  time  the  wasp  came  near  him,  and  drove  it  off. 
I  cannot  help  thinking  that  this  wasp  was  timid  from  finding 
himself  in  the  bottle,  but  that  does  not  detract  from  the  valour 
displayed  by  the  little  Andrena. 

The  males  of  Bombus  sometimes  quarrel  among  themselves, 
and  I  have  seen  those  of  B.  lapidarius  fighting  on  the  ground, 
and  tumbling  over  each  other  like  two  dogs,  although  I  could 
not  see  any  female  in  the  neighbourhood.  Also  when  they  are 
presumably  seeking  the  females,  they  often  fly  up  and  down  a 
hedge  on  a  hot  day,  and  will  attack  any  one  who  passes  near 
them.  In  this  way  I  have  been  persistently  attacked  by  males 
of  B.  agrorum  and  B.  terrestris,  the  latter  even  striking  my  hat 
as  they  dashed  at  me. 

I  saw  a  fierce  battle  near  Caesar's  camp  at  Folkestone, 
between  four  large  females  of  B.  lapidarius.  Three  of  them 
were  on  the  ground  when  I  first  saw  them,  and  the  fourth  came 
to  join  in  the  fight  while  I  was  looking  on.  At  first  I  thought 
they  must  be  males  fighting  for  a  female,  but  this  was  certainly 
not  the  case.  Then  I  thought  perhaps  it  was  a  contest  be- 
tween Bombus  and  Psithyrus,  but  they  were  undoubtedly  all 
B.  lapidarius.  This  is  contrary  to  all  my  former  experience. 
Generally,  the  females  of  the  social  Hymenoptera  are  rather 
gentle  outside  their  nest.  But  these  were  fighting  on  the  open 
ground,  on  the  grass. 

I  once  watched  a  bank  where  many  small  solitary  bees  had 


152  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

their  nests  in  a  colony.  The  parasitic  Nomada  altcrnata  were 
busy  examining  their  burrows.  They  appeared  extremely  care- 
ful, stopping  at  the  mouth  of  the  holes,  with  their  antennae 
directed  forward,  and  carefully  watching  for  any  symptom  from 
within  of  the  presence  of  the  rightful  owner.  I  saw  the  head  of 
an  Andrena  at  one  burrow,  and  it  was  presently  withdrawn. 
Very  soon  Nomada  came  and  inspected  the  hole,  but  promptly 
departed.  However,  in  the  case  of  one  returning,  A.  trimmerana, 
I  thought  the  intruder  had  been  caught  inside.  There  was  a 
terrible  scuffle  at  the  mouth  of  the  hole.  It  lasted  just  two 
minutes,  which  appeared  a  long  time  as  I  watched  it.  Andrena 
pulling  with  all  her  might,  and  something  within  which  as 
steadily  resisted.  At  last,  suddenly,  out  came  something  which 
she  thrust  backwards  beneath  her  between  her  legs,  and  which 
rolled  to  the  bottom  of  the  bank,  while  she  entered  the  burrow 
triumphantly.  I  picked  up  the  vanquished  insect,  which  seemed 
to  be  very  seedy,  and  was  surprised  to  find  it  was  not  a  Nomada, 
but  a  female  Halictus  rubicundus. 

I  have  watched  females  of  Mellinus  arvensis  catching  flies  on 
cow-dung.  Mellinus  ran  about  until  it  saw  a  fly,  advanced  to 
within  from  two  to  three  inches  of  it,  paused  for  an  instant,  like  a 
dog  pointing,  as  if  it  were  taking  aim,  and  then  sprang  forward, 
rarely  more  than  about  two  inches.  The  fly  was  often  missed, 
but,  if  caught,  they  both  rolled  over,  Mellinus  biting  its  prey.  I 
noticed  it  did  not  attack  every  species.  The  little  flies,  Sejisis 
cynipsea,  it  passed  by  contemptuously.  Lucilia  cornicina  it  often 
passed  unnoticed,  though  I  saw  it  attempt  to  catch  several,  only 
in  one  case  successfully,  and  then  the  fly  was  released  immedi- 
ately, seemingly  none  the  worse,  Mellinus  running  off  apparently 
disgusted  at  having  made  a  mistake.  Musca  was  greedily 
seized.  I  did  not  see  any  "  blue-bottles,"  which  I  know  are  a 
favourite  prey,  but  there  was  present  a  specimen  of  Mesembrina 
meridiana  which  Mellinus  avoided,  giving  it  a  wide  berth,  and  I 
frequently  saw  this  big  fly  chase  it  for  a  few  inches  from  one 
place  to  another.  I  do  no  not  know  why  this  should  be,  for  I 
have  often  seen  Mellinus  carry  off  blue-bottles  just,  or  nearly,  as 
large,  and  I  have  seen  wasps  attack  this  fly  readily. 

Sometimes  the  tables  are  turned,  and  I  have  seen  a  little 
Andrena  minutula,  when  busily  engaged  rifling  a  dandelion-head, 
pounced  on  by  one  of  the  bloodthirsty  red  "  cow-dung  flies." 
The  little  bee  was  taken  unfairly  at  a  disadvantage,  as  it  was 
seized  from  above,  and  a  desperate  struggle  ensued,  until  Andrena 
reversed  herself,  when  the  fly  decamped  with  most  ludicrous 
promptitude. 

Southpoint,  Limes  Road,  Folkestone. 


153 


DESCRIPTIONS    OF    TWO    NEW    ACULEATE    HYMENO- 
PTERA    FROM    THE    TRANSVAAL. 

By  P.  Cameron. 

Tachytes  transvaalensis,  sp.  nov. 
Black,  the  apical  two  joints  of  the  four  front  tarsi  reddish  ;  the 
tibial  and  tarsal  spines  pale  testaceous  ;  the  calcaria  testaceous  ;  head 
and  thorax  densely  covered  with  grey  hair  ;  the  apices  of  the  abdo- 
minal segments  with  broad  bands  of  silvery  pile  ;  the  pygidium  covered 
with  fulvous,  mixed  with  silvery  pubescence.  Wings  clear  hyaliue, 
highly  iridescent,  the  costa,  stigma,  and  nervures  pale  testaceous  ;  the 
secoud  abscissa  of  radius  shorter  than  the  third  ;  the  second  recurrent 
nervure  is  received  in  the  middle  of  the  cellule  ;  the  apex  of  radius 
is  rounded  below,  obliquely  sloped  ;  the  first  transverse  cubital  nervure 
is  roundly  curved  backwards  to  the  cubitus.  Eyes  distinctly  con- 
verging above,  where  they  are  separated  by  the  length  of  the  antennal 
scape  and  pedicle.  Apical  half  of  mandibles  pallid  testaceous,  the  base 
thickly  covered  with  silvery  pubescence.  Base  of  fore  tarsi  with  six 
spines.  Pygidium  clearly  longer  than  it  is  wide  at  the  base,  gradually 
narrowed  towards  the  apex,  as  in  T.  mira,  Kohl  (cf.  Ann.  Hof.  Mus. 
Wien,  1894,  pi.  xiii.  f.  32).  The  second  joint  of  the  flagellum  is  three 
times  longer  than  its  thickness  in  the  middle.  The  furrow  on  the  base 
of  the  metanotum  is  irregularly  transversely  striated  ;  it  is  indistinct ; 
on  top  of  the  apical  slope  is  a  closely,  distinctly,  transversely  striated 
space  ;  the  apical  slope  is  transversely  rugose.  The  long  spur  of  the 
hind  tibiae  is  as  long  as  the  metatarsus.      $  .     Length,  14  mm. 

Transvaal. 

Palpi  dark  testaceous.  The  pubescence  on  the  hind  tibire  behind 
has  a  golden  tinge.  On  either  side  of  the  clypeus  are  three  stumpy, 
not  very  clearly  defined,  teeth  or  ridges.  The  pubescence  on  the 
pygidium  is  close,  short,  and  depressed.  The  second  abscissa  of  the 
radius  is  shorter  than  the  space  bounded  by  the  recurrent  nervures. 

It  is  possible  that  this  may  be  T.  hirsutus,  Sm.  (Cat.  Hym. 
Ins.  Brit.  Mus.  iii.  p.  300),  of  which  only  the  male  has  been  de- 
scribed ;  but  the  description  is  not  sufficiently  precise  to  enable 
me  to  decide  this  without  an  examination  of  the  type  ;  the  pube- 
scence of  the  head  and  thorax  is  certainly  different,  it  being 
yellow  and  "  rich  golden  "  on  the  face. 

Odynerus  vaalensis,  sp.  nov. 
Black  ;  the  scape  below,  clypeus,  labrum,  a  mark  wider  than  long, 
transverse  above,  roundly  narrowed  below  and  slightly  incised  m  the 
middle,  a  band,  narrowed  in  the  middle,  on  the  first  abdominal  seg- 
ment above,  a  broader  one,  irregular  behind  and  slightly  incised  in  the 
middle  there,  on  the  second  above  and  below — the  under  line  trilobate 
— and  the  apices  of  the  other  segments,  yellow.  Legs  bright  fulvous 
red,  the  coxa?  and  trochanters  black.  Wings  almost  hyaline,  the 
radial  and  cubital  cellules  smoky  violaceous  ;  tegulte  rufous.  3  . 
Length,  8  mm. 


154  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Vertex  rugosely  punctured,  the  front  closely  longitudinally  reticu- 
lated-striated. Clypeus  as  long  as  it  is  broad,  rounded  broadly  above, 
the  apex  with  an  incision  on  its  apex,  where  it  is  wider  than  its 
greatest  length  ;  it  becomes  gradually  wider  towards  the  apex,  the 
sides  being  sharply  pointed.  Apices  of  mandibles  rufous.  Temples 
reticulated-punctured  closely.  Apex  of  pronotum  transverse,  the  lateral 
angles  not  acute.  Pro-  and  mesopleurae  more  coarsely  rugose  than 
the  mesonotum ;  the  metapleurae,  except  near  the  base  above,  closely 
striated  obliquely,  the  striae  intermixing  and  forming  almost  reticula- 
tions in  places.  Lateral  angles  of  metanotum  forming,  with  the  base, 
almost  a  triangle,  i.e.  the  sides  are  produced  into  a  bluut  point  in  the 
middle.  Scuteilum  quadrangular,  broader  than  long,  its  base  obliquely 
sloped.  Apex  of  post-scutellum  smooth,  obliquely  sloped.  Centre  of 
metanotum  hollowed,  smooth  ;  the  keel  in  the  centre  widened  towards 
the  apex.  Basal  abdominal  segment  cup-shaped ;  the  second  slightly 
longer  than  the  width  at  the  apex,  which  is  smooth  and  turned  up. 
The  nagellum  of  antennae  is  brownish  beneath  ;  tbe  hook  is  brown, 
stout,  reaching  to  the  apex  of  the  joint.  There  are  two  lines  on  the 
post-scutellum. 

Comes  near  to  0.  posticus  and  O.  silvaensis.     The  former  I 

do  not  know  in  nature,  but  the  latter  may  be  separated  from  my 

species  as  follows  : — 

Apical  segments  of  abdomen  and  basal  half  of  antennae 
red,  a  yellow  line  in  the  eye-incision,  the  sides  of  tbe 
median  segment  not  dilated  in  the  middle  (some- 
times yellow)  ......       silvaensis,  Sauss. 

Apical  segments  of  abdomen  and  antennae  not  red,  no 
yellow  line  on  the  eye-incision,  tbe  sides  of  median 
segment  dilated  in  the  middle         .         .         .     vaalensis,  sp.  nov. 

The  specimens  of  silvaensis  which  I  have  seen  (there  is  a 
specimen  from  the  Transvaal  in  the  Albany  Museum,  Grahams- 
town)  is  Saussure's  variety,  they  having  the  post-scutellum  and 
sides  of  metanotum  yellow.  The  tibiae,  too,  are  yellow  on  the 
outer  side  [cf.  Saussure,  '  Vespides,'  i.  p.  214). 


NEW    CULICIDiE     FEOM    THE    WEST    COAST 
OF     AFRICA. 

By  Fred.  V.  Theobald,  M.A. 

(Concluded  from  p.  104.) 

Genus  ^Edluorphus,  Theobald. 
(Mono.  Culicid.  iii.  p.  290,  1903 ;  Genera  Insectorum,  Culic. 
p.  20,  1904.) 

/Edimorphus  alboannulatus,  n.  sp. 
Head  dark  brown  ;   proboscis  black,  with  a  white  baud  on   the 
apical  half.     Thorax  deep  rich  brown,  with  scanty  golden  scales ;  a 
silvery  white  spot  on  each  prothoracic  lobe;  pleurae  pale  brown,  with 


NEW    CULICIDiE    FROM    THE    WEST    COAST    OF    AFRICA.  155 

silvery  white  puncta  ;  scutellum  silvery  white.  Abdomen  deep  brown, 
unhanded,  with  basal  white  lateral  spots.  Legs  deep  brown,  with 
apical  silvery  white  bands,  most  pronounced  in  the  hind  legs,  the  last 
hind  tarsal  being  all  white. 

?  .  Head  deep  brown,  clothed  with  dusky  flat  scales  over  most  of 
the  surface,  and  some  flat  creamy  ones  at  the  sides  ;  around  the  eyes 
rather  large  golden  narrow- curved  scales,  and  smaller  and  duller  ones 
at  the  back  ;  over  the  whole  surface  very  long  deep  black  upright 
forked  scales.  Proboscis  black,  with  a  pale  ochreous  band  slightly 
towards  the  apical  half.  Palpi  deep  brown  and  densely  scaly  ;  clypeus 
brown.  Thorax  rich  deep  chestnut-brown,  with  scattered  small  golden 
curved  scales  ;  silvery  white  flat  scales  on  the  prothoracic  lobes ; 
numerous  black  bristles  over  the  roots  of  the  wings ;  scutellum 
brown,  clothed  with  silvery  white  flat  scales  and  black  border-bristles, 
six  to  the  mid  lobe  and  some  smaller  ones  with  them  ;  pleuraa  brown, 
with  prominent  silvery  white  puncta  composed  of  flat  scales  ;  one  large 
spot  of  these  scales  seems  to  project  outwards,  and  can  be  seen  when 
the  insect  is  viewed  from  above,  looking  almost  like  a  silvery  spot  close 
to  the  roots  of  the  wings.  Abdomen  deep  brown,  with  basal  white 
lateral  spots  and  pale  venter.  Legs  black,  with  apical  silvery  wbite 
bands  as  follows  :  small  but  prominent  on  the  femora  and  tibite  of  all 
the  legs,  on  all  the  metatarsi,  and  on  the  fore  and  mid  first  tarsal 
segment ;  in  the  hind  legs  prominent  on  all  the  segments,  the  last 
tarsal  being  pure  white.  All  the  ungues  equal  and  uniserrated.  Wings 
with  the  first  submarginal  a  little  longer  and  narrower  than  the  second 
posterior  cell,  its  base  nearly  level  with  that  of  the  second  posterior, 
stem  of  the  first  submarginal  cell  about  two-tbirds  the  length  of  the 
cell,  stem  of  the  second  posterior  cell  as  long  as  the  cell ;  posterior 
cross-vein  nearly  twice  its  own  length  distant  from  the  mid.  Halteres 
with  pale  stem  and  fuscous  and  white  knot.  The  scales  are  dark 
brown,  especially  along  the  oosta,  with  deep  violet  reflections  towards 
the  base,  and  a  white  patch  of  scales  at  the  base  of  the  costa  and  first 
long  vein.     Length,  4-5  mm. 

$ .  Palpi  about  the  same  length  as  the  banded  proboscis,  the  two 
apical  segments  small  and  about  equal,  a  pale  baud  at  the  base  of  the 
apical  segment ;  on  both  apical  segments,  and  on  the  apex  of  the  ante- 
penultimate, a  few  long  brown  hairs.  Fore  and  mid  ungues  unequal, 
the  mid  more  so  than  the  front  ones,  both  uniserrated,  the  tooth  of  the 
larger  mid  unguis  near  the  base  and  small.     Length,  4  to  4*5  mm. 

Habitat.     Sierra  Leone,  West  Africa. 

Observations. — Described  from  two  specimens  (a  male  and 
female)  in  perfect  condition.  It  is  a  very  marked  species,  the 
general  ornamentation  of  the  thorax  and  legs  being  character- 
istic. I  cannot  be  certain  as  to  the  exact  structure  of  the  male 
ungues,  as  there  is  only  one  specimen,  nor  the  genitalia,  which 
are  hidden  in  hairs  and  scales.  No  notes  were  sent  with  the 
specimens. 

Genus  Culex,  Linnaeus. 

(Syst.  Nat.  1738,  Linnams  ;  Mono.  Culicid.  i.  p.  326,  1901, 
Theobald.) 


156  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Culex  hirsutipalpis,  Theobald. 
(Mono.  Culicid.  i.  p.  378,  1901.) 

Several  males  and  females  from  Bihe,  Angola.  The  males 
differ  from  the  type  in  that  there  is  no  pale  band  at  the  apex  of 
the  palpi. 

My  figure  of  the  male  ungues  (Mono.  Culicid.  i.  p.  378)  were 
drawn  from  a  pinned  specimen  in  which  they  could  not  clearly 
be  seen.  When  mounted  and  examined  flat  the  tooth  of  the 
larger  fore  and  mid  ungues  is  seen  to  be  large  and  outstanding, 
almost  at  right  angles  to  the  claw,  and  the  tooth  of  the  smaller 
one  is  more  pronounced  and  nearer  the  base.  The  series  also 
shows  great  variation  in  size,  some  specimens  being  one-third 
less  than  the  type. 

Genus  Heptaphlebomyia,  Theobald.* 

(Mono.  Culicid.  iii.  p.  336,  1903.) 

This  genus  was  described  from  a  single  female.  The  fresh 
material  sent  from  Angola  by  Dr.  Creighton  Wellman  has  enabled 
me  to  add  fresh  generic  characters  to  those  already  given.  The 
males  sent  by  the  collector  do  not  agree  with  the  females,  and  I 
am  not  sure  if  they  are  of  the  same  species. 

Characters  of  the  Genus. — Head  clothed  with  narrow-curved  scales, 
and  upright  forked  ones,  except  at  the  sides,  where  they  are  small  and 
spathulate.  Palpi  of  the  female  small  but  prominent,  in  the  male 
acuminate,  the  last  two  segments  hairy.  Thorax  clothed  with  narrow- 
curved  scales,  and  also  the  scutellum  and  prothoracic  lobes ;  the 
pleuras  in  the  female  with  patches  of  flat  scales,  which  end  in  a  sharp 
point ;  in  the  male  they  are  rounded  apically.  The  wings  have  the 
typical  Culex  venation,  hut  the  females  have  a  distinct  seventh  long 
vein,  scaled  for  part  of  its  length  with  rather  large  elongated  flat 
scales,  which  apparently  vary  in  number  from  ten  to  fifteen.  The 
scales  of  the  wing  are  rather  broader  than  in  Culex,  especially  in  the 
apices  of  the  veins,  including  the  branches  of  the  fork-cells.  In  the 
males  there  does  not  seem  to  be  a  scaled  seventh  vein,  but  the  sixth  is 
markedly  bent  at  right  angles  near  the  edge  of  the  wing. 

The  two  chief  features  in  the  genus  are  the  presence  of  a 
scaled  seventh  vein  in  the  female,  aud  the  peculiar  form  of  the 
scales  on  the  pleurae,  which  I  have  not  seen  in  any  other 
Culicids.  There  is  a  superficial  resemblance  between  the  males 
and  females,  but  the  absence  of  the  scaled  seventh  vein  in  the 
males  makes  it  doubtful  if  they  really  belong  here,  although 
evidently  they  were  taken  together  by  the  collector. 

*  Since  this  was  sent  to  press,  two  very  marked  new  species  have 
been  sent  me  from  Madagascar.  The  descriptions  will  shortly  appear  in 
the  '  Archiv  der  Parasitologic,'  in  a  paper  on  Madagascan  Culicid*  by 
M.  Veutillon. 


NEW    CULICIDiE    FROM    THE    WEST    COAST    OF    AFRICA.  157 

Heptaphlebomyia  simplex,  Theobald. 

Head  deep  brown,  with  greyish  scales  ;  palpi  of  female  thin,  black, 
and  white-scaled,  of  male  thin,  black  ;  proboscis  black,  unhanded. 
Thorax  deep  brown,  with  small  reddish  golden  narrow-curved  scales, 
brown  pleuras  with  snowy  white  puncta.  Abdomen  deep  brown,  with 
basal  white  curved  bands,  aud  basal  white  lateral  spots.  Legs  deep 
brown,  unhanded  ;  white  femoral  and  tibial  apical  spots  and  traces  of 
a  very  fine  indistinct  white  line  on  femora  and  tibias.  Ungues  of 
female  small,  equal,  and  simple. 

$  .  Head  deep  brown,  with  narrow-curved  grey  scales,  somewhat 
largest  in  the  middle  of  the  head,  and  black  upright  forked  scales  ; 
small  white  flat  lateral  scales  and  a  row  of  rather  long  and  prominent 
deep  brown  bristles  projecting  from  the  front  of  the  head,  those  of  each 
side  pointing  inwards  ;  clypeus  and  proboscis  deep  black  ;  palpi  thin, 
rather  irregular  in  form,  and  clothed  with  black  and  white  scales. 
Thorax  deep  brown,  clothed  with  narrow-curved  reddish  golden  scales, 
some  grey  ones  in  front  near  the  head,  another  small  patch  in  front 
of  the  roots  of  the  wings,  pale  ones  over  the  roots  and  before  the 
scutellum  ;  scutellum  with  pale  dull  creamy  narrow-curved  scales,  with 
two  series  of  border-bristles,  the  larger  deep  brown,  the  smaller  pale 
golden  ;  prothoracic  lobes  with  narrow-curved  pale  scales,  and  some 
brown  chaatas ;  pleurae  deep  brown,  with  patches  of  flat-pointed  white 
scales  and  short  golden  bristles  here  and  there.  Abdomen  deep 
orange-yellow,  clothed  with  deep  blackish  brown  scales  with  violet 
reflections,  and  with  basal  white  curved  bands,  those  of  the  second, 
third,  and  fourth  segments  being  in  the  form  of  almost  median  curved 
spots  ;  all  the  segments  with  basal  white  lateral  spots  ;  border-bristles 
small  and  pallid,  many  pallid  hairs  at  the  sides  of  the  body  ;  venter 
mostly  white,  scaled  with  black.  Legs  deep  black,  the  apices  of  the 
femora  and  tibiae  with  a  white  spot ;  also  on  the  femora  and  tibiae  is  a 
rather  indistinct  ventral  white  line  ;  ungues  small,  equal,  and  simple. 
Wings  with  the  first  submarginal  cell  longer  and  narrower  than  the 
second  posterior  cell,  its  base  nearer  the  base  of  the  wing  than  that  of 
the  latter,  its  stem  varying  from  one-third  to  one-half  the  length  of  the 
cell ;  stem  of  the  second  posterior  about  two-thirds  the  length  of  the 
cell ;  the  posterior  cross-vein  from  one  and  a  half  to  twice  its  own 
length  distant  from  the  mid  ;  the  seventh  vein  with  scales  which  vary 
in  number  from  ten  to  about  fifteen.     Length,  3-5  to  4  mm. 

$  .  Head  clothed  with  narrow-curved  pale  scales,  a  more  or  less 
prominent  median  bare  line ;  clypeus  and  proboscis  deep  brown ; 
antennae  grey,  with  deep  brown  bands  and  verticillate  hairs.  Palpi 
deep  brown,  the  apical  segment  acuminate,  last  two  segments  hairy, 
the  antepenultimate  segment  thin  and  weak,  with  a  trace  of  a  pale 
band  upon  it,  hairs  black  ;  two  apical  segments  equal.  Thorax  very 
similar  to  the  female,  but  does  not  show  the  pale  scales.  Abdomen 
banded  as  in  the  female,  narrow,  with  rather  scanty  long  pale  brown 
hairs ;  the  apical  segment  with  scattered  creamy  scales,  the  penulti- 
mate with  the  pale  basal  band  extending  down  each  side  of  the  seg- 
ment. Fore  and  mid  ungues  unequal,  both  uniserrated,  hind  equal, 
simple,  and  small.  Wings  with  the  seventh  vein  apparently  not  scaled 
(/.  e.  only  a  fold  and  no  true  vein).  The  first  submarginal  cell  consider- 


158  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

ably  longer  and  narrower  than  the  second  posterior  cell,  its  base  nearer 
the  base  of  the  wing  than  that  of  the  second  posterior  cell,  its  stem 
about  half  the  length  of  the  cell ;  stem  of  the  second  posterior  cell  not 
as  long  as  the  cell  ;  posterior  cross-vein  nearly  twice  its  own  length 
distant  from  the  mid ;  sixth  vein  curved  almost  at  right  angles  at  the 
apex.  The  male  genitalia  have  rather  a  narrow  basal  lobe,  with  a  long 
curved  lateral  process  composed  of  several  narrow  laminae,  and  nearer 
the  clasper  another  process,  shorter,  and  composed  of  finer  parts ;  the 
clasper  terminates  in  a  small  jointed  process.     Length,  3-5  to  4  mm. 

Habitat.  Bihe,  Angola,  Portuguese  West  Africa  (Dr.  Creighton 
Wellman). 

Observations. — The  four  females  sent  by  Dr.  Creighton  Well- 
man  all  show  the  marked  seventh  scaled  vein,  but  the  males  do 
not.  There  is  variation  in  size,  showing,  as  usual,  that  exact 
measurements  of  Culicids  are  of  no  diagnostic  value.  This 
species  might  easily  be  mistaken  at  first  for  Culex  fatigans, 
Wied.,  and,  on  more  careful  examination,  to  be  near  C.  creticus, 
Theob.,  owing  to  the  white  scaled  line  on  the  femora  and  tibiae  ; 
but  a  microscopic,  or  even  a  careful  hand-lens,  examination  will 
at  once  reveal  the  seventh  scaled  vein. 

The  original  type  is  in  the  British  Museum,  and  all  the 
specimens  redescribed  here.  There  were  three  males  sent  with 
the  females. 

Further  notes  on  this  genus  will  shortly  be  issued  in  the 
'  Archiv  der  Parasitologic '  on  important  material  collected  and 
described  by  M.  Veutillon. 


A     LIST     OF     THE     "  MACRO-LEPIDOPTERA ''     OF 
LANCASTER    AND     DISTRICT. 

By  C.  H.  Forsythe. 

(Continued  from  p.  135.) 

Triphana  ianthina. — Generally  distributed  throughout  the  district  ; 
comes  to  sugared  ragwort  flowers  in  July  and  August. 

T.  interjecta.  —  Uncommon.  I  have  only  taken  examples  near 
Heysham,  Hest  Bank,  and  in  the  County  Asylum  grounds  in  July. 

T.  comes  (orboiia). — Comes  freely  to  sugar  in  July  and  August,  and 
is  generally  distributed.     This  species  is  very  variable. 

T.  pronnba. — Abundant  at  sugar  in  July  and  August  everywhere. 
This  is  another  very  variable  species  in  colour — from  silver-grey  to 
black-brown 

Aviphipyra  tragopqgonis. — Fairly  common  everywhere  at  sugar  in 
August. 

Mania  maura. — Comes  to  sugar  in  Aqueduct  Wood  and  other 
localities  on  the  banks  of  the  Lune  at  the  end  of  July.  I  have  also 
taken  specimens  in  the  County  Asylum  grounds. 


MACRO-LEPIDOPTERA    OF    LANCASTER    AND    DISTRICT.  159 

Panolis  piniperda. — Not  common  ;  comes  to  sallow-bloom  in  April  : 
Corporation  Wood,  Quernmore,  County  Asylum  grounds,  near  Clougha, 
Blea  Tarn,  &c. 

Pachnobia  rubricosa. — Fairly  common  at  sallow-bloom,  and  generally 
distributed  throughout  the  district. 

Tamiocampa  gothica. — Common  at  sallow-bloom  in  March  and  April, 
everywhere.  This  species  shows  considerable  variation.  The  var. 
gothicina  is  scarce. 

T.  incerta  (instabilis). — Common  everywhere  at  sallow-bloom  in 
March  and  April. 

T.  populeti.  —  Not  common  ;  comes  to  sallow-bloom  in  March 
and  April,  near  Clougha,  the  County  Asylum  grounds,  Quernmore, 
Hal  ton,  &c. 

T.  stabilis. — Plentiful  everywhere  at  sallow-bloom  in  March  and 
April.     This  species  shows  considerable  variation  of  ground  colour. 

T.  puherulenta. — Generally  distributed  and  fairly  common.  Comes 
to  sallow-bloom  in  March  and  April. 

Dyschorista  (Ortko&ia)  suspecta. — I  have  only  taken  this  species  near 
Clougha  at  sugar  in  July. 

Orthosia  lota. — Fairly  common  at  sugar,  and  generally  distributed, 
in  September. 

0.  macilenta. — Fairly  common  at  sugar  in  September ;  Halton,  Grim- 
shaw  Lane,  County  Asylum  grounds,  Blea  Tarn,  Freeman's  Wood,  &c. 

0.  helvola  (rufina), — Fairly  common  at  sugar  in  September  and 
October  ;  County  Asylum  grounds,  Grimshaw  Lane,  Halton,  Aqueduct 
Wood,  &c.     This  species  varies  considerably. 

0.  pistachio. — I  have  bred  this  species  from  Witherslack  and  Methop 
larvae,  and  have  taken  it  at  sugar  in  the  County  Asylum  grounds  in 
September  and  October,  but  it  is  not  plentiful. 

0.  litura. — Common  at  sugar  in  September  ;  Witherslack,  Methop, 
County  Asylum  grounds,  Blea  Tarn,  Freeman's  Wood,  Corporation 
Wood,  &c. 

0.  circellaris  (ferruginea). — Abundant  at  sugar  in  late  September 
and  October  in  the  County  Asylum  grounds,  Grimshaw  Lane,  Aqueduct 
Wood,  Corporation  Wood,  &c. 

Orrhodia  vaccinii. — Abundant  everywhere  at  sugar  and  ivy-bloom 
in  September,  October,  and  November. 

0.  ligida  (spadicea). — Abundant  everywhere  at  sugar  and  ivy-bloom 
in  September,  October,  and  November. 

Scopelosoma  satellitia. — Fairly  common  at  sugar  in  September  and 
October.  This  species  varies  much  in  ground  colour— from  red  to  dark 
dull  brown,  and  with  a  white,  red,  or  yellow  reniform. 

Xanthia  fulvago  (cerago). — Fairly  common  and  generally  distributed 
in  July,  August,  and  September. 

A',  jiavago  (silago). — I  have  taken  this  species  in  September  at 
Methop,  Witherslack,  Grimshaw  Lane,  County  Asylum  grounds,  and 
Blea  Tarn. 

Cirrfuedia  xerampelina. — Not  common ;  Blea  Tarn,  Clougha,  Lan- 
caster, Arnside,  Halton,  Caton,  &c,  end  of  August.  The  var.  unicolor 
is  rare,  odd  examples  occasionally  at  Clougha  and  Arnside. 

Cosmia  paleacea  (fulvago). — Scarce.  I  have  only  bred  it  from  Methop 
larvae  taken  from  oak  in  early  June.     The  imago  appears  in  August. 


160  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Calymnia  trapezina.  —  Fairly  common  and  generally  distributed 
throughout  the  district  in  August. 

Dianthcecia  cucubali. — I  have  only  taken  this  species  between  Caton 
and  Quernmore  in  June. 

Pulia  chi. — Abundant  on  the  walls  about  Clougha,  Lancaster, 
Quernmore,  Halton,  and  Caton,  &c,  in  September  and  October.  The 
var.  olivacea  is  scarce. 

Miselia  oxyacanthee. — Abundant  at  sugar  in  September  ;  Halton, 
Grimshaw  Lane,  Blea  Tarn,  County  Asylum  grounds,  &c.  The  var. 
capucina  occasionally. 

Agriopis  aprUina. — Not  common,  but  occurs  in  most  of  the  localities 
throughout  the  district.     Comes  to  sugar  in  October. 

Euplexia  lucipara. — Fairly  common  at  sugar  in  June  and  July, 
and  again  in  September  ;  County  Asylum  grounds,  Clougha,  Wither  - 
slack,  &c. 

Phlogophora  meticulosa.  —  Common  at  sugar  in  September  and 
October  ;  County  Asylum  grounds,  Halton,  Aqueduct  Wood,  Freeman's 
Wood,  Witherslack,  &c. 

Aplecta  nebidosa. — Common,  but  local  ;  Witherslack  and  Methop. 
Comes  to  sugar  in  June.  This  species  varies  considerably  in  ground 
colour— ranging  from  light  grey  to  nearly  black  (the  latter  is  rare — 
var.  robsoni). 

A.  tincta. — Local ;  near  Witherslack  end  of  June. 

Hadena  protea. — Fairly  plentiful  near  Clougha,  Quernmore,  Blea 
Tarn,  &c,  in  September. 

H.  glauca. — Local  and  not  common.  I  have  ouly  taken  this  species 
at  rest  on  the  rocks  near  Clougha  in  June  and  early  July. 

H.  dentina. — A  few  at  sugar,  but  more  frequently  at  rest  on  the 
stone  walls  and  rocks  in  the  vicinity  of  Clougha  in  July. 

H.  dissimilis  [suasa), — Not  common;  odd  examples  come  to  sugar  in 
the  County  Asylum  grounds,  and  I  have  bred  specimens  from  Methop 
larvae.     The  imago  appears  in  June. 

H.  oleracea. — Common  at  sugar  and  privet-bloom  in  July ;  and 
generally  distributed. 

H.  pisi.  —  Fairly  common  at  Witherslack  and  Methop  in  June. 
This  species  is  very  variable. 

H.  thalassina. — Not  common;  examples  come  to  sugar  in  most 
seasons  at  Blea  Tarn,  County  Asylum  grounds,  Quernmore,  &c,  in 
June. 

Xylocampa  areola  (lithorhiza). — Fairly  common  in  some  seasons  ; 
appears  in  March  and  April,  and  comes  to  sallow-bloom. 

Calocampa  vetusta. — Uncommon  ;  comes  to  sugar  and  ivy  occasion- 
ally in  October  in  the  County  Asylum  grounds,  at  Blea  Tarn,  and 
Quernmore. 

G.  exoleta. — Fairly  common  and  generally  distributed ;  comes  to 
sugar  and  ivy-bloom  in  October  and  November. 

C.  solidaginis. — I  have  only  taken  this  species  near  Clougha  and  in 
the  County  Asylum  grounds  ;  end  of  July. 

Xylina  conformis. — Very  rare.  I  took  two  specimens  at  ivy-bloom 
on  October  22nd,  1902, near  Lancaster ;  vide  'Entomologist,'  vol.  xxxv. 
p.  25. 

(To  be  continued.) 


161 


NOTES     AND     OBSERVATIONS. 

Dytiscids  in  the  New  Forest. — Mr.  Ansorge  (Entom.  xxxvii. 
241)  asks  if  anyone  knows  of  the  occurrence  of  Deronectes  lotus  in  the 
New  Forest.  I  may  therefore  say  that  there  is  a  stream  in  the  forest 
in  which  it  may  always  be  found  in  early  June.  I  was  very  much 
surprised  when  I  first  found  it  there,  a  good  many  years  ago.  Another 
rare  Dytiscid  occurring  in  the  forest  I  thiuk  has  not  been  recorded,  viz, 
Hydrovatus  clypealis.  This  lives  in  a  pond  near  Lyndhurst,  in  com- 
pany with  Pelobius  hermanni. — D.  Sharp;  Cambridge,  May  9th,  1905. 

London  Lepidoptera. — I  should  be  very  grateful  if  any  of  your 
readers  would  kindly  supply  me  with  the  names  of  Macro-Lepidoptera 
actually  seen  or  captured  inside  the  "four-mile  radius"  at  any  time 
since,  and  including,  1900.  I  trust  it  will  be  noted  that  I  desire  per- 
sonal experiences  only. — George  Lock;  41,  Nithdale  Road,  Plumstead, 
S.E.,  May  16th,  1905. 

Eupithecia  stevensata. — When  collecting  in  Freshwater,  Isle  of 
Wight,  last  September,  I  captured  a  Eupithecia  which  puzzled  me  to 
name.  I  have  just  shown  the  specimen  (which  is  in  perfect  condition) 
to  my  friend  Mr.  L.  B.  Prout,  and  he  informs  me  that  it  is  undoubtedly 
E.  stevensata.  The  specimen  was  caught  while  dusking  along  an 
ordinary  hedgeside  where  a  few  tamarisks  were  growing,  but  certainly 
no  juniper.  This  substantiates  the  statement,  made  some  time  ago  by 
Mr.  Sydney  Webb,  that  the  insect  appears  in  September,  and  that 
the  larva  does  not  feed  on  juniper.  As  the  insect  had  never  to  my 
knowledge  been  caught  outside  the  Dover  district,  I  thought  the  record 
might  prove  of  interest. — J.  P.  Mutch  ;  415,  Hornsey  Road,  N. 

[Barrett,  in  '  British  Lepidoptera,'  treats  stevensata  as  a  form  of 
E.  sobrinata.  "  If  this  form,"  he  remarks,  "  when  reared,  should 
appear  to  be  distinct  from  E.  sobrinata,  it  will  be  an  exceedingly 
difficult  species  to  describe,  seeing  that  although  the  shade  of  colour  is 
peculiar,  the  markings,  though  differing  in  intensity,  are  accurately 
the  same." — Ed.] 

Apamea  ophiogramma. — Is  Poa  aquatica  a  usual  food-plant  for  this 
species  ?  I  have  found  no  less  than  six  larvae  this  year  feeding  upon  it. 
Both  Phalaris  arundinacca  and  Poa  aquatica  grow  together  along  the 
margins  of  the  streams  here,  and  I  get  larvae  of  A.  ophiogramma  in  both, 
although  mostly  in  the  Phalaris.  A.  didyma  (oculea)  feeds  commonly 
on  Poa  aquatica,  but  is  not  very  abundant  on  Phalaris  arundinacea  in 
this  district. — Francis  C.  Woodbridge  ;    Northcroft,  Uxbridge. 

Note  on  Haworth's  Type-specimen  of  "  Noctua  subfusca." — At 
the  sale  of  the  first  portion  of  the  Mason  Collection,  Lot  498 — which 
included  Haworth's  original  type-specimen,  bearing  his  own  MS.  label 
"subfusca,"  of  his  Xochia  subfusca — became  my  property.  The  moth, 
which  was  first  described  by  him  in  Lep.  Brit.  p.  114,  as  "  Bombyx 
subfusclts,,'  but  was  afterwards,  on  p.  219  of  the  same  work,  assigned  a 
more  correct  position  under  the  name  "  Noctua  subfusca"  is  an 
obscurely-marked  fuscous  example  of  Ayrotis  corticea,  Hb.,  and  the 
name  has  been  rightly  sunk  as  a  synonym  of  corticea.     I  observe,  how- 

ENTOM. — JUNE,    1905.  O 


162  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

ever,  that  in  the  Entom.  Syn.  List,  p.  7  (1884),  subfusca  is  specially 
indicated  as  being  referable  to  the  female  sex  of  A.  corticea,  and  is  not 
entered  as  a  variety,  whereas  the  type-specimen,  which  I  am  about  to 
present  to  the  National  Collection,  is  unquestionably  a  male,  as  proved 
both  by  the  antennae  and  the  frenulum,  and  represents  a  decidedly 
aberrant  form,  for  which  the  name  subfusca  must  be  retained,  of  this 
species. — Eustace  R.  Bankes  ;  Norden,  Corfe  Castle,  May  11th,  1905. 

The  Mason  Collection. — With  reference  to  the  notice  (antea, 
p.  136)  of  the  sale  of  this  collection,  it  seems  advisable  to  mention 
that  the  MS.  label  on  the  pin  of  the  Norfolk  specimen  of  Notodonta 
tritophus,  Esp.  (rendered  as  "trilophus,"  loc.  cit.),  read  '•  Ersham, 
Norfolk,  Garneys."  "Ersham"  is  obviously  a  mistake  for  "Ears- 
ham,"  in  south-east  Norfolk,  which  is  close  to  Bungay  (in  Suffolk), 
where  Messrs.  Charles  and  W.  Garneys  used  to  reside  (vide  Ent.  Ann. 
1856,  p.  18).  In  the  sale  catalogue  "  Garneys "  was  incorrectly 
rendered  "  Gurney,"  and  the  attempt  to  quote  (antea,  p.  136)  the  exact 
data  given  in  the  catalogue  has  further  resulted  in  "  Ersham  "  of  the 
catalogue  appearing  as  "  Ergham."  I  also  notice  that  it  is  stated 
(antea,  p.  136)  that  "  Five  Synia  musculosa  were  disposed  of  at  5/-  to 
11/-  each,"  but  would  point  out  that  whereas  this  is  true  of  the  last 
four  of  the  five  specimens  sold  separately  and  apart  from  other  species, 
the  first  of  the  five  fetched  22/-. — Eustace  R.  Bankes  ;  Norden,  Corfe 
Castle,  May  10th,  1905. 

Entomological  Club. — A  meeting  was  held  at  Wellfield,  Lingards 
Road,  Lewisham,  the  residence  of  Mr.  Robert  Adkin,  the  host  and 
chairman  of  the  evening.  Other  members  present  were  Messrs. 
Donisthorpe  and  Porritt.  Mr.  Lucas  exhibited  a  living  example  of 
each  sex  of  Agrion  armatum  from  Cambs. 


CAPTURES  AND  FIELD  REPORTS. 

Deilephila  livornica  in  Cornwall.— On  April  16th  last,  at  Charles- 
town,  there  was  taken  a  specimen  of  D.  livornica,  which  is  now  in  my 
possession.  I  believe  that  four  other  specimens  were  taken  about  the 
17th  inst.  viz. : — one  Grampound  Road,  one  Helston,  one  Falmouth,  and 
one  at  Hayle  ;  all  in  Cornwall.  For  three  days  preceding  the  16th  inst. 
very  strong  south-south-east  and  south  winds  prevailed  here,  so  I 
assume  that  these  insects,  at  least,  were  helped  along  thereby,  on  their 
long  journey. — H.  D.  Kenyon  ;  Lamorna  Villas,  Mount  Charles,  St. 
Austell,  April  28th,  1905. 

Deilephila  livornica  in  Wales. — On  April  20th  last,  a  good  speci- 
men of  D.  livornica  was  brought  to  me  by  a  little  girl.  She  had  found 
it  in  a  hole  in  the  garden.  It  was  alive,  and  quite  perfect,  although 
the  girl  carried  it  in  a  small  tumbler.  There  is  no  doubt  about  its 
being  a  true  British  specimen  of  that  somewhat  rare  species.  I  would 
have  sent  a  record  of  this  capture  before,  but  I  have  been  away  from 
home. — L.  Stafford  ;  Gold  Croft,  Caerleon,  near  Newport,  Monmouth, 
May  16th,  1905. 


CAPTURES  AND  FIELD  REPORTS.  163 

Notes  fkom  the  Chester  District  for  1904.  —  Contrary  to  the 
predictions  of  certain,  or,  more  accurately  speaking,  uncertain  weather 
prophets,  the  summer  of  1904  turned  out  to  be  sunny,  warm,  and 
enjoyable.  The  months  of  June,  July,  and  August  had  especially  high 
temperatures  and  clear  atmospheres,  and  August  4th,  when  Londoners 
sweltered  in  91°  (shade  reading),  had  the  distinction  of  being  the 
hottest  day  for  four  years.  As  usual,  the  weather  became  unsettled 
about  August  12th,  summer  returning  towards  the  end  of  the  month. 
It  was  an  especial  matter  of  interest  to  me  to  see  if  the  two  previous 
cold  wet  summers  would  have  any  appreciable  effect  on  the  numbers 
of  the  butterflies.  The  following  species  were  conspicuous  by  their 
absence,  either  as  larvns  or  imagines  : — Vanessa  in  (I  saw  none). — V. 
urticaz  (I  do  not  remember  seeing  one). — V.  atalanta  was  represented 
by  a  few  specimens.  Mr.  J.  Thompson  took  five  larvas  and  one  pupa 
off  nettles  just  outside  Chester.  One  of  the  butterflies  was  seen, 
September  11th,  in  the  Grosvenor  Park  ;  one  in  Delamere  Forest, 
August  30th  ;  two  in  Delamere  Forest,  September  10th  ;  and  I  saw 
six  feeding  on  heather-bloom,  September  17th,  in  the  same  locality. 
I  did  not  see  V.  cardui  at  all.  But,  as  all  other  butterfly  species  of  the 
district  seemed  up  to  their  usual  numbers,  it  was  evident  that  the 
failures  in  Vanessidre  could  hardly  be  attributed  to  the  two  preceding 
seasons.  Much  more  likely  are  they  due  to  the  growing  practice  of 
cutting  down  almost  every  available  nettle  and  thistle,  just  when  the 
larvaB  are  most  dependent  upon  these  food-plants. 

Electric  lamps  were  almost  a  failure — certainly  not  worth  working. 
My  best  capture  was  an  example  of  Cirrhcedia  xerampelina,  August  30th. 
Several  specimens  of  Sphinx  convohndi  were  taken  in  September.  In 
connection  with  moths  being  attracted  by  light,  it  may  be  worth 
recording  that  a  Plusia  gamma  flew  iuto  a  farmhouse  during  a  fall  of 
snow  on  the  night  of  November  21st. 

I  will  only  mention  the  most  interesting  moths  that  I  obtained  in 
various  localities  : — Sesia  scoliiformis.  I  was  well  within  striking  dis- 
tance of  a  fine  fresh  female  at  rest  on  birch  in  Delamere  Forest,  June 
4th.  Although  it  was  a  good  shot  for  the  net,  I  unfortunately  missed 
it.  This  is,  to  my  knowledge,  the  second  specimen  seen  in  Delamere 
Forest. — Chcerocampa  porcellus.  A  freshly  emerged  specimen  netted  by 
Mr.  J.  Thompson  at  flowers  of  white  campion,  Delamere  Forest,  on  the 
night  of  June  17th. — Rusina  tenebrosa.  Common  in  Delamere  Forest 
in  June.  All  specimens  melanic  forms. — Hepialus.velleda  var.  carnns 
(almost  unicolorous  brown,  markings  indistinct).  One,  Delamere 
Forest,  July  8th. — P.  iota.  A  melanic  specimen,  Delamere  Forest, 
July  8th. — IStilbia  anomala.  One,  the  Leet,  Valley  of  the  Alwyn, 
Denbighshire,  July  30th.  —  Acidalia  dilutaria,  Hiibn.  Previously 
recorded  in  the  district  by  Gregson  only.  One  netted  by  me  in  Dela- 
mere Forest  on  the  night  of  July  8th. — A.  aversata.  A  rosy-brown 
form  blotched  with  darker  instead  of  bands  on  the  upper  wings,  Dela- 
mere Forest,  July  1st. — Emmelesia  decolorata.  Plentiful  about  Chester 
and  in  Delamere  Forest,  June  and  July. — Boannia  repandata.  A  black 
specimen  taken  near  Chester,  July  5th. — B.  rhomboidaria.  A  melanic 
form  taken  near  Chester,  August  2nd.  It  laid  a  number  of  red  eggs. 
(The  eggs  of  B.  repandata  are  dull  green.) — Hypsipetes  elutata.  A 
beautiful  green  form  (upper  wings),  August  4th. — Pericallia  syringaria. 


164  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

One,  Delamere  Forest,  July  8th. — Eupithecia  trisignaria,  H.-S.  I  had 
the  good  fortune  to  net  one  (Delamere  Forest)  on  the  night  of  July 
1st.  The  previous  occurrence  in  the  district  rests  on  a  doubtful 
record. — -Mimceseoptilus  bipunctidactyla,  Haw.  Common  on  the  Leet 
carboniferous  limestone,  Denbighshire,  August  12th.  —  Aciptilia  tetra- 
dactyla,  L.  A  small  whitish  plume  not  previously  recorded.  Common 
on  the  Leet,  Denbighshire,  July. — Pterophorus  monodactylus,  L.  One 
beaten  out  of  Scotch  fir  in  Delamere  Forest,  October  1st.  —  M.  ptero- 
dactylus,  L.     Common  in  Delamere  Forest,  July  8th,  but  rather  worn. 

The  following  Micros  were  taken,  or  bred  from  larvae,  in  or  near 
Chester : — Orthotelia  sparganella,  Thnb.  ;  common  on  marshy  places 
in  August.  Depressaria  liturella,  Schiff.,  and  Aphelia  osseana,  Sc.= 
pratana,  Hb.  ;  both  on  the  Lache  Eye  in  August.  Epiblema  similana, 
Hub.  ;  Acalla  hastiana,  modification  of  var.  autumnana,  Steph.  ;  A. 
hastiana,  L.,  var.  radiana,  Hub. ;  Endrosis  lacteella,  Schiff.  =fenestrella, 
Stt. ;  Ancylis  biarcuana,  Steph.  ;  E.  subocellana,  Don. 

From  Delamere  Forest : —  Depressaria  ap plana,  Fabr.  ;  Pandemia 
corylana,  Fabr.  ;  Cerostoma  radiatella,  Don.,  a  very  variable  species  ; 
Pandemia  heparana,  Schiff.  ;  Pleurota  bicostella,  CI. ;  Scoparia  ambigu- 
alis,  Tr.  ;  Ulethreutes  corticana,  Hub.  ;  Caccecia  lecheana,  L.  ;  Acompsia 
pseudospretella,  Stt.,  almost  black  (also  Chester  examples). 

From  tbe  Leet,  Denbighshire: — A.  osseana,  Sc.  =  pratana,  Hb.  ; 
C.  radiatella,  Don.  ;    Acalla  variegana,  Schiff. 

Hybrids  between  Smerinthus  ocellatus  (female)  and  S.  populi  (male)  : 
From  the  eight  pupae  referred  to  (Entom.  xxxvii.  25)  six  fine  moths 
emerged  in  June — three  on  the  4th,  one  on  the  5th,  one  on  the  6th, 
and  the  sixth  on  the  17th — -all  apparently  males.  As  the  sexes  of  the 
parent  moths  were  the  same  as  those  referred  to  by  Mr.  P.  Kirk,  of 
Dundee  (Entom.  Record,  i.  95),  I  was  curious  to  see  how  my  hybrids 
would  compare  with  those  reared  by  Mr.  Kirk.  Mr.  Tutt's  description 
of  five  of  the  latter  (Entom.  Record,  i.  203)  fits  so  accurately  with  my 
hybrids  that  I  give  his  description  verbatim  : — "  They  are  perfectly 
intermediate  between  the  two  species.  The  fore  wings  have  all  the 
characters  of  both  species,  the  basal  line  as  in  populi,  but  with  distinct 
traces  of  a  shade  showing  the  angulation  of  the  basal  line  in  ocellatus, 
the  hind  wings  have  the  fulvous  basal  patch  of  populi  (no  red  colour), 
and  indistinct  eye-spots  characteristic  of  ocellatus." 

S.  til'm. — From  the  fifteen  pupae  referred  to  (Entom.  xxxvii.  25),  I 
got  ten  moths  in  May — two  females  on  the  18th,  a  male  and  female  on 
the  20th,  a  male  on  the  21st,  a  male  and  female  on  the  22nd,  a 
crippled  female  on  the  23rd,  and  a  male  and  female  on  the  24th  ;  four 
males  and  six  females  in  all.  This  moth  might  more  accurately  be 
named  the  "  elm  moth,"  as  I  found,  in  agreement  with  the  experience 
of  others,  that  the  larvae  prefer  elm  to  lime. 

Arctia  caia. — A  third  brood  of  imagines  (forced)  began  to  appear 
November  18th,  and  continue  now  (February).  As  in  the  second 
brood,  which  began  to  emerge  on  September  4th,  the  perfect  insects 
were  in  company  with  caterpillars  of  the  same  brood  in  every  stage  of 
growth.  With  the  exception  of  a  fine  female,  in  which  the  cream- 
coloured  area  of  the  upper  wings  is  increased,  all  the  moths  so  far  have 
been  typical.  The  insect  does  not  seem  to  vary  perceptibly  in  this 
district,  even  with  forced  successive  broods.     The  eggs  laid  by  moths 


SOCIETIES.  165 

of  the  third  brood  have,  in  rny  case,  all  turned  out  infertile,  although 
a  friend  tells  me  his  experience  of  the  same  brood  has  been  quite  the 
reverse.  I  kept  my  larva?  in  cages  placed  on  a  warm  kitchen  shelf  by 
the  fireplace,  and  fed  them  on  dock  and  groundsel. 

(To  be  continued.) 


SOCIETIES. 


Entomological  Society  of  London. — May  3rd,  1905.  —  Mr.  F. 
Merrifield,  President,  in  the  chair. — Mr.  J.  Butt'erworth,  B.Sc,  was 
elected  a  Fellow  of  the  Society.  Mr.  M.  Jacoby  exhibited  a  series 
of  Xenarthra  cervicornis,  Baly,  from  Ceylon,  and  drew  attention  to 
the  curious  structure  of  the  antenna?  of  the  male,  that  of  the  female 
being  simple. — Mr.  G.  T.  Porritt,  specimens  of  Tephrosia  consonaria, 
ab.  nigra,  and  melanic  examples  of  Poarmia  consortaria,  all  from  a 
wood  in  West  Kent,  by  Mr.  E.  Goodwin.  These  forms  were  exactly 
on  the  same  lines  as  the  melanism  in  West  Yorkshire,  and  it  is 
curious  they  should  occur  in  such  widely  separate  localities.  The  two 
genera,  however,  are  evidently  prone  to  melanism,  as  Mr.  Porritt 
stated  that  he  had  now  seen  black  or  almost  black  specimens  of  all  the 
British  species  except  Tephrosia  punctulata. — Commander  J.  J.  Walker 
(1)  two  specimens  of  the  very  rare  Staphylinid,  Medon  castaneus,  Grav., 
taken  in  the  Oxford  district  during  the  last  week  of  April,  1905  ;  (2) 
several  examples  of  both  sexes  of  the  giant  flea  Hystrichopsylla  talpce, 
Curtis,  from  field-mouse  nests  in  the  same  district;  and  (3)  the  type- 
specimen  of  the  Bostrichid  beetle,  Dinoderus  ocellaris,  Steph.  (taken 
by  the  late  Prof.  Westwood  at  "  Little  Cbelsea  "  previous  to  1830), 
from  the  Hope  Collection  at  Oxford. — Professor  E.  B.  Poulton,  F.R.S., 
read  a  note  on  "  Heliotropism  in  Pararge  and  Pyrantels,"  communi- 
cated by  Dr.  G.  B.  Longstaff,  M.D.— Professor  L.  C.  Miall,  F.R.S., 
communicated  a  paper  on  "  The  Structure  and  Life  History  of  Psychoda 
sexpunctata,  Curtis,"  by  John  Alexander  Dell,  B.Sc. — Dr.  D.  H.  Hut- 
chinson gave  an  address  on  "  The  Three-colour  Process  as  applied  to 
Insect  Photography,"  illustrated  by  lantern  slides  of  British  and 
Indian  Rhopalocera,  the  exhibits  showing  a  marked  advance  in  excel- 
lence upon  any  yet  shown  at  the  Society's  meetings.  The  President, 
at  the  close  of  the  proceedings,  heartily  congratulated  Dr.  Hutchinson 
upon  the  results  of  his  work. — H.  Rowland-Brown,  M.A.,  Hon.  Sec. 

South  London  Entomological  and  Natural  History  Society. — 
April  VSth.—Mv.  Hugh  Main,  B.Sc,  F.E.S.,  President,  in  the  chair.— 
Mr.  Wiukworth,  of  Burdett  Road,  E.  ;  Mr.  Wright,  of  Woolwich; 
and  Mr.  Penn  Gaskill,  of  Wandsworth  Common,  were  elected  mem- 
bers.— Mr.  Harrison,  living  larva?  of  Ay  rods  ashworthii  from  North 
Wales. — Mr.  West,  Lebia  cyanocephala  and  L.  chlorocephala  from  Box 
Hill. — Mr.  Edwards,  a  number  of  species  of  the  South  American 
groups  of  Papilio,  Rndopogon,  Hectorides  and  Parides. — Mr.  Kaye,  long 
series  of  Heliconius  numata,  showing  extensive  variations,  in  the  hind 
wings  particularly;  and  also  pairs  of  H.  sylvana  and  H.novatus  (?) ;  all 
were  from  British  Guiana. — Mr.  Turner,  cases  of  Cleophora  saturatella 


166  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

on  broom. — Mr.  Sich  read  a  paper  entitled,  "  The  Spot  we  stand  on," 
and  illustrated  it  with  lantern  slides. 

April  27 tk. — The  President  in  the  chair. — Mr.  Bevins,  of  Ongar, 
was  elected  a  member. — Messrs.  Harrison  and  Main  exhibited  larvae 
of  Nemeophila  russula  in  their  last  stage ;  they  were  from  ova  laid  by  a 
Cheshire  female,  and  were  feeding  on  dandelion.  Mr.  Cowham  had 
reared  a  brood  in  the  autumn  from  spring  ova.  Mr.  Main  showed  his 
method  of  holding  a  twig  with  a  larva  or  imago  in  position  for  photo- 
graphing, by  means  of  a  compound  clamp  or  test-tube  holder  and  retort 
stand,  such  as  are  used  by  practical  chemists.  He  also  exhibited  a  ball- 
and-socket  arrangement  for  fitting  on  a  camera-stand  to  allow  of  incli- 
nation of  the  camera  in  any  direction. — Mr.  Adkin  read  a  paper  on 
"Belated  Emergences,"  and  exhibited  various  species  in  illustration. 
Hy.  J.  Turner,  Hon.  Rep.  Sec. 

Lancashire  and  Cheshire  Entomological  Society.  —  The  third 
ordinary  meeting  was  held  in  the  Society's  rooms,  Royal  Institution, 
Liverpool,  on  March  20th,  Mr.  Richard  Wilding,  Vice-President,  in  the 
chair. — -Donations  to  the  Library  were  announced  from  Messrs.  B.  H. 
Crabtree,  F.E.S. ;  H.  B.  Score,  F.R.G.S. ;  Jas.  Fletcher,  LL.D.,  F.L.S., 
and  C.  M.  Adams,  F.I.C.  This  meeting  took  the  form  of  a  micro- 
scopical, lantern,  and  general  exhibitional  meeting,  and  proved  to  be 
a  most  popular  and  successful  innovation,  the  number  of  members  and 
their  friends  present  being  considerable,  aud  including  several  ladies. 
In  addition  to  the  various  microscopical  exhibits  of  members,  ten 
members  of  the  Liverpool  Microscopical  Society  contributed  greatly  to 
the  success  of  the  evening  by  their  exhibits,  and  the  Society  is  much 
to  be  congratulated  on  securing  their  invaluable  co-operation.  The 
first  half  of  the  meeting  was  devoted  to  the  microscopes  and  general 
exhibits. — Mr.  J.  M.  Williams's  slides  included  the  suckers  of  Dytiscus 
and  the  head  of  the  jumping  spider,  Salticus  tardigradus ;  Mr.  Garnett 
showed  the  "  fairy  fly,"  Anagrus  incamatus,  and  the  Hessian  fly;  Mr. 
F.  N.  Pierce,  the  chirping  drum  aud  file  of  the  common  house-cricket ; 
Mr.  D.  Whittaker,  the  strigil  of  Corixa  yeoffroyi  and  other  slides  of 
Aquatic  Hemiptera ;  Mr.  J.  E.  Turner,  head  of  plumed  gnat,  and 
ichneumon  flies;  Mr.  A.  H.  Dudley,  the  circulation  of  protoplasm  in 
Niiella  and  El  odea,  and  a  Cyclops  carrying  eggs  ;  Mr.  C.  M.  Adams, 
the  larva,  and  male  and  female  imagines  of  the  itch-insect,  Sarcojites 
scabiei;  Mr.  W.  T.  Haydon,  sections  showing  development  of  embryo 
of  Pinus  sylvestris;  Mr.  E.  J.  B.  Sopp,  larva  of  Melo'e  proscarabaits 
and  spiracles  of  Dytiscus  marginalis.  Among  other  interesting  slides 
on  view  were  the  tracheal  system  of  silkworm;  parasite  of  mouse, 
showing  its  victim's  blood  in  its  stomach  ;  wing-case  of  tiger-beetle ; 
transverse  section  of  caterpillar,  showing  its  last  meal,  &c.  The 
general  exhibits  were  varied  and  instructive.  The  President,  Mr.  S. 
J.  Capper,  sent  his  well-known  educational  collections,  representing 
all  the  orders  of  insects ;  Mr.  W.  A.  Tyerman,  a  series  of  bred  Selenia 
iilunaria,  and  some  beautiful  moths  from  Winburg,  Orange  River 
Colony;  Mr.  F.  R.  Dixon-Nuttall,  specimens  of  the  North  American 
Longicorn  Xeoclytus  erythrocephalus,  found  seven  inches  below  the  bark 
of  an  ash  supposed  to  have  grown  in  the  St.  Helens  district ;  Dr.  W. 
Bell,  preserved  larva  of  Noctua  triangulum  ;  Mr.  Horton,  larvae  of  Tro- 


SOCIETIES.  167 

chilium  bembeciformis  in  willow  stems;  Mr.  J.  R.  le  B.  Tomlin,  a  case 
of  exotic  Cetoniida  and  one  of  goliath  beetles,  including  Goliathus 
druryi,  G.  giganteus,  and  G.  cacicus  ;  Mr.  R.  S.  Bagnall,  Leptura 
pubescens,  Sinoxylon  anale,  Ghrysobothris  chrysostigma,  and  a  number  of 
other  foreign  beetles  introduced  into  the  Hartlepool  district  in  timber. 
Mr.  Sopp,  British  burying-beetles,  borings  of  Hylesinux  fraxini  in  ash 
and  locusts  ;  Mrs.  Sopp.  the  leaf  insect,  Phyllium  scythe  ;  Mr.  Whittaker, 
Gerris  canalium,  from  the  canal  at  Marple ;  Mr.  Pierce,  a  large  wasp, 
probably  Yespa  mandarina,  captured  by  Mr.  Wm,  Johnson  in  the  dis- 
trict about  sixty  years  ago  ;  Mr.  H.  R.  Sweeting,  a  model-map  of  the 
'•  Liverpool  District,"  taken  from  the  one-inch  ordnance  map,  revised 
to  1895,  &c.  Refreshments  were  served  at  8.30,  after  which  there  was 
an  excellent  lantern  demonstration.  Among  excellent  photographs  of 
insects,  by  Mr.  Henry  Ball,  Mr.  Whittaker,  and  Mr.  Oulton  Harrison, 
one  of  Helops  striatus,  showing  bifurcated  antenna,  exhibited  by  Mr. 
Harrison,  was  especially  interesting. — E.  J.  B.  Sopp  and  J.  R.  le  B. 
Tomlin,  Hon.  Secretaries. 

Manchester  Entomological  Society. — January  4tth,  1905. — The 
President,  Dr.  W.  E.  Hoyle,  presided  over  a  large  gathering  of  mem- 
bers on  the  occasion  of  the  Annual  Meeting.  A  general  outline  of  the 
work  of  1904  was  read  by  the  Secretary,  and  the  Treasurer's  statement 
showed  a  balance  in  hand  of  nearly  £i.  Four  friends  were  nominated 
for  membership.  The  following  officers  were  elected  for  1905  : — Presi- 
dent, B.  H.  Crabtree,  F.E.S. ;  Vice-President,  R.  Tait,  Jr.  ;  Hon.  Trea- 
surer, W.  Buckley  ;  Hon.  Secretary.  R.  J.  Wigelsworth  ;  Librarian,  C. 
F.Johnson;  Council,  J.  Ray  Hardy,  Geo.  0.  Day,F.E.S.,  and  W.Warren 
Kinsey.  In  a  brief  address  the  retiring  President,  after  congratulating 
the  Society  on  its  successful  career,  said  a  word  of  warning  was  neces- 
sary. The  reading  of  papers  and  exhibiting  of  specimens  were  good  and 
helpful,  but  the  usefulness  of  the  Society  would  be  impeded  if  a  wider 
outlook  of  the  insect  world  was  not  taken.  To  do  useful  work,  mem- 
bers must  take  up  other  orders  of  insects  besides  Lepidoptera,  some  of 
the  less  known  groups,  read  and  carefully  study  them,  and  ultimately 
become  authorities  regarding  them.  The  following  exhibits  were 
shown  : — Mr.  Geo.  0.  Day,  cocoons  of  Hemerophila  abruptaria. — Mr. 
R.  Brauer,  case  containing  species  of  Argynnis,  from  the  United  States 
of  America. — Mr.  L.  Krah,  Lepidoptera  bred  from  ova  obtained  from 
the  Continent :  Gatocala  fraxini,  C.  nupta,  G.  sponsa,  G.  elocata,  and  G. 
paranymphaa.  The  members  afterwards  attended  a  demonstration  on 
"Recent  Researches  in  Mimicry,"  delivered  by  Dr.  W.  E.  Hoyle. 

February  1st. — The  President,  B.  H.  Crabtree,  F.E.S.,  presided. 
The  following  were  elected  members  of  the  Society: — Messrs.  C.  E. 
Iveson,  C.  Camp,  Herbert  M.  Leach,  and  Harold  S.  Leigh.  Mr.  W. 
Warren  Kinsey  was  elected  Assistant  Secretary,  and  Dr.  W.  E.  Hoyle 
was  elected  to  fill  the  office  left  vacant  on  the  Council.  A  paper 
entitled,  "  Extracts  from  an  Accentuated  List  of  British  Lepidoptera," 
was  read  by  Geo.  0.  Day,  F.E.S.  The  pronunciations  of  the  Latin 
names  were  based  on  the  authority  of  a  publication  by  the  Entomo- 
logical Societies  of  Oxford  and  Cambridge.  Many  groups  of  Lepido- 
ptera were  dealt  with,  and  in  some  cases  the  original  meaning  of  the 
names  were  explained.  Messrs.  B.  H.  Crabtree,  R.  Tait,  Jr.,  L.  Krah, 
and  other  members  commented  upon  the  essay,  and  at  the  conclusion 


168  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

a  hearty  vote  of  thanks  was  passed  to  Mr.  Day.  The  following 
exhibits  were  shown : — Mr.  B.  H.  Crabtree,  specimens  of  C.  planta- 
yinis,  showing  var.  hospita,  in  which  the  orange  colouring  is  replaced 
by  white. — Mr.  R.  Tait,  Jr.,  Lepidoptera  bred  from  ova  and  larva? : 
Boarmia  repandata,  well-marked  examples,  bred  from  Welsh  larvae  ; 
Aplecta  advena,  two  specimens  bred  in  November  from  forced  larvae  ; 
A.  australis,  taken  in  the  Isle  of  Wight  by  Dr.  Dewar,  of  Stanley  ; 
Nyssia  lapponaria,  bred  by  Mr.  A.  E.  Cockayne  from  Rannoch  ova. — 
Mr.  J.  Ray  Hardy,  specimens  of  Vanessa  io  from  Grange-over- Sands, 
fed  on  nettle  and  lettuce,  showing  difference  in  imago, — wings  being 
in  some  cases  semi-diaphanous,  the  upper  being  of  a  dark  purple 
colour  ;  photograph  of  the  larvae  of  Morpho  epistrophis.— Mr.  H.  S. 
Leigh,  parasite  of  Saturnia  pyri  (July,  1904)  ;  Sphinx  convolvuli,  in 
perfect  condition,  taken  near  Worsley,  Sept.,  1904. — Mr.  G.  Kearey, 
fifteen  species  of  Coleoptera  taken  on  a  small  plot  of  ground  near 
Philips  Park,  Bradford,  near  Manchester. 

March  1st. — In  the  absence  of  the  President  and  Vice-President, 
the  chair  was  occupied  by  Mr.  C.  F.  Johnson.  After  the  formal  busi- 
ness of  the  meeting,  an  adjournment  was  made  to  another  part  of  the 
Manchester  Museum,  when  one  of  the  members,  Mr.  A.  E.  Thomson, 
delivered  a  lecture  (to  which  the  public  were  invited),  entitled,  "  The 
House  Fly  "  (illustrated  by  lime-light  views).  This  was  enjoyed  by  an 
exceedingly  good  gathering  of  persons,  and  at  the  close  was  followed 
by  discussion. — Robert  J.  Wigelsworth,  Hon.  Secretary. 

Birmingham  Entomological  Society. — March  20th,  1905, — Mr.  G. 
T.  Bethune-Baker,  President,  in  the  chair. — Sir  George  Hampson  was 
elected  an  honorary  member  of  the  Society. — Mr.  A.  H.  Martineau 
showed  a  specimen  of  Zeuzera  pyrina,  L.,  taken  at  light  at  Solihull; 
also  an  entirely  black  specimen  of  Formica  rufa,  L.,  from  Hay  Woods. 
— Mr.  S.  H.  Kenrick,  a  fine  lot  of  Pyralidae  from  New  Guinea,  in- 
cluding some  new  and  many  rare  species. — Mr.  H.  W.  Ellis,  a  speci- 
men of  the  rare  beetle  Platydema  dytiscoides,  L.,  from  the  New  Forest. 
— Mr.  Colbran  J.  Wainwright,  four  specimens  of  Ptilops  nigrita,  Fall., 
a  species  of  the  Tachinidae  new  to  the  British  list,  which  Dr.  J.  H. 
Wood  had  found  in  various  localities  in  Herefordshire.  He  said  that 
since  receiving  Dr.  Wood's  specimens  he  had  seen  one  taken  by  the 
late  Rev.  T.  A.  Marshall  near  Teignmouth.— Mr.  H.  W.  Ellis,  a 
number  of  the  late  John  Sang's  exquisite  colour  drawings  of  insects. 
— Mr.  Gilbert  Smith,  a  specimen  of  Callidiam  violaceum,  with  two 
tibiae  and  two  tarsi  on  the  left  hind  leg ;  the  supernumerary  tibia  left 
the  normal  one  in  about  the  middle,  but  was  traceable  below  that ;  it 
had  normal  metatarsi,  thickened  tarsi,  and  two  claws,  so  that  there 
were  three  claws  on  that  leg.  He  also  showed  the  rare  Longicorn 
Mesosa  nubila  from  the  New  Forest ;  also  a  number  of  an  ichneumon 
found  in  the  refuse  stuff  of  an  old  tree- trunk  infested  by  Rhagium  bi- 
fasciatum  upon  which  it  most  likely  lived  ;  they  were  in  great  numbers, 
and  all  huddled  together  for  hybernating. — Colbran  J.  Wainwright, 
Hon.  Sec. 

Erratum. — The  notice  of  Prof.  Packard,  referred  to  in  our  last, 
appeared,  not  in  the  '  American  Naturalist,'  but  in  the  '  American 
Journal  of  Science '  for  March,  1905,  p.  264. 


.  W  ATKINS  .  &     DONCASTER, 

Naturalists  and  Manufacturers  of  Entomological  Apparatus  and  Cabinets. 

Plain  liiug  Nets,  wive  or  oane,  including  Stick,  Is.  3d.,  '2s.,  2s.  6d.  Folding  Nets, 
3s.  6d.,  i&.  Umbrella  Nets  (self-acting),  7s.  Pocket  Boxes,  (id.,  9d.,  Is.,  Is.  Gd. 
Ziuo  Relaxing  Boxes,  9d.,  Is.,  Is.  6d.,  2s.  Nested  Chip  Boxes,  7d.  per  four  dozen, 
Entomological  Pins,  assorted  or  mixed,  Is.,  Is.  6d.  per  oz.  Pocket  Lanterns,  2s.  6d, 
te  8s.  Sugaring  Tin,  with  brush,  Is.  6d.,  2s.  Sugaring  Mixture,  ready  for  use, 
Is.  9d.  per  tin.  Store  Boxes,  with  camphor  cells,  2s.  6d.,  4s.,  os.,  (is.  Setting 
Boards,  flat  or  oval,  1  in.,'  6d. ;  1  £  in.,  8d. ;  2  in.,  lOd. ;  2|  in.,  Is. ;  3i  in.,  Is.  4d, ; 
4  in.,  Is.  6d,  ;  5  in.,  Is.  10d. ;  Complete  Set  of  fourteen  Boards,  10s.  6d.  Setting 
Houses,  9s.  Gd.,  lis.  Gd. ;  corked  back,  14s.  Zinc  Larva  Boxes,  9d.,  Is.,  Is.  Gd. 
Breeding  Cage,  2s.  6d.,  4s.,  5s.,  7s.  Gd.  Coleopterist's  Collecting  Bottle,  with  tube, 
Is.  Gd.,  Is.  8d.  Botanical  Cases,  japanned,  double  tin,  Is.  6d.,  2s.  9d.,  3s.  6d.,  4s.  Gd. 
Botanical  Paper,  Is.  Id.,  Is.  4d.,  Is.  9d.,  2s.  2d.,  per  quire.  Insect  Glazed  Oases, 
2s.  (id.  to  lis.  Cement  for  replacing  Antennae,  4d.  per  bottle.  Steel  forceps, 
Is.  6d.,  2s.,  2s.  6d.  per  pair.  Cabinet  Cork,  7  by  3$,  best  quality,  ls.4d.  per  dozen 
sheets.  Brass  Chloroform  Bottle,  2s.  Gd.  Insect  Lens,  Is.  to  8s.  Glass-top  and 
Glass-bottomed  Boxes  from  Is.  per  dozen.  Zinc  Killing  Box,  9d.,  Is.  Pupa 
Digger,  in  leather  sheath,  Is.  9d.  Taxidermist's  Compauion,  containing  most 
neoessary  implements  for  skinning,  IDs.  6<1.  Scalpels,  Is.  3d.  ;  Scissors,  2s.  per 
pair;  Egg-drills,  2d.,  3d.,  9d;  Blowpipes,  4d.,  (id.;  Artificial  Eyes  for  Birds  and 
Animals ;  Label-lists  of  British  Butterflies,  2d. ;  ditto  of  Birds'  Eggs,  2d.,  3d.,  Gd. ; 
ditto  of  Land  and  Fresh-water  Shells,  2d. ;  Useful  Books  on  Insects,  Eggs,  &c. 

.  The  WAND  TELESCOPIC  NET— An  innovation  in  Butterfly  Nets.— We  beg 
to  call  your  attention  to  our  new  Telescopic  Handle  for  Butterfly  Nets.  It  is 
made  entirely  in  brass,  and  is  light  and  strong ;  and  moreover  it  can  be  shut  up  to 
carry  in  small  compass,  A  very  compact  pattern,  effecting  great  saving  of  weight 
and  hulk..  Prices. — With  two  joints,  8s.  6d. ;  with  three  joints,  9s.  6d.;  with  four 
joints,  10s.  6d.  Complete  with  improved  Cane  Folding  Ring,  and  Bag.  We  shall 
be  pleased  to  send  on  approval. 

SHOW       ROOM       FOR       CABINETS 

Of  every  description  for  Inskcts,  Bikds'  Eggs,  Coins,  Microscopical  Objects, 
Fossils,  &c.     Catalogue  (96  pp.)  sent  on  application,  post  free. 

A    LARGE     STOCK    OF    INSECTS     AND     BIRDS'    EGGS 

(BRITISH,    EUROPEAN,    AND    EXOTIC). 

Birds,  Mammals,  <&c,  Preserved  and  Mounted  by  First-class  Workmen. 

Only  Address  : — 

36  STKAND,  W.C.,  LONDON  (5  doors  from  Charing  Gross). 

HERBERT    W,    MARSDEN, 

NATURAL     HISTORY     AGENT     AND     BOOKSELLER, 

40,    TRIANGLE   West,  CLIFTON,  BRISTOL. 

Moderate  Prices. 

Cabinets  and  Apparatus  for  Entomologists,  Oologists,  Ornithologists,  Botanists,  Ac. 
Botanical  Cases,  Drying  Paper,  Ac— British  &  Exotic  Shells. 
The  most  reliable  Stock  of  BIRDS'  SKINS  and  BIRDS'  EGGS  in  Britain. 
New  and  Second-hand  Books.— Exchange  and  Label  Lists. 
Ornithological  Catalogue,  1905,  now  ready;  also  Shell  Catalogue. 
N.B. — Mr.  Marsden's  large  Stock  of  Insects  has  now  been  made  up  into  numerous 
useful  lots ;  also  many  lots  of  Birds'  Skins  and  Eggs,  all  of  which  are  offered  at  excep- 
tionally low  prices.     Lists  on  application. 

OVA,     LARV/E,     AND     PUP/E. 

A  Large  Assortment  always  on  hand.     Send  for  Price  List  to 

H.   W.    HEAD,    Entomologist,    SCARBOROUGH, 

The  Largest  Breeder  of  LEPIDOPTERA  in  the  British  Islc&. 
Full   List  of  LEPIDOPTERA,-  Apparatus,  Cabinets,  &c,  sent  on   application. 


CONTENTS. 

New  and  Little-known  American  Bees,  T.  D.  A.  Cocherell,  145.  Stray  Notes  on 
Aculeates,  Percy  E.  Freke,  149.  Descriptions  of  Two  New  Aculeate  Hymeno- 
ptera  from  the  Transvaal,  P.  Cameron,  153.  New  Culicidse  from  the  West 
Coast  of  Africa,  Fred.  V.  Thddbald,  154.  A  List  of  the  "  Macro-Lepidoptera" 
of  Lancaster  and  District  (continued),  C.  H.  Forsythe,  158. 

Notes  and  Observations. — Dytiscids  in  the  New  Forest,  D.  Sharp,  161.  London 
Lepidoptera,  George  Lock,  1 61.  Eupitheeia  stevensata,  J.  P.  Mutch,  161. 
Apamea  ophiogramma,  Francis  G.  Woodbridge,  161.  Note  on  Haworth's 
Type-specimen  of  "  Noctua  suhfusca,"  Eustace  E.  Ban kes,  161.  The  Mason 
Collection,  Eustace  li.  Bank'es,  lf>2.     Entomological  Club,  162. 

Captures  and  Fikld  Reports. — Deilephila  livornica  in  Cornwall,  H.  D.  Kenyon, 
lti'J.  Deilephila  livornica  in  Wales,  L.  Stafford,  162.  Notes  from  the  Chester 
District  for  1904,  J.  Arklc,  163. 

Societies. — Entomological  Society  of  London,  165.  South  Loudon  Entomological 
and  Natural  History  Society,  165.  Lancashire  and  Cheshire  Entomological 
Society,  166!  Manchester  Entomological  Society,  167.  Birmingham  Ento- 
mological Society,  168. 

CENTRAL    PARAGUAYAN    SPECIMENS. 

Mr.  WILIAM  FOSTEE  will  arrive  in  London  about  end  of  June  with 
a  large  Collection  of  Central  Paraguayan  Mammals,  Birds,  Lepidoptera, 
Coleoptera,  Orthoptera,  Neuroptera,  and  a  number  of  Hemiptera  and 
Hymenoptera. 

Students  of  South  American  forms  would  do  well  to  revise  their  collec- 
tions and  make  their  wants  known  to — 

CHARLES  A.  FOSTER,  9,  Austin  Friars,  London,  E.G. 

NEW     ZEALAND 
MOTHS    &    BUTTERFLIES 

(Macro  =  Lepidoptera). 

Royal  4to,  with  Two  Plain  and  Eleven  Coloured  Plates,  containing  upwards 
of  500  Figures.     Cloth,  bevelled  boards,  gilt  tops.     Price  25s.  net. 

By   G.    V.    HUDSON,    F.E.S. 

Author  of  'An  Elementary  Manual  of  New  Zealand  Entomology.' 

A  descriptive  account  of .  the  various  species  is  given,  the  arrangement  followed 
beinj?  that  of  Mr.  E.  Meyrick,  in  his  recent  '  Handbook  of  British  Lepidoptera.' 
A  full  account  of  the  transformation  of  each  species  is  also  given  wherever  known, 
many  life-histories  recently  discovered  by  the  author  being  now  published  for  the 
first  time. 

WEST,  NEWMAN,  &  CO.,  54,  HATTON  GARDEN,  LONDON. 

JAMES     GARDNER, 

MANUFACTURER  of  ALL  KINDS  of  ENTOMOLOGICAL  APPARATUS 

29  (late  426),  OXFORD    STREET 
(Nearly   opposite    Tottenham    Court    Road). 

PRICED  LISTS   ON  APPLICATION. 

All  Articles  Guaranteed;  exchanged  if  not  approved  of.     Friends  and  Customers 
are  requested  to  note  the  Address,  as  mistakes  occur  daily. 


Subscription  6s.,  post  free,  including  double  numbers,  should  be  sent  to 

West,  Newman  &  Co, 


Vol.   XXXVIII.]  JULY,   1905.  No.  506. 


THE 


ENTOMOLOGIST 


GENERAL    ENTOMOLOGY. 


EDITED     BY     RICHARD     SOUTH,     F.E.S. 

WITH    THE    ASSISTANCE     OF 

KOBERT   ADKIN,  F.E.S.  W.  F.  KIRBY,  F.L.S.,  F.E.S. 

W.  L.  DISTANT,  F.E.S.,  Ac.  G.  W.  JKIRKALDY,  F.E.S. 

EDWARD  A. FITCH,  F.L.S.F.E.ti.  W.  J.  LUCAS,  B.A.,  F.E.S. 

F.  W.FROHAWK,  F.E.S.,  M.B.O.U.  Dr.  D.  SHARP,  F.R.S.,  F.E.S.,  Ac 

MARTIN  JACOBY,  F.E.S.  G.  H.  VERRALL,  F.E.S. 

"  By  mutual  confidence  and  mutual  aid 
Great  deeds  are  done  and  great  discoveries  made." 


LONDON :  . 
WEST,    NEWMAN    &    CO.,    54,    HATTON    GARDEN; 
SIMPK1N,   MARSHALL,    HAMILTON,    KENT   &   CO., 

Price  Sixpence.  //^\  taO,: 


^5 -T*0r 


J.    &   W.    DAVIS  (T^™**) 

MANUFACTURERS     OF     ENTOMOLOGICAL    APPARATUS    AND 
NATURALISTS'  REQUISITES,  &c, 

31  '&  33,  Hythe  Street,  DARTFORD,  Kent. 

Telegrams:     "  DAVIS,  NATURALISTS,  DARTFORD."  National  Telephone  :     "  108  DARTFORD." 

LOCALITY      LABELS. 
26  oer  1  OOO.     4  to  10  sorts,  equal  numbers,  anv  wording,  see  specimens  below:— 

Smith.  Smith.  Smith.  Smtth 

Parentli  Wood.  New  Forest.  Kent.  Raunoch. 

Neatly  print,  a  similar  to  the  above.      We  havTsupplied  tEese  Labels  to  Entomologists  in  all  parts  of  Great 

•  '  Britain. 

-Data"    Blanks  for  Plants,  Birds'  Eggs,  Nests,  and  Skins,   from  8d.  per  100 
'  Data"  Labels,  with  Collector's  Name  and   Locality  printed  in,  from  1/6  per  100 
"  Data"   Books  for  Entomological  Collection,  printed  headings,  Is. ;  post  3d. 

Ditto.  for  Ornithological  Collection,  Is. ;  post  3d. 

50  British  Butterflies,  all  different,  named,  5s.  Setting-house,  good  condition,  6s.  6d. 
Larvae  Collector's  Guide  and  Calendar,  Illustrated,  Is.  Birdstuffing  and  Mounting. 
Illustrated.  Is.    Animal,  Fish,  and  Reptile  Stuffing,  Illustrated,  Is.  6d.     Label  List, 

British  Macro-Lepidoptera,  6d. 
Naturalists'  Diary  and  Year  Book,  Is.    Our  Country's  Butterflies  and  Moths,  1000 

Coloured  Specimens,  6s. 
FERTILE  OVA.— Per  doz.—  Villida,  3d.     Quercus,  4d.     Potatoria,  4d. 
HEALTHY  LARV/E.— Iris,  Purple  Emperor,  9d.  each.     Ocellatus,  Populi,  Vinula, 
Is.     Carpini.  Is.  Gd.     Hirtaria.  9d.  per  doz. 

CHRYSALIDES.— Iris,  Purple  Emperor,  Is.  each. 

Full  List  of  Ora,  Lome  and  Pup6 e,  on  Apjilicaiion. 
BRITISH  LEPIDOPTERA.- One  hundred   named   Specimens,  all  different,  5s. 
post  free.     See  our  New  List  and  discounts. 

EXOTIC   BUTTERFLIES.— We  have  some   thousands  of   these  as  received  in 
papers,  assorted  dozens,  (id..  Is.,  and  Is.  6d. 

i2=DRAWER   INSECT  CABINET-SECONDHAND.  —  Frames  to  Glasses 
and  Camphor-cells  with  Mahogany  Glass  Pan.d  Door,  £4  7s.  6d. 


GENUINE     BRITISH     "WILD"    STOCK. 

CHEAPEST  HOUSE  IN  THE  TRADE. 

Every  Reader  of  the  '  Entomologist  '  is  requested  to  send  for 
our  Summer  List  of  Ova,  Larvae,  Pupas,  and  fresh  killed  Insects. 
The   List   is  too   long   to   include  in  our   usual  Advertisement. 

Apartments  for  Entomological  Visitors  to  the  Nciv  Forest.   Expeditions  arranged 
a>id  Accompanied.      Terms  on  Application. 

MORRIS    &    WEIR,    ENTOMOLOGISTS, 

BROCEENHURST,    NEW    FOREST. 


/COLLECTOR  is  prepared  to  purchase  good  examples  of 
^     the  following  African  Butterflies  : — 

PSEUPAClLEA  GOTTBERGI,  P$EUI>A<  PLEA  POGGEI,  ACTLEA 
POGGEI,    PSEIWACR/EA    KUNQWIL    MIMAGBMA    MARSHALLI, 

PALAIS  MEPrppoXlA,  PSEUPAClLEA  CLARKI,  MIMACRMA 
CIIARMIAX,  PSEVPACILEA  IMITATOR,  CRENIpQMI£ilS  CON- 
CORDIA, ACTLEA  AVRIVILLI1,  MIMA'  ILKA  KUAVSl. 

Apply,  HARRY  ELTRINGHAM   South  Shields,  England. 


The   Entomologist,  July,   1905. 


Plate  II, 


15 


t  ..  s* 


vf 

m 


v 


20  \ 


23  ■  -  *// 24 


21 


F/25 


22 


26 


29 


DO  | 


36 


28 


30 


45 


u 


s>\\ 
db 


BRITISH     WATERBUGS. 


THE    ENTOMOLOGIST 


Vol.  XXXVIII.]  JULY,     19  05.  [No.  50G. 


DESCRIPTION    OF    A    NEW    SPECIES    OF    LYGMIDM 
FROM     SOUTH     AFRICA. 

By  W.  L.  Distant. 

Some  time  since  a  Lygreid  was  sent  to  me  from  the  Cape 
Colony  which  was  described  as  "injurious  to  peach."  Many 
occupations  prevented  my  identifying  it  at  the  time,  and  I  was 
recently  reminded  of  my  obligation  by  an  enquiry  from  Mr.  F.  V. 
Theobald,  who  had  received  the  species  from  another  African 
habitat,  where  it  was  destructive  to  "  cotton  seed."  I  therefore 
examined  the  insect,  which  appears  to  be  undescribed. 

Oxi/carenus  exitiosus,  sp.  n. 

Black ;  posterior  lobe  of  pronotum  and  corium  testaceous  ;  a  black 
spot  at  posterior  angle  to  corium,  and  the  lateral  margins  to  corium 
sometimes  distinctly  lutescent ;  membrane  pale  grey  hyaline  ;  body 
beneath  (imperfectly  seen  in  the  carded  specimens  from  which  this 
description  is  made)  black  ;  the  abdomen  beneath — excluding  apex 
and  a  central  longitudinal  medial  fascia — sanguineous ;  posterior 
angular  areas  of  prosternum  testaceous  ;  the  coxae,  a  central  annula- 
tion  to  intermediate  tibia?,  and  the  posterior  tibiae — excluding  base 
and  apex — luteous  ;  head  and  pronotum  rugosely  punctate,  scutellum 
finely  punctate,  clavus  longitudinally  punctate,  corium  very  finely  and 
obscurely  punctate  ;  membrane  extending  beyond  the  apex  of  the 
abdomen  ;  antenna?  moderately  robust,  second  joint  longest  and  slender 
towards  base,  third  and  fourth  subequal  in  length,  third  distinctly 
narrowed  at  base  ;  head  and  pronotum  laterally  rather  longly  pilose. 
Long.  3  to  4  millim. 

Hab.  Cape  Town;  Seapoint.  "South  Africa"  (Mansell 
Weale). 


ENTOM. — JULY,    1905. 


170  THK    KNTOMOLOGtST. 

DESCRIPTIONS    OF     THREE    UNDESCRIBED    GENERA 
OF    ICHNEUMONIBvE    FROM    BORNEO. 

By  P.  Cameron. 

ACCENITINI. 

Phalega,  gen.  nov. 

Wings  without  an  areolet;  second  recurrent  nervure  received  behind 
the  transverse  cubitus,  widely  distant  from  it ;  disco-cubital  nervure 
broken  by  a  stump  of  a  nervure,  transverse  median  nervure  received 
beyond  transverse  basal ;  transverse  median  nervure  in  hind  wings 
broken  at  the  middle.  "Wings  longer  than  the  body.  Basal  joint 
of  hind  tarsi  fully  longer  than  the  following  two  united.  Parapsidal 
furrows  deep  ;  the  mesonotum  clearly  trilobate.  Metanotum  with  a 
keel  above  the  apical  slope.  Petiole  stout,  three  times  longer  than 
wide,  clearly  separated  from  the  second;  ovipositor  not  much  longer 
than  the  abdomen.  Four  front  claws  cleft.  The  second  abdominal 
segment  is  wider  than  long ;  the  hypopygium  in  the  female  does  not 
project  beyond  the  tip  of  the  abdomen.  Head  not  much  wider  than 
the  thorax ;  apex  of  clypeus  with  a  small  but  distinct  tubercle  in  the 
middle  of  the  apex.  Hind  coxa?  short,  about  twice  longer  than  wide. 
Colour  uniformly  rufous.  First  joint  of  flagellum  nearly  as  long  as 
the  following  two  united. 

Comes  closest  to  Collyria  and  Chorischizus. 

Phalega  lutea,  sp.  nov. 

Rufous-luteous,  the  flagellum  of  antenna?  and  apex  of  tibiae  fuscous  ; 

the  hind  tarsi  black.     Wings  bright  luteous  hyaline,  the  apex  of  the 

fore  wings  behind  and  of  the  hind  pair  all  round,  smoky ;  the  nervures 

and  stigma  bright  luteous.      ?  .     Length,  12  mm. ;  ovipositor,  6  mm. 

Matang.     August  (R.  Shelford,  M.A.). 

Face  and  clypeus  strongly  and  closely  punctured  ;  the  face  roundly 
projecting  in  the  middle ;  the  clypeus  with  a  tubercle  on  either  side 
above.  Vertex  almost  smooth.  Front  deeply  excavated  in  the  middle, 
its  centre  with  a  distinct  longitudinal  keel ;  the  sides  punctured. 
Thorax  closely  punctured,  smooth  on  the  apex  of  the  mesopleura? 
and  on  the  base  of  metapleura?.  Base  and  apex  of  metanotum  smooth ; 
the  middle  punctured  and  with  some  striae.  Abdomen  smooth.  Re- 
current nervure  distant  from  the  transverse  cubital  by  three-fourths  of 
the  length  of  the  latter  ;  its  front  half  roundly  curved.  Hind  legs  very 
long ;  the  femora  not  greatly  thickened,  but  still  clearly  thicker  than 
the  much  longer  tibia?. 

Dinocryptus,  gen.  nov. 
Areolet  large,  square,  not  narrowed  in  front ;  transverse  median 
nervure  almost  interstitial ;  disco-cubital  nervure  not  broken,  the 
radial  cellule  elongate ;  transverse  median  nervure  in  hind  wings 
broken  below  the  middle.  Wings  uniformly  fuscous  violaceous. 
Median  segment  without  keels  ;    the  apical  slope  tuberculate  on  the 


ICHNBUMONID.B  FROM  BORNEO.  171 

sides  above ;  spiracles  large,  linear.  Abdominal  petiole  stout,  be- 
coming gradually  slightly  wider  towards  the  apex,  where  it  is  twice 
the  width  of  the  base  ;  the  post-petiole  not  separated ;  the  spiracles 
placed  close  to  the  middle ;  those  on  second  placed  at  the  apex  of  the 
bssal  third.  Clypeus  clearly  separated,  its  apex  in  the  middle  with 
two  short  rounded  teeth  ;  the  sides  with  a  hollowed  rounded  dilatation. 
Fore  tibias  thickened,  narrowed  at  the  base  ;  basal  joint  of  tarsi  longer 
than  all  the  rest  united. 

This  genus,  like  Echthrus,  Torbda,  &c,  is  intermediate 
between  the  Cryptinse  and  the  Pimplinas ;  from  the  position  of 
the  spiracles  on  the  abdominal  segments,  they  may  be  placed  in 
the  Xoridini.  The  mesopleuras,  as  in  the  Cryptinas,  are  bordered 
by  a  furrow ;  and,  as  in  that  group,  there  are  parapsidal  furrows. 
Its  affinities  are  clearly  with  Torbda,  Cam.,  from  which  it  may 
be  known  (the  coloration  being  also  very  different)  by  the  bi- 
dentate  apex  of  clypeus,  smaller  square  areolet,  tuberculate  apex 
of  metanotum,  and  longer  metatarsus.  Echthrus  and  Nyxeo- 
philus  are  placed  by  some  authors  in  the  CryptinaD ;  by  others  in 
the  Piuiplinae ;  probably  there  will  be  also  a  difference  of  opinion 
as  to  the  position  of  Dinocryptus  and  Torbda. 

DlNOCRYPTUS    NIGER,    Sp.  DOV. 

Black ;  thorax,  base  of  abdomen  and  of  legs  thickly  covered  with 
short  black  pubescence ;  wings  uniformly  fuscous  violaceous.  ?  . 
Length,  21  mm. ;  ovipositor,  10  mm. 

Kuching.     April  (R.  Shelford,  M.A.). 

The  entire  body  is  closely  punctured.  Basal  part  of  metanotum 
slightly  carinate  in  the  middle,  and  slightly  depressed  on  either  side  of 
the  centre.  There  is  a  pale  white  line  in  the  centre  of  the  orbits  on  the 
outer  and  inner.  The  second  to  fifth  abdominal  segments  have  trans- 
verse impressions  near  the  middle.  The  last  segment  is  large,  depressed 
at  the  base ;  the  apex  is  depressed  above,  and  is  thickly  covered  with 
long  black  hair.  Antennas  long,  slender,  the  basal  two  joints  of 
flagellum  equal  in  length. 

XORIDINI. 

Co3nostoma,  gen.  nov. 

c? .  Upper  part  of  clypeus  short,  obliquely  projecting ;  the  lower 
part  longer,  not  obliquely  projecting,  obliquely  narrowed,  the  apex 
transverse.  Labrum  large,  semicircular,  fringed  with  long  hair. 
Mandibles  edentate,  broad  at  the  base,  narrowed  towards  the  apex. 
Malar  space  furrowed,  as  long  as  the  antennal  scape.  A  furrowed 
keel  between  the  antennas.  Head  cubital,  temples  broad,  occiput 
transverse,  margined.  Thorax  four  times  longer  than  wide,  largely 
developed  before  the  wings ;  mesonoturn  3-lobate.  Scutellum  flat, 
two  large  deep  foveas  at  its  base.  Post-scutellum  stoutly  keeled  on 
the  sides.  Metanotum  longer  than  broad,  flat,  with  the  apex  rounded, 
longitudinally  reticulated  ;  the  spiracles  longish  oval.  Wings  without 
an    areolet,    the    recurrent   nervure    received    beyond    the    transverse 

v  2 


172  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

cubital,  the  transverse  median  behind  the  transverse  basal.  Radial 
cellule  long,  lanceolate.  Transverse  median  nervure  in  hind  wings 
broken  below  the  middle.  Abdomen  narrow,  as  long  as  the  head  and 
thorax  united ;  the  first  segment  long,  the  basal  half  narrowed  ;  it  is 
nearly  as  long  as  the  following  three  segments  united ;  spiracles  placed 
behind  the  middle;  a  triangular  depression  at  its  apex;  the  second  and 
third  raised  in  the  middle,  the  raised  part  bordered  behind  by  furrows. 
Hind  coxa?  about  six  times  longer  than  thick ;  the  trochanters  long ; 
both  united  are  longer  than  the  femora,  which  are  stout ;  tibia?  long, 
calcaria  short ;  basal  joint  of  tarsi  longer  than  the  others  united. 
Claws  simple.  Antenna?  slender,  filiform,  longer  than  the  body, 
narrowed  towards  the  apex.  Palpi  long.  The  antenna?  are  not 
densely  haired ;  the  first  abdominal  segment  is  transverse  at  the 
apex ;  the  second  longer  than  wide ;  the  head  is  not  dilated  behind 
the  eyes  ;  the  front  tibiae  slender,  not  inflated.  At  the  apex,  laterally, 
the  metanotum  projects  into  blunt  teeth.     Stigma  distinct,  linear. 

The  affinities  of  this  genus  may  be  left  over  for  discussion 
when  the  female  becomes  known.  Very  probably  the  female 
antenna?  are  broken,  as  in  Cyanoxorides  and  Spiloxorides.  The 
hind  legs  (and  especially  the  coxa?)  are  much  longer  than  they 
are  with  these  genera. 

CffiNOSTOMA    FILICORNIS,    sp.  110V. 

Black  ;  lower  part  of  clypeus,  labrum,  palpi,  the  orbits — the  hinder 
broadly — edge  of  pronotum,  scutellum,  the  metanotal  tubercles,  and 
the  apices  of  the  abdominal  segments — the  first  band  dilated  at  the 
sides — the  second,  third,  and  fourth  in  the  middle,  and  the  ventral 
surface,  pale  yellow.  Legs  pale  yellow,  the  hind  femora  fulvous  ;  the 
apex  of  hind  coxa?,  trochanters,  apex  of  femora  and  of  tibia?  more 
broadly,  yellow.  Antenna?  much  longer  than  the  body,  fuscous,  a 
broad  white  band  before  the  middle.  Wings  hyaline,  the  stigma  and 
nervures  black,  the  former  white  at  the  base,      <?  •     Length,  13  mm. 

Kuching.     November  (E.  Shelford,  M.A.). 

Antenna?  towards  the  apex  covered  with  depressed  hairs.  Face 
punctured  and  more  or  less  striated  ;  the  rest  smooth  and  shining. 
Middle  lobe  of  mesonotum  transversely  striated ;  the  depressed  apical 
middle  part  with  three  longitudinal  keels.  There  are  five  rows  of 
irregular,  longish  longitudinal  reticulations ;  the  apical  slope  with 
three  area?,  of  which  the  central  is  the  larger.  Pro-  and  mesopleura? 
smooth,  the  metapleura?  coarsely  reticulated.  Base  of  first  abdominal 
segment  smooth,  bicarinate  in  the  middle,  the  rest  closely  reticulated  ; 
the  white  apical  part  obscurely  striated  laterally,  the  centre  smooth  ; 
the  basal  part  of  the  second  segment  punctured,  strongly,  but  not 
closely,  the  basal  central  furrow  stoutly,  transversely  striated,  the 
raised  central  part  longer  than  its  width  at  the  apex,  triangular ;  that 
on  the  third  shorter,  broader,  rounded  at  the  narrowed  base. 


173 


A   GUIDE    TO   THE    STUDY   OF   BRITISH   WATERBUGS 
(AQUATIC    RHYNCHOTA). 

By   G.  W.  Kirkaldy,  F.E.S. 

(Plate  II.) 

(Continued  from  vol.  xxxiii.  p.  152.) 

Since  publishing  the  last  instalment  of  this  "Guide,"  Mr. 
Halbert  informs  me  that  a  dead  Aphelocheirus  was  taken  by 
Mr.  Buckle  from  Loch  Neagh  in  Ireland.  I  presume  this  was 
recorded  in  the  '  Irish  Naturalist '  at  the  time,  but  I  have  un- 
fortunately no  access  to  this  journal. 

Ilyocoris  cimicoides  (Linne). 

In  Ilyocoris  the  same  general  appearance  obtains  as  in 
Aphelocheirus,  but  the  dorsal  part  of  the  head  is  bent  under  in 
front,  the  antenna  shortened  and  thickened,  the  anterior  femora 
greatly  thickened,  and  the  posterior  tibiae  and  tarsi  somewhat 
modified  for  natatory  purposes. 

The  rostrum  is  considerably  shortened,  not  extending  beyond 
the  anterior  coxaa.  The  antennas  are  composed  of  four  segments, 
and  do  not  reach,  when  extended,  beyond  the  lateral  margins  o*f 
the  head  ;  the  head  is  excavated  [viewed  from  below]  beneath 
the  apical  segments  of  the  antenna?,  forming  what  is  probably  an 
auditory  chamber  for  the  intensifying  of  sounds.* 

The  anterior  femora  are  greatly  thickened,  as  mentioned 
above,  but  are  not  suddenly  ampliated  in  a  right  angle  at  the 
base  beneath  and  then  narrowed.  Also  internally  beneath  there 
is  a  broad  pad  of  hair  the  whole  length  (fig.  45). 

There  is  only  one  British  species,  /.  cimicoides  (Linn.)  ;  the 
head,  pronotum,  scutellum,  connexivum,  legs,  under  side,  &c, 
are  pale  greenish  testaceous  ;  the  head,  pronotum,  &c,  irregu- 
larly punctured  with  brown.  The  intermediate  and  posterior 
legs  are  well  furnished  with  brown  spines.  The  elytra  dark 
greyish  brown,  very  closely  and  finely  punctured.  Abdomen 
black  above. 

It  is  excellently  figured  by  Douglas  and  Scott,  and  also  very 
well  by  the  old  author  A.  J.  Rosel  von  Rosenhof  ('Der  Monatlich- 

*  I  have  noted  in  the  'Entomologist'  (xxxii.  p.  114)  that  Microvelia 
pygmcea  does  not  use  the  antenna}  as  tactile  organs.  Newport  ("On  the  Use 
of  the  Antennae  in  Insects,"  1840,  Trans.  Ent.  Soc.  Loud.  ii.  p.  235),  how- 
ever, considers  that  the  antennae  in  water  cirnices  (i.  e.  Ilyocoris)  and  Noto- 
necta  are  auditory,  sometimes  also  tactile,  certainly  not  smell  organs.  They 
are  of  great  though  not  of  vital  importance.  He  frequently  observed  the 
above-named  bugs  sticking  to  the  sides,  and  lying  beneath  the  wall  of  an 
outhouse  that  Lad  recently  been  covered  with  coal-tar,  which  emits  an  odour 
of  carburetted  hydrogen,  the  gas  that  is  so  abundantly  formed  in  stagnant 
pools. 


174  THE   ENTOMOLOGIST. 

herausgegebenen  Insecten-Beliistigung,'  iii.  pi.  28  (1755))  under 
the  name  of  the  "  broad-bodied  black-brown  waterbug."  * 

It  is  generally  common  and  widely  distributed  all  over 
England,  and  the  lowland  parts  of  Scotland.  It  is  the  Ncpa 
cimicoides  of  Linnaeus,  the  Nepa  naucoris  of  De  Geer,  and  the 
Naucoris  cimicoides  of  most  authors. 

It  is  a  somewhat  lazy  swimmer,  though  it  can  attain  to  a 
very  considerable  speed  upon  occasion,  and  it  often  takes  to  w7ing 
at  night.  It  is  very  voracious,  and,  though  generally  vanquished 
by  the  more  powerful  Notonecta,  it  is  sometimes  even  the  victor. 
The  imagines  hibernate,  and  the  ova  are  deposited  at  the  end 
of  March  or  during  April  on  leaves  of  water-plants  ;  they  are 
whitish,  oblong,  subcylindrical,  obliquely  truncate  anteriorly. 
They  have  been  described  at  length  by  Eathke  ("  Studien  zur 
Entwicklungsgeschichte  der  Insekten,"  1861,  '  Stettiner  Ent. 
Zeitung,'  xxii.  pp.  172-4),  who,  however,  gives  July  as  the 
month  of  deposition,  and  says  that  they  are  laid  in  somewhat 
great  numbers  near  one  another  on  the  under  side  of  the  leaves 
of  Polygonum  amphibium. 

The  method  of  oviposition  seems  to  vary.  Regmibart  (1875, 
Ann.  Soc.  Ent.  France,  pp.  204-6)  states  that  an  incision  is 
made  in  the  stems  of  plants  with  the  ovipositor,  about  2  or 
3  mm.  long,  and  that  the  egg  is  enclosed  about  three-quarters 
of  its  length  ;  one  of  the  ends  (corresponding  to  the  cephalic 
extremity  of  the  embryo)  is  almost  entirely  free.  Bueno,  how- 
ever, states  that  in  Pelocoris  the  "majority  have  been  found 
attached  axially  to  the  stems  or  leaves  of  Ceratophyllum,  and 
secured  to  them  by  a  glue  in  which  the  ovum  is  set,  and  which 
surrounds  the  slender  stem  or  leaf  to  a  variable  extent.  The 
adhesion  is  not  very  firm,  however,  and  the  ova  are  readily 
detached."  This  corresponds  to  my  own  observations  on  Ilyo- 
coris,  as  well  as  those  of  Dufour.  I  have  also  observed  varying 
conditions  in  Notonecta. 

The  nymphs,  which  Eathke  states  feed  on  Confervas,  are  very 
similar  in  all  stages  to  the  imago,  the  tarsi,  however,  being 
unjointed,  and  the  lateral  margins  of  the  abdominal  segments 
not  produced  spinoseiy.  I  have  observed  five  nymphal  instars, 
thus  agreeing  with  Bueno,  who  states  that  there  are  five  in 
the  allied  Pelocoris  femorata,  an  American  bug  which  he  has 
discussed  recently  ("Brief  Notes  towards  the  Life-history  of 
Pelocoris  femorata,  Pal.  B.,  with  a  few  Remarks  on  Habits," 
1903,  Journ.  New  York  Ent.  Soc.  xi.  pp.  166-73,  text-figs.  1-2). 
Bueno  gives  a  total  of  about  seventy-seven  days  for  the  meta- 
morphoses, twenty-four  of  these  being  in  the  egg-state. t 

:;:  It  was  also  discussed  by  an  old  "  pre-Linnean  "  author  under  the  name 
of  Pygolampis  lacustris  !  (Johann  von  Muralto,  1684,  '  Ephemerae  Acad.  Nat. 
Curios,  Dec.  ii.  Ann.  ii.  Obs.  80,  p.  197'). 

f  Extensive  researches  have  recently  been  made  by  R.  Heymons  on  the 


A  GUIDE  TO  THE  STUDY  OF  BRITISH  WATERBUGS.      175 

.  Ilyocoris,  like  most  waterbugs,  is  subject  to  the  attacks  of 
watermites  (family  Hydrachnidse).  After  what  d'Herculais  terms 
a  "bizarre  copulation,"  the  eggs  are  laid  in  spring  in  incisions 
in  soft-stemmed  aquatic  plants,  or  on  the  under  side  of  the 
leaves.  The  young  larva  is  pale  red,  six-legged,  each  leg  com- 
posed of  six  segments.  These  young  larvae,  upon  hatching, 
move  about  in  the  water,  and  fasten  themselves,  often  in  large 
numbers,  to  different  water  insects  by  means  of  sharp  hooks  at 
the  end  of  the  palpi.  Once  fixed,  the  head  and  mouth-parts 
stretch  until  they  become  separated  by  a  neck  from  the  main 
body,  the  transparent  skin  of  which  rapidly  swells  and  elongates 
so  as  to  form  a  bag,  with  the  more  solid  dark-red  parts  visible 
anteriorly.  The  elongated  rnaxillre  penetrate  and  extend  beneath 
the  chitinous  covering  of  the  host  until  they  form  a  long  pointed 
thread.  The  legs  curl  up,  become  useless,  and  are  more  or  less 
withdrawn.  The  larva  gradually  passes  to  the  pupa  state  within 
this  bag,  which  becomes  more  and  more  swollen  and  rounded 
posteriorly,  and  finally  bursts  to  release  the  adult  eight-legged 
mite.  These  bag-like  larva?  were  looked  upon  as  the  eggs  of  the 
waterbugs  by  many  old  authors,  and  the  bugs  were  likened  to 
the  Surinam' toad  (Pipa  pipa  (Linn.)),  that  hatches  its  eggs  on 
the  skin  of  its  own  back.  The  adult  swims  actively  about  in  the 
water,  but  before  attaining  maturity  fixes  to  some  plant,  and 
undergoes  another  moult  without  material  change  of  form.  On 
the  smaller  aquatic  bugs  only  three  or  four  larva?  are  perhaps 
seen,  but  on  certain  giant  exotics  a  much  greater  number  are 
found,  as  many  as  five  hundred  having  been  counted  on  a  single 
specimen  of  Belostoma  fluminea,  Say.  The  commonest  British 
species  appear  to  be  Hydrachna  geographica,  Koch,  the  imago  of 
which  is  scarlet  and  black,  and  Hydrochoreutes  globulus  (Mull.), 
a  rich  purple  in  the  imago  state.  The  American  species  men- 
tioned above  was  described  as  Hydrachna  belostomce,  Eiley ; 
Mr.  A.  D.  Michael  examined  for  me  some  larval  Hydrachnids  on 
a  Sinhalese  waterbug  (Amorgius  indica)  about  four  years  ago, 
and  considered  them  probably  the  same  as  the  American  form. 
He  concluded  :  "  The  watermites,  when  parasitic,  do  not  usually 
confine  themselves  to  a  single  host,  but  are  often  found  on 
several  species;  and  the  geographical  distribution  of  Acari  is 
usually  very  wide,  often  astonishingly  so."* 

embryology  and  anatomy  of  Ilyocoris  (see  "Beitrage  zur  Morphologie  und 
Entwicklungsgeschichte  der  Rhynchoten,"  1899,  in  Nova  Acta  Leop.  Carol. 
Deutsch.  Akad.  lxxiv.  pp.  355-81,  text-figs,  ii.,  and  pi.  xv.  figs.  1,  4,  9, 
pi.  xvi.  figs.  15-17,  21-22,  pi.  xvii.  figs.  29.   ■ 

:;:  Note  by  G.  W.  Kirkaldy  in  E.  E.  Green,  "  Biologic  Notes  on  some 
Ceylonese  Rhynckota. — No.  1,"  'Entomologist,'  xxxiv.  p.  116  (1901).  See 
also  U.S.  Entom.  Commission,  First  Report  (1878),  p.  313;  Kiinckel  d'Her- 
culais, "  Les  Insectes  "  in  Brehm's  '  Merveilles  de  la  Nature,' ii.  pp.  757-8 
(1883) ;  and  Andrew  Murray,  '  Economic  Entomology.  Aptera,'  pp.  151-2. 
Mr.  J.  N.  Halbert,  of  Dublin,  is  studying  the  British  Hydrachnidse,  and 
would  be  "lad  of  material. 


176  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

The  power  of  stridulation,  so  marked  a  characteristic  of 
certain  groups  of  Dermaptera,  and  present  indeed  in  most  if  not 
all  insect  orders,  occurs  also  in  many  Hemiptera,  and  apparently 
in  all  or  most  waterbugs.  The  phenomenon,  however,  still 
requires  considerable  investigation. 

Stridulation,  or  the  making  of  certain  "  musical "  sounds,  is 
a  term  that  should  apparently  be  restricted  to  sounds  resultant 
from  two  mutually  developed  interacting  surfaces,  one  of  which 
is  the  recipient  and  is  usually  striated,  the  other  the  acting 
agent  and  sometimes  striated,  sometimes  consisting  of  a  series 
of  more  or  less  isolated  spines  or  pegs.  It  may  be  taken  for 
granted  that  there  must  always  be  tivo  specially  developed  parts 
of  the  stridulatory  organ,  and  that  these  must  be  interacting 
and  mutually  developed.  A  violin  with  its  bow  is  a  good  ex- 
ample (from  an  insect  point  of  view)  of  stridulatory  apparatus. 

The  first  to  call  attention  to  the  phenomenon  in  waterbugs 
was  J.  L.  Frisch,*  who  remarks  that  this  species  produces  with 
its  neck  a  fiddling  noise  like  the  Longicorn  beetles.  Swinton,t 
a  century  and  a  half  later,  described  the  results  of  his  investiga- 
tions, and  declared  that  he  had  detected  minute  /-shaped  linire, 
thickly  set  with  strire,  on  the  antero-lateral  angles  of  the  meso- 
notum.  Handlirsch  \  reinvestigated  the  whole  subject  four  or 
five  years  ago,  and  ridiculed  Swinton,  calling  the  imaginary  linme 
a  "  Swintonophone."  At  the  same  time,  however,  Handlirsch 
discovered  on  the  sixth  and  seventh  abdominal  tergites  of  the 
male  numerous  transverse  striatums  which  are  not  present  in 
the  female.  If  these  are  part  of  a  stridulatory  apparatus,  the 
other  portion  and  also  the  modus  operandi  remain  as  obscure  as 
in  the  case  of  the  Corixid  strigil,  presently  to  be  discussed. 

It  is  usually  stated  that  no  openings  have  yet  been  discovered 
to  the  stink-glands  in  aquatic  Hemiptera,  the  odour  appearing 
in  these  insects  to  be  connected  with  the  anal  parts. 

In  Ilyocoris  this  is  distinctly  tart,  and  I  have  discovered  a 
minute  single  opening  (between  the  posterior  coxse),  to  which  I 
will  recur  later  on.§ 

Naucoris  maculata,  Fabricius. 

The  claim  of  this  common  European  bug  to  admission  to  the 
British  lists  rests  upon  a  single  specimen  in  Buchanan  White's 
collection  at  the  Perth  Museum,  labelled  "England."     There  is 

:;:  1727,  "  Beschreibung  von  allerley  Insecten  in  Teutschland,"  vi.  p.  32. 

t  1877,  "On  Stridulation  in  the  Hemiptera-Heteroptera "  (Ent.  Mo. 
Mag.  xiv.  pp.  29-31,  2  figs.  ;  and  1880,  "  Insect  Variety,"  pp.  108  and 
203). 

I  1900,  "  Neue  Beitriige  zur  Kenntniss  der  Stridulationsorgane  boi  den 
Bhynchoten  "  (Verb..  Zool.  bot.  Ges.  Wien,  1.  pp.  555-60,  figs.  1-7). 

§  Leidy  (1847,  J.  Ac.  Sci.  Philadelphia,  n.  s.  i.  G4,  mentions  a  similar 
opening  in  the  Belostomatidse. 


A    GUIDE    TO    THE    STUDY    OF    BRITISH    WATERBUGS.  177 

no  reason,  apparently,  why  it  should  not  occur  with  us,  as  it  is 
ver}'  common  in  France  as  near  as  Paris,  and  also  in  Belgium. 
I  have  taken  it  plentifully  in  South  Brittany.  As  it  is  a  possible 
British  inhabitant,  it  is  now  described  and  figured  (fig.  35).  It  is 
smaller  than  Ilyocoris  cimicoides,  greenish  testaceous,  marked 
with  brown.  The  pronotum  is  marked  with  a  distinct,  inverted, 
brown  W.  The  tibia?  are  longer,  less  robust,  and  not  so  spinose 
as  in  the  common  species.  The  most  marked  difference,  however, 
lies  in  the  anterior  femora,  which  are  very  greatly  thickened, 
and  suddenly  ampliated  in  a  right  angle  at  the  base  beneath, 
then  narrowed  (fig.  36)  ;  the  pad  of  hair  on  the  femora  is  also 
much  smaller,  and  occurs  only  near  the  base.  The  species, 
unlike  I.  cimicoides,  is  dimorphic.  While  I.  cimicoides  varies 
from  12-16  millimetres  in  length,  N.  maculata  averages  about 
10.  The  brachypterous  form  was  described  as  a  distinct  species 
by  Dufour  under  the  name  of  Naucoris  aptera. 

This  bug  is  the  type  of  the  genus,  and  was  described  originally 
by  Geoffroy  (1762,  '  Histoire  abregee  des  Insectes  de  Paris,' 
p.  173,  pi.  ix.  f.  5)  as  Naucoris  cimicoides,  under  the  impression 
that  it  was  Linne's  species.  There  is  also  a  coloured  figure  in 
Herrich-Schaffer's  '  Wanzenartigen  Insecten,'  ix.  pi.  cexciii. 
f.  899,  and  detail  F.  E.  D.  (1849).  It  is  said  by  Leon  Dufour* 
to  lay  its  eggs  at  the  end  of  April  in  a  similar  situation  to  those 
of  Ilyocoris.  They  are  obtuse  oval,  not  truncate.  Dufour,  in 
the  same  work,  gives  much  information  on  the  digestive  ap- 
paratus, sexual  glands,  &c,  of  both  these  genera. 


Explanation  of  Plate  II.  f 

FIG. 

15.     Gerris  canalium,  $  ,  apical  abdominal  sternites. 
1«.  „  ,,  ?,       „ 

17.     G.  naias,  <$■>,,  »  ,, 

is.  ,.  2,     „ 

19.  G.  rufoscutellata,  $ ,       ,,  „  ,, 

20.  „  ?,      „ 

21.  G.  lateralis,  $ ,      „  „  ,, 

22.  G.  thoracica,  g,      ,,  „  ,, 

23.  „  2,      „ 

21.  G.  costai,  J ,       ,,  ,,  ,, 

25.  G.  gibbifera,  J ,       ,,  ,,  ,, 

2(3.  G.  lacustris,  J  ,      ,,  ,,  ,, 

27.  G.  odontofjaster,  $ ,  apical  abdominal  segments,  viewed  from  the  side. 

28.  ,,  5  ,  apical  abdominal  sternites. 

29.  Ilyocoris  cimicoides,  showing  articulation  of  anterior  legs. 

30.  Notonecta  glauca,  ,,  ,,  ,,         „         „ 

'■■'■  "  Kecherches  Anatomiques  sur  les  Hemipteres,"  1833,  Mem.  Savans- 
etrangers  Acad.  Roy.  Sci.  France,  iv.  pp.  349.  413,  &c,  pi.  xvi.  figs.  180-2. 

|  This  plate  includes  "  PI.  iii.,"  mentioned  in  vol.  xxxii.  pp.  202-3  (1899). 
(Figs.  33,  37-44  are  omitted.) 


178  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

84.  Aplieloclieirus  montandoni,  anterior  legs. 

32.  ,,  ,,  rostrum,  &c. 

31.  ,,  ,,  ,,  in  profile. 

O.3.  Naucoris  maculata. 

36.  ,,  ,,  anterior  legs. 

45.  Ilyocoris  cimicoides,      ,,  ,, 

(To  be  continued.) 


DBAGONFLY     SEASON     OF    1904. 
By  W.  J.  Lucas,  B.A.,  F.E.S. 

Little  of  fresh  interest  has  to  be  recorded  in  connection 
with  the  dragonfly  season  of  1904.  No  new  species  was  dis- 
covered, and  all  the  critical  species,  which  were  known  to  be 
really  British,  but  about  whose  status  there  was  uncertainty, 
had  before  this  season  been  re-established. 

On  April  24th,  in  the  New  Forest,  I  met  with  the  first  speci- 
men, an  Agrionid,  which  flew  by  out  of  reach ;  the  next  day  I 
took  three  Pyrrhosoma  nymphula.  This  early  promise,  however, 
was  not  kept  up.  The  next  species  seen  was  Enallagma  cyathi- 
gerum,  in  small  numbers  at  the  Black  Pond  on  E slier  Common, 
and  at  the  same  time  and  place,  one  of  a  larger  species,  probably 
Libcllula  quadrimaculata,  was  sighted.  On  May  29th  a  male 
Agrion  puclla  was  taken  near  Ashtead.  By  June  4th  this  species 
was  plentiful  on  Bookham  Common,  where  also  a  larger  dragon- 
fly, probably  Libellula  depressa,  was  seen.  The  next  day,  June 
5th,  L.  quadrimaculata,  A.puella,  E.  cyathigerum,  and  P.  nymphula 
were  out  at  the  Black  Pond,  and  Pyrrhosoma  tenellum  was  appa- 
rently just  appearing.  Till  near  the  beginning  of  June,  there- 
fore, it  could  scarcely  be  said  that  the  dragonfly  season  had 
commenced  in  earnest. 

At  the  Black  Pond,  on  June  5th,  I  found  a  nymph  of  L. 
quadrimaculata,  from  which  the  imago  had  just  commenced  to 
emerge.  It  happened  to  be  near  the  bank,  and,  though  it  was 
tedious  and  tiring  to  stoop  and  watch  the  process,  I  stayed  till 
emergence  was  complete.  The  nymph  was  discovered  about 
11  a.m.,  and  by  11.40  the  imago  had  completely  emerged.  Out 
of  this  time  the  "  rest,"  with  head  hanging  vertically  down- 
wards, lasted  nearly  or  quite  half  an  hour.  The  "  spring-back  " 
was  quite  sudden,  the  abdomen  being  pulled  out  of  the  nymph - 
skin  almost  immediately  afterwards.  "While  hanging  at  "  rest  " 
the  lower  lip  seemed  to  expand.  When  an  emerging  dragonfly 
hangs  head  downwards,  does  it  do  so  to  allow  of  the  filling  out 
and  expanding  of  the  fore  parts  ? 

On  June  19th  a  visit  was  paid  to  Frensham  Ponds,  in  Surrey, 
to  test  its  dragonfly  fauna,  but  unfortunately  the  day  was  gener- 
ally  dull  and   unsuitable.      Numbers    of  E.   cyathigerum   were 


DRAGONFLY    SEASON    OF    1904.  179 

found,  one  Ischnura  elegans,  and  one  teneral  male  Orthetrum 
cancellation.  The  day  was  not  wasted,  however,  for  a  few 
nymph-skins  of  the  last  were  discovered,  and,  as  these  were 
little  known  previously — scarcely  at  all  in  Britain — they  were  at 
least  of  equal  value  with  the  rather  scarce  imagines  of  the  same 
species. 

At  or  near  the  Black  Pond,  on  June  22nd,  one  or  two  Anax 
imperator  and  one  Cordulia  eenea  were  seen  ;  this  was  the  only 
C.  cenea  that  I  noted  during  the  season.  On  June  26th,  on 
E slier  Common,  I  caught  a  male  of  L.  depressa,  a  species  of 
which  I  met  with  very  few  during  1901.  On  the  same  day 
Pyrrhosoma  tenellum  was  very  numerous  at  the  Black  Pond. 
There  also,  on  July  16th,  I  took  a  very  nice  var.  pnenubila  of 
L.  quadrimaculata. 

Mr.  G.  T.  Porritt  again  visited  the  Norfolk  Broads  in  search 
of  Mschna  isosceles,  and  the  other  good  dragonflies  to  be  found 
there  in  early  summer.  He  met  with  fair  success  as  regards 
isosceles,  and,  writing  on  June  25th,  said  that  he  had  taken  one 
hawking  on  land,  as  M.  cyanea  does,  when  it  was  nearly  dark. 

On  July  23rd  a  visit  was  paid  to  the  Basingstoke  Canal,  near 
Byrleet  Station,  when  the  species  found  were  the  usual  ones  for 
that  part  of  the  season,  though  some  that  should  have  been 
there  were  absent  or  unnoticed.  There  were  present  Mschna 
grandis,  Calopteryx  splendens,  Platycnemis  pennipes,  Erythromma 
naias,  Ischnura  elegans  and  its  var.  rufescens,  Agrion  pulchellum, 
and  Enallagma  cyathigerum. 

Some  weeks  spent  in  the  New  Forest  revealed  little  new  there. 
A  worn  female  Orthetrum  cancellation  was  taken  on  August  1st, 
and  a  female  Mschna  juncea  on  August  9th.  A  Calopteryx  virgo 
was  seen  as  late  as  September  3rd.  On  September  2nd  Cordule- 
gaster  annulatus  was  seen  on  the  wing  at  Becton  Bunny,  on  the 
coast,  and  a  female  Mschna  cyanea  was  caught  at  Milton. 

Wisley  Ponds,  in  Surrey,  were  visited  on  September  10th. 
Lestes  sponsa,  a  few  iEschnas,  and  Sympetrum  striolatum  were 
found  at  the  smaller  pond,  but  none  of  the  better  species  of 
Sympetrum  were  met  with.     There  was,  however,  very  little  sun. 

On  September  18th  an  Mschna  juncea  was  taken  at  the  Black 
Pond,  where  for  one  or  two  seasons  this  species  had  been  seen  by 
me  very  seldom,  if  at  all. 

Mr.  F.  B.  Browne  was  good  enough  to  give  me  a  female 
specimen  of  Agrion  armatum  from  the  Broads.  Of  the  species 
he  took  about  ten  specimens  in  the  spring,  one  only  being 
a  male. 

My  last  record  for  the  season  was  Sympetrum  scoticum  and 
S.  striolatum,  at  the  Black  Pond,  on  October  9th.  The  latter, 
however,  probably  continued  well  into  November,  and  not  im- 
probably the  former  may  have  lasted  almost  as  long. 


180  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

A     LIST     OF     THE     "  MACRO-LEPIDOPTERA "     OF 
LANCASTER     AND     DISTRICT. 

By  C.  H.  Forsythe. 

(Continued  from  p.  160.) 

Cucullia  umbratica. — A  few  examples  in  most  seasons  in  June.  This 
species  is  generally  distributed,  but  nowhere  common. 

Gonoptera  libatrix. — Comes  to  sugar  in  September  in  County  Asylum 
grounds,  Grimshaw  Lane,  Halton,  Quermnore,  &c. 

Abroxtola  tripartita  (urti-cce). — Comes  to  sugar  and  privet-bloom  in 
July;  Arnside,  Witherslack,  Methop,  and  Lancaster  (generally). 

A.  triplasia. — Not  plentiful;  comes  to  sugar  and  bloom  in  August, 
and  is  generally  distributed  throughout  the  district. 

Plusia  chrysitis. — Common  about  Methop  and  Witherslack,  less  so 
at  Arnside  and  Hest  Bank,  not  common  about  Lancaster,  in  July. 

P.festuca. — Scarce  and  local;  near  Heysham  in  September.  "I 
used  to  take  the  larvae  and  pupse  of  this  species  commonly  near 
Heysham  some  years  ago"  (G.  L.). 

P.  iota. — Odd  specimens  come  to  bloom  in  June  and  July;  nowhere 
common,  but  generally  distributed. 

P.  pulchrina. — Comes  to  cultivated  flowers  at  dusk  in  late  June  in 
the  County  Asylum  grounds,  and  I  have  also  taken  examples  near 
Halton,  Quernmore,  Arnside,  Witherslack,  Methop,  &c. 

P.  gamma. — Comes  freely  to  bloom  in  August  and  September,  and 
I  have  seen  worn  (hybernated)  examples  in  early  June.  It  is  common 
and  generally  distributed. 

P.  interrogations. — Local ;  I  have  only  taken  this  species  on  the 
moors  near  Clougha  Pike  in  June. 

Anarta  myrtilli. — Common  on  all  the  moors  and  mosses,  as  at 
Clougha,  WTitherslack,  Methop,  &c,  in  June,  July,  and  August. 

Heliaca  tenebrata  (arbuti).  —  Local;  near  Hornby,  Deep  Cutting 
Bridge,  and  between  Torrisholm  and  the  river  Lune.  The  imago 
appears  in  May. 

Phytometra  viridaria  [mica). — Local,  but  common  near  Clougha  in 
June,  occasionally  at  Arnside,  Witherslack,  &c. 

Euclidia  mi. — Generally  distributed  ;  common  near  Clougha  in 
June ;  I  have  found  the  larvaa  feeding  upon  yellow  melilot  [Trifolhim 
procumbens)  in  August. 

E.  (jlyphica. — Local ;  near  Carnforth  and  Galgate  on  the  L.  &  N.  W. 
Railway  batters.  The  larva?  feed  upon  Trifolium  repens  (Dutch  or  white 
clover).     The  moth  flies  in  the  sunshine  in  late  May  and  June. 

Pdvula  sericealis. — Occurs  at  Witherslack  in  early  July. 

Zanclognatha  grisealis. — Fairly  common  near  Clougha,  Blea  Tarn, 
Arnside,  and  in  the  County  Asylum  grounds  in  June  and  July. 

Z.  tarsipennalis. — Uncommon ;  at  Arnside,  Heysham,  and  County 
Asylum  grounds  in  June  and  July. 

Hypena  proboscidalis. — Common  in  most  of  the  lanes  among  nettles 
(Urtica  dioica)  in  July. 

Tholomiges  tiirfosalis. — Local ;  I  have  only  taken  specimens  near 
Clougha  in  July. 


MACR0-LEPID0PTERA    OF    LANCASTER    AND    DISTRICT.  181 

BrepJios  parthenias. — I  have  only  bred  specimens  from  Witherslack 
larvae.  "  Common  on  Methop  and  Witherslack  Mosses  in  March  and 
early  April  "  (G.  L.). 

GEOMETRIDiE. 

Urapteryx  sambucaria. — Common  and  generally  distributed  in  July 
and  August. 

Epione  apiciaria. — I  took  a  specimen  in  the  County  Asylum  grounds 
in  July,  1900  ;  at  Witherslack  it  is  local,  and  not  uncommon  in  one 
locality  near  Methop.  The  moth  flies  late  at  night  at  the  end  of  July 
and  beginning  of  August. 

llumia  luteal ata  (cratcegata). — -Abundant  everywhere  throughout  the 
summer  months. 

Venilia  macularia  (maculata). — Fairly  common  near  Carnforth  on 
the  L.  &  N.  W.  Railway  batters.     The  moth  flies  in  June. 

Metrocampa  margaritaria. — Fairly  common  in  Grimshaw  Lane, 
County  Asylum  grounds,  Blea  Tarn,  &c,  in  July.  Abundant  in 
Arnside. 

Ellopia  prosapiaria  (Jasciaria). — Common  at  Arnside  in  July. 

Eurymene  dolabraria. — Local  and  uncommon  ;  Corporation  Wood, 
Quernmore,  County  Asylum  grounds,  Arnside,  and  Witherslack,  in 
June. 

Hyqrochroa  (Pericallia)  syringaria. — "  Local,  near  Hornby  in  July  " 
(G.L.j. 

Selenia  bilunana  (illunaria). — Fairly  common  and  generally  distri- 
buted in  April  and  July. 

S.  lunaria. — A  male  specimen  taken  at  Warton,  near  Carnforth,  on 
June  8th,  1905. 

Odontopera  bidentata. — Common  in  Grimshaw  Lane,  Corporation 
Wood,  County  Asylum  grounds,  Blea  Tarn,  &c,  in  May. 

Crocallis  elinguaria. — Common  and  generally  distributed  in  July 
and  August. 

Ennomos  (Eugonia)  alniaria  (tiliaria). — Comes  freely  to  light  in 
August,  and  is  common  about  Quernmore,  Blea  Tarn,  &c. 

E.  quercinaria  (angularia). — Occurs  about  Methop  and  Witherslack 
in  September  and  October. 

Himera  pennaria. — Comes  freely  to  light  in  September  and  October 
at  Blea  Tarn,  Quernmore,  County  Asylum  grounds,  &c.  This  species 
is  subject  to  considerable  variation — from  light  brown  to  rich  rufous 
red,  in  colour,  and  some  specimens  are  strongly  suffused  with  black 
scales. 

Phigalia  pedaria  (pilosaria). — Common  in  Corporation  Wood,  Quern- 
more, County  Asylum  grounds,  Blea  Tarn,  &c,  on  the  tree-trunks  in 
March  ;  also  comes  freely  to  the  street-lamps.  We  get  a  fine  dark 
unicolorous  grey  variety  of  this  species  in  the  first-named  locality. 

Amphidasys  strataria  (prodromal id). — Uncommon  ;  I  have  bred  ex- 
amples from  Methop  larvae  taken  in  July.  "It  occurs  sparingly  in 
Corporation  Wood,  Quernmore"  (G.  L.). 

A.  betularia. — -I  have  bred  both  the  type  and  var.  doubledayaria  from 
Methop  and  Witherslack  larvas  taken  from  birch  in  September.  I  have 
only  taken  specimens  on  the  wing  near  Lancaster  on  three  occasions — 
near  Rush-a-lee  in  June — and  these  have  all  been  the  black  variety. 


182  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Hemerophila  abruptaria. — Comes  to  light  in  May  in  several  localities 
in  the  district,  but  nowhere  plentiful. 

Boarmia  repandata. — Occurs  in  June  and  July  at  Arnside,  Methop, 
near  Clougha,  Corporation  Wood,  &c. 

B.  gemmaria  (rhomboidaria). — Common  throughout  the  district  in 
June  and  July. 

B.  roboraria. — Local  and  scarce.  "  Corporation  and  Quernmore 
Woods  in  June  "  (G.  L.). 

B.  consortaria . — -Local  and  scarce.  "  Corporation  and  Quernmore 
Woods  in  June"  (G.  L.). 

Tephrosia  consonaiia. — Local.  Witherslack  and  Quernmore  at  the 
end  of  May.     The  imagine  may  be  found  sitting  on  the  fir-tree  trunks. 

T.  ere  puscul  aria.— Corporation  Wood  and  near  Methop  in  April. 

T.  biuiuhdaria. — I  have  bred  some  fine  dark  forms  of  this  species 
from  Methop  larvae  beaten  from  birch  and  oak-trees  in  June.  "Cor- 
poration Wood  in  April"  (G.  L.). 

Gnophos  obscararia. — Local ;  at  Methop  and  Witherslack  in  July. 

Cabera  pusaria. — Plentiful  everywhere  in  July  and  August. 

C.  exanthemaria. — Occurs  abundantly  in  nearly  every  locality  in 
July  and  August. 

Bapta  temerata. — Fairly  common  at  Arnside  (on  the  Knott), 
Witherslack,  Methop,  &c,  in  June. 

Macaria  notata. — Local ;  this  species  occurs  at  Arnside  in  June, 
but  is  not  common. 

M.  liturata. — Fairly  common  in  the  fir-woods  at  Arnside,  Grange, 
and  Methop  in  July. 

Halia  vauaria  (wavaria). — Generally  distributed,  and  common  in 
July. 

Strenia  clathrata. — Local;  near  Warton,  on  the  L.  &  N.W.  Railway 
batters,  in  May  and  early  June. 

Penagra  petraria. — Common  at  Clougha,  Quernmore,  &c,  in  June. 

NumerLa  puheraria. — Not  common  ;  occurs  at  Arnside,  Methop, 
and  Witherslack  in  April  and  May. 

Scodiona  belgiaria. — Fairly  common  at  Witherslack ;  less  so  and 
very  local  near  Clougha  in  June. 

Selidosema  ericetaria  {plumaria). — Fairly  common  on  the  Wither- 
slack mosses  in  July. 

Ematurga  atomaria. — Abundant  on  the  mosses  at  Witherslack, 
Methop,  Heysham,  &c,  and  on  the  moors  at  Clougha  and  Quernmore 
from  May  to  August. 

Bupalvs  piniaria.  —  Common  at  Grange,  Methop,  Arnside,  and 
Quernmore,  in  the  fir-woods  in  June.  Our  form  has  a  white  ground 
colour. 

Perconia  (Aspilates)  stngillaria. — Plentiful  on  Methop  and  Wither- 
slack Mosses  ;  less  common  at  Heysham  in  June. 

Abraxas  grossulariata. — Abundant  everywhere  in  lanes  and  gardens 
in  July  and  August.  This  species  is  subject  to  great  variation  ;  I 
have  forms  bred  from  larvae  found  near  Warton  on  blackthorn  (Prunus 
spinosa)  which  are  very  dark,  with  coalesced  spots,  and  others  from 
Grimshaw  Lane,  very  light  with  few  spots. 

A.  sylvata  (ulmata). — Local;  near  Halton  and  Methop  and  about 
Yealand.     The  moth  is  on  the  wing  in  June  and  July. 


MACR0-LEPID0PTERA    OF  LANCASTER    AND    DISTRICT.  183 

Lomaspilis  marginata. — Generally  distributed  and  fairly  common 
throughout  the  district  in  June  and  July. 

Hybemia  rupicapraria.— Abundant  about  hedgerows  in  February 
aud  March. 

H.  leucophcearia. — Fairly  common  in  Aqueduct  Wood,  Quernmore, 
near  Clougha,  Blea  Tarn,  &c,  in  February  and  March. 

H.  aurantiaria.  —  Generally  distributed  ;  Arnside,  Witherslack, 
Clougha,  County  Asylum  grounds,  &c,  in  late  October. 

H.  marginalia  (progemmaria). —  Generally  distributed  and  very 
common  ;  comes  to  light  freely  in  February  and  March. 

H.  defoliaria. — Fairly  plentiful  and  generally  distributed  in  October. 

Anisopteryx  ascularia. — Local;  Aqueduct  Wood  and  near  Clougha 
in  April. 

Cheimatobia  brumata. — Plentiful  about  hedgerows,  and  comes  freely 
to  light  in  October,  November,  and  December. 

C.  boreata. — Generally  distributed,  and  comes  freely  to  light  in 
November. 

Oporabia  dilutata. — Generally  distributed,  and  common  everywhere, 
end  of  October. 

0.  JUigrammaria. — Uncommon.  I  have  only  taken  this  species  on 
the  moors  near  Clougha  in  August. 

Larentia  didymata. — Abundant  in  Grimshaw  Lane,  County  Asylum 
grounds,  Clougha,  &c,  in  July. 

L.  multistrigaria. — Not  common  ;  near  Blea  Tarn,  Clougha,  Rush- 
a-lee,  &c,  in  April  and  May. 

L  caaiata. — Abundant  on  the  rocks  about  Clougha  in  July. 

L.  flavicinctata. — I  have  only  taken  this  species  about  Clougha — 
where  it  is  scarce— in  July. 

L.  salicata. — Generally  distributed  ;  Silverdale,  Blea  Tarn,  Clougha, 
&c,  in  August. 

L.  olivata. — Fairly  common  at  Witherslack  and  Arnside  ;  not  com- 
mon near  Clougha  in  July. 

L.  viridaria  (jpectinitaria), — Generally  distributed  and  common  in 
July. 

Emmelesia  affiniUtta  (nvidata). — Fairly  common  about  Lancaster, 
Blea  Tarn,  Arnside,  Witherslack,  &c,  in  July. 

E.  alchemillata. — Local;  near  the  County  Asylum  and  at  Wither- 
slack in  July. 

E.  albulata. — Fairly  common ;  Clougha,  Grimshaw  Lane,  &c,  in 
June. 

E.  decolorata. — Fairly  common  and  generally  distributed  in  June. 

E.  tmniata, — Local ;  near  Arnside  and  Silverdale  in  early  July. 

Tephroclystia  (Eupithecia)  venosata. — Uncommon  ;  near  Witherslack 
and  at  Arnside  in  June. 

T.  {E.)  linariata. — Local ;  near  Witherslack  in  June. 

T.  (E.)  pulchellata. — Occasionally  in  Grimshaw  Lane,  at  Arnside 
and  Silverdale  in  June. 

T.  (E.)  castigata. — Fairly  common  at  Witherslack  and  near  Methop 
Bank  in  July. 

T.  (E.)  virgaureata. — Not  common  ;  occasionally  near  Methop  in 
early  June. 

T.  [E.)  constrictata. — Local  at  Witherslack  in  early  July. 


184  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

T.  (E.)  nanata. — Fairly  common  at  Clougha,  Quernmore,  &c,  in 
May  aud  June. 

T.  (E.)  vulgata. — Fairly  common  near  Clougha,  Grimshaw  Lane, 
&c,  in  June. 

T.  (E.)  minutata. — Common  near  Clougha,  Witherslack,  &c,  in 
June. 

T.  (E.)  abbreviata. — I  have  only  hred  this  species  from  larva1 
beaten  from  oak  near  Clougha  in  June.     The  moth  appears  in  April. 

T  (E.)  exiguata. — Common  about  hedgerows  of  whitethorn  in  June. 

T.  (E.)  sobrinata. — Common  at  Warton,  Witherslack,  and  Arnside 
about  juniper  (Juniper  us  communis)  in  July. 

Chloroclystis  (E.)  rectangulata. — Common  at  Witherslack,  County 
Asylum  grounds,  &c.  The  larvas  feed  in  the  buds  of  pear  and  apple- 
trees  in  May ;  the  moth  appears  in  June. 

Lobophora  carpinata  (lobulata). — Common  in  Corporation  Wood, 
Quernmore,  in  April. 

L.  polycommata. — Local,  I  have  only  taken  this  species  near  Methop 
in  May. 

Thera  juniper  at  a. — Local.  "  Near  Warton  about  junipers  in  Octo- 
ber "  (G.  L.) 

T.  simulata. — Arnside  in  August. 

T.  variata — Local.  I  have  only  taken  this  species  in  a  fir- wood 
near  Quernmore  in  late  May  and  early  June. 

Hypsipetes  sordidata  (elutata). — Abundant  everywhere  ;  very  vari- 
able in  colour  and  markings.  Some  of  the  moorland  forms — from 
near  Clougha— are  very  beautiful. 

Melanthia  bicolorata  (rubiginata).  —  Local.  I  have  only  taken 
specimens  in  the  County  Asylum  grounds  in  July. 

M.  ocellata. — Generally  distributed  throughout  the  district  in  July. 

M.  albicillata, — Common  near  Warton ;  less  so  at  Witherslack, 
Lancaster,  and  Halton,  in  late  June. 

Melanippe  hastata. — "  Scarce  at  Witherslack  in  June  "  (G.  L.) 

M.  tristata. — Local,  but  common  near  Clougha  in  June. 

M,  sociata  [subtri  statu).  —  Abundant  everywhere  in  May  and  July. 

M.montanata. — Abundant  throughout  the  district  in  June  and  July. 

M.  galiata, — I  took  this  species  in  June,  1904,  for  the  first  time,  in 
Grimshaw  Lane  ;  probably  overlooked  previously  for  montanata. 

M.  jhietuiita, — Abundant  on  walls,  &c,  in  July  and  August. 

Anticlea  badiata. — Fairly  common  in  the  County  Asylum  grounds, 
near  Blea  Tarn,  Quernmore.  &c,  in  May. 

A.  nigrofasciaria. — Not  common  :  Arnside,  Witherslack,  Lancaster, 
in  April. 

Coremia  designata. — Uncommon;  Quernmore,  Witherslack,  &c,  in 
July. 

C.  ferrugata. — Common  everywhere  in  May  and  August. 

C.  unidentaria. — Less  common  than  the  preceding  species ;  Blea 
Tarn,  Quernmore,  County  Asylum  grounds,  &c,  in  August, 

Camptogramma  bilineata. — Abundant  at  Heysham,  Arnside,  Halton, 
&c,  in  July.     This  species  shows  considerable  variation. 

PMbalapteryx  vitalbata. — Local;  at  Witherslack  and  near  Methop 
in  July  and  August. 

Triphosa  dubitata. — Common  at  Witherslack  and  Lower  Kellet ; 
comes  freely  to  ragwort  flowers  in  August  and  September. 


NOTES    AND    OBSERVATIONS.  185 

Eucosmia  undulata. — Local ;  I  have  only  bred  this  species  from 
Methop  and  Witherslack  larvae  taken  in  September.  The  moth 
appears  in  June. 

Cidaria  siderata  (psittacata). — Not  common.  "  Witherslack  and 
Methop  in  October.     This  species  comes  to  ivy-bloom  "  (Or.  L.) 

C.  miata. — "  Not  plentiful  in  Witherslack  in  October  at  ivy-bloom  " 
(G.  L.) 

C.  corylata. — I  have  bred  this  species  from  larva?  beaten  from 
blackthorn  (Primus  spinosa)  in  Grimshaw  Lane.  Fairly  common  at 
Witherslack  in  June. 

C.  truncata  (russata). — Fairly  common  about  hedgerows  in  Grim- 
shaw Lane,  Rush-a-lee,  Halton,  Arnside,  &c,  in  August. 

(To  be  continued.) 


NOTES     AND     OBSERVATIONS. 

Exotic  Earwigs  Wanted. — I  am  preparing  a  revision  and  mono- 
graph of  the  Dermaptera  or  Forficularia  of  the  world,  and  would  very 
gladly  receive  any  material  for  examination,  especially  from  Australia, 
China,  and  Central  and  South  Africa. — Malcolm  Burr  ;  23,  Blomfield 
Court,  Maida  Vale,  W.,  June  24th,  1905. 

Ova  of  Butterflies  Wanted.  —  I  should  be  greatly  obliged  to 
anyone  who  would  kindly  give  or  lend  me  the  ovum  of  any  of  our 
butterflies,  except  those  mentioned  below,  for  the  purpose  of  figuring. 
Micro-photographs,  or  ordinary  photographs  if  the  object  is  clear  and 
well-defined,  would  be  useful.  Species  of  which  the  ovum  has  been 
figured  : — Euchlo'e  cardamines,  Gonepteryx  rhamni,  Argynnis  ewphrosyne, 
Vanessa  urtica,  Pararge  egeria,  P.  megcera,  Coenonympha  pamphilus, 
Callophrys  (Thecla)  rubi,  Chrysophanus  phlceas,  Lycama  icarus,  L.  bellar- 
gus,  Hesperia  malvce,  Thanaos  tages. — Richard  South  ;  96,  Drakefield 
Road,  Upper  Tooting,  S.W. 

Note  on  Zanclognatha  grisealis. — Barrett  (vol.  vi.  p.  300)  throws 
doubt  on  a  remark  of  Buckler  to  the  effect  that  Z.  grisealis  passes  the 
winter  in  the  pupal  state.  I  beat  three  or  four  larvae  of  this  species 
from  oak  in  August  last ;  they  all  pupated  in  September,  and  emerged 
end  of  May  to  June. — H.  V.  Plum  ;  Epsom  College,  June  7th,  1905. 

Larva  of  Thecla  rubi  on  Dogwood. — Early  in  July  last  I  beat  from 
dogwood  some  half-dozen  larvae  of  what  I  thought  at  the  time  were 
Lycana  argiolus ;  they  fed  well  on  the  berries,  quite  ignoring  the 
leaves ;  in  due  course  they  pupated,  and  last  month  produced  fine 
specimens  of  Thecla  rubi.  Is  not  this  an  unrecorded  food-plant  for 
this  species? — E.  C.  Joy;  34,  Fairholt  Road,  Stoke  Newington,  N. 

Aberration  of  Euchelia  jacob^je.  —  At  Warton,  on  June  8th,  I 
boxed  a  fine  aberration  of  Euchelia  jacobaa,.  The  specimen,  which  is 
a  female,  has  the  fore  wings  rosy  red,  with  a  shaded  black  central  band. 
The  left  fore  wing  is  slightly  rubbed,  otherwise  the  example  is  in  fine 
condition.  She  had  deposited  a  batch  of  ova  when  I  reached  home  at 
night. —  C.  H.  Forsythe  ;  The  County  Asylum,  Lancaster. 

ENTOM. — JULY,    1905.  Q 


186  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 


CAPTUEES  AND  FIELD  REPORTS. 

Deilephila  livornica  in  Gloucester,  1905. — Last  year  I  reported 
the  capture  of  One  specimen  of  this  species,  which  was  subsequently 
notified  from  many  other  localities  widely  separated.  This  year  I  was 
shown  another  specimen  caught  in  the  yard  of  some  ironworks  here  by 
one  of  the  workmen,  and  given  to  a  friend  of  mine.  I  notice  in  the 
current  number  of  the  '  Entomologist '  that  the  species  has  already 
been  noticed  from  other  districts  again,  so  that  it  appears  likely  that 
D.  livornica  may  become  firmly  established  with  us. — A.  Lionel  Clarke  ; 
Gloucester,  June  1st,  1905. 

Cerura  bicuspis  in  Lancashire. — AtHaverthwaiteMoss.on  June  9th, 
I  took  a  male  specimen  of  Cerura  bicuspis  at  rest  on  a  birch  twig.  It 
was  in  the  finest  condition.  —  C.  H.  Forsythe;  The  County  Asylum, 
Lancaster. 

Selenia  lunaria  in  the  Lancaster  District.  —  While  collecting  at 
Warton,  near  Carnforth,  on  June  8th,  I  took  a  male  example  of  Selenia 
lunaria.  This  species  is  new  to  me  in  this  district. — C.  H.  Forsythe; 
The  County  Asylum,  Lancaster. 

Notes  from  Australia. — I  have  recently  spent  a  short  holiday  in 
Southern  Queensland  after  insects,  and  doubtless  some  short  account 
would  be  of  interest  to  readers  of  the  '  Entomologist.'  Leaving  Wel- 
lington on  Dec.  24th,  1904,  by  the  s.s.  '  Wimmera,'  we  had  a  pleasant 
run  across  to  Sydney,  which  was  reached  the  following  Wednesday 
morning.  Here,  whilst  waiting  for  the  northern  train,  I  took  a  walk 
in  the  beautiful  Botanical  Gardens,  where  I  noticed  Papilio  sarpedon, 
Vanessa  kershawii,  and  several  small  Lycamidse ;  also  several  examples 
of  the  beetle  Anoplognathus  pcctoralis  lying  dead  on  the  paths.  The 
run  north  is  mostly  through  open  country,  with  gum-trees  scattered 
sparingly  about.  The  following  day  I  reached  Warwick,  on  the 
Darling  Downs,  where  I  stayed  a  day  or  two,  Here  a  large  dark 
Papilio  (P.  egtrjeus)  was  fairly  common,  and  was  especially  fond  of 
coming  into  the  shade  under  the  balconies.  The  male  of  this  insect 
was  difficult  to  catch  when  in  good  condition,  although  its  flight  was 
generally  slow  and  floppy.  I  also  obtained  P.  sthenelus,  Acraa  andro- 
mache,  Terias  smilax,  Junonia  veleda,  and  the  beautiful  Talmenes  evajous, 
I  next  went  on  to  Brisbane,  where  Pajnlio  sarpedon  was  very  common, 
and  almost  impossible  to  catch.  Here  I  obtained  a  beautiful  example 
of  Charaxes  sempronius.  There  is  very  little  to  be  done  just  around 
Brisbane,  altbough  a  fair  number  of  beetles  are  to  be  obtained  about 
the  electric  lights  at  the  railway  station.  One  day  I  visited  the  coast, 
but  insects  (except  mosquitoes)  were  very  scarce :  a  few  Euploces  and 
Danais  archipjnis  and  D.  affinis  were  our  only  captures.  I  then  decided 
to  go  on  to  Eumundi,  about  seventy  miles  further  north,  which  is  in  a 
belt  of  dense  tropical  scrub  which  occurs  here.  This  country  is  entirely 
different  to  that  through  which  I  had  recently  passed,  and  consisted  of 
figs,  palms,  and  climbing  plants ;  whilst  many  of  the  trees  supported  epi- 
phytes and  parasites,  amongst  which  were  a  few  orchids  and  the  handsome 
stag-horn  fern.    Here  I  found  many  more  insects,  amongst  which  were 


CAPTURES  AND  FIELD  REPORTS.  187 

Papilio  capaneus  and  P.  leosthenes  (somewhat  worn),  Hypoeysta  metirius, 
Danais  taygetus,  and  a  curious  butterfly  with  a  beautiful  leaf-like  under 
side  (Doleschalia  australis),  which  was  fond  of  taking  short  flights  and 
then  returning  to  some  favourite  perch  ;  but  my  finest  capture  was  a 
male  (unfortunately  slightly  chipped)  of  the  magnificent  Ornithoptera 
richmondii.  This  latter  was  fairly  common  round  a  group  of  trees 
bearing  a  white  flower  very  like  orange-blossom,  but  seldom  descended 
within  reach  of  the  net.  I  also  obtained  a  fair  number  of  Coleoptera, 
including  some  very  rare  species,  and  one  or  two  fine  Longicorns  which 
seem  to  be  unknown.  I  then  returned  south,  again  staying  a  few  days 
at  Warwick,  where  I  now  found  Gharaxes  sempronius  fairly  common, 
and  managed  to  capture  three  more  examples.  The  weather,  which 
during  the  first  part  of  my  trip  had  been  very  hot  (about  103°  or  104° 
in  the  shade),  had  now  become  much  cooler  (80°  or  85°  in  the  shade), 
and  the  sky  had  clouded  over,  so  that  few  insects  were  obtainable  whilst 
here.  The  previous  hot  dry  weather  had  had  a  very  unfavourable  effect 
upon  both  beetles  and  butterflies,  a  very  large  number  of  the  latter 
being  worn,  whilst  both  were  scarce.  After  a  pleasant  run  across  from 
Sydney,  I  arrived  in  Wellington  Jan.  18th,  having  had  a  most  enjoy- 
able holiday.  I  may  add  that  immense  numbers  of  locusts  occurred 
everywhere,  many  of  them  with  very  beautiful  under  wings,  especially 
one  brilliant  yellow  one  on  the  Darling  Downs. — Hubert  W.  Simmonds; 
17,  Aurora  Terrace,  Wellington,  N.Z.,  March  23rd,  1905. 

Notes  from  the  Chester  District  for  1904  (concluded from  p.  165). 

Aplecta  nebulosa. — From  June  8th  to  the  18th  twenty-three  moths 
were  reared  from  black  parents  with  grey  fringes  (var.  robsoni,  Collins). 
Four  were  of  the  type-form,  five  were  intermediate  between  the  type 
and  var.  robsoni,  ten  were  robsoni,  and  four  were  the  form  thompsoni 
(Arkle) — that  is,  jet-black,  with  white  margins  and  white  fringes. 
Another  typical  specimen  emerged  on  the  29th — total,  twenty-four 
insects.  From  twelve  larval  from  type  parents  twelve  moths  emerged, 
June  14th  to  June  27th.  Eleven  were  typical,  and  the  twelfth  an 
intermediate  between  vars.  robsoni  and  thompsoni.  The  curious  thing 
is  that  the  black  forms  were,  as  a  rule,  the  first  to  appear.  All  my 
larvae  were  kept  in  a  couple  of  breeding-cages,  with  plenty  of  moss  at 
the  bottom  for  them  to  hide  in  by  day.  They  began  to  wander  about 
the  cages  early  in  January,  occasionally  eating,  very  sparingly,  of  dock 
or  dried  sallow-leaves  up  to  March,  when  they  began  actively  feeding 
on  dock.  The  larvae  prefer  spinning  up  in  dry  moss.  All  were  kept 
in  a  cold  outhouse,  with  plenty  of  ventilation.  A  number  of  larvae 
from  thompsoni  parents  are  now  (February,  1905)  showing  themselves 
after  their  short  hybernation.  The  chief  object  is  to  see  if  the  white 
margins  will  be  increased  in  the  resultant  moths.  It  has  been  found 
that  the  variety  robsoni  may  occur  at  the  rate  of  ten  per  cent,  from 
wild  Delamere  larvae,  and  the  form  thompsoni  in  the  proportion  of 
three  per  cent.  ;  therefore,  although  the  chances  are  at  present  small, 
the  result,  whatever  it  may  be,  with  reference  to  the  white  margins, 
may  occur  in  nature.  In  fact,  I  should  not  be  surprised  if  one  or  other 
of  these  forms  of  .4.  nebulosa  ultimately  supplants  the  type,  as  in  the 
case  of  Amphidasys  betularia.  At  any  rate,  it  is  significant  that 
melanism  has   already  been  referred   to,  in   the  Chester  district,   as 


188  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

being  "  rampant."  Whatever  be  the  cause,  it  cannot  be  attributed  to 
smoke,  and  there  are  those  who  claim  that  we  have  not  an  excess  of 
moisture. 

Boarmia  repandata. —  The  larva?  mentioned  (Entom.  xxxvii.  74) 
from  mid-Northumberland  were  kept  through  the  winter,  as  in  the 
case  of  A.  nebulosa,  but  in  flower-pots  covered  with  gauze.  They  did 
well  until  March,  when  they  nearly  all  died  off,  and  I  only  reared  nine 
moths  (June  8th  to  June  18th),  but  beautiful  specimens,  well  marked, 
blotched,  and  dusted  with  brown-black  on  a  grey  ground — four  males 
and  five  females.  The  larva?  showed  signs  of  awakening  from  hyber- 
nation on  February  22nd,  swaying  to  right  and  left,  but  not  relaxing 
hold  of  the  withered  sallow-leaves  and  twigs,  which  they  grasped  by 
their  anal  claspers.  Like  A.  nebulosa,  they  are  night-feeders,  and 
prefer  to  spin  up  in  dry  moss. 

Abraxas  grossulariata. — I  had  two  dozen  black  larva),  but  the  moths 
reared  were  as  typical  as  they  well  could  be. 

Amphidasys  bctularia. — A  dozen  of  the  green  form  of  the  larva, 
taken  in  Delatuere  Forest,  all  produced  the  black  variety  of  the  moth 
(doubledayaria) ;  in  fact,  we  appear  to  get  the  black  form  of  this 
species. 

Odontopera  bidentata. — Common  in  Delamere  Forest,  on  Scotch  fir, 
in  September  and  October.  The  pine-feeding  bidentata  are  very  unlike 
the  smooth  light  brown  larva?  found  earlier  on  birch  ;  they  are  rougher, 
with  tubercles.  They  vary  in  colour — sooty  black,  ochreous  brown, 
with  dorsal  diamond  pattern,  and  reddish  or  dark  green  patches.  The 
moths  reared  from  these  pine-feeders  show  a  marked  tendency  towards 
melanism.     I  have  a  sooty  brown,  almost  black,  specimen. 

Bupahts  piniaria. —  Plentiful  on  Scotch  fir,  Delamere  Forest,  in 
September  and  October.  On  October  1st  I  took  an  example  of  the 
yellowish  olive-green  form. 

Therafirmata  and  Kllopia  f»'osapiaria  =  fasciaria. — Very  common  on 
Scotch  fir,  Delamere  Forest,  in  September  and  October.  They  are 
then  very  small,  and  hybernate  on  the  branches  among  the  foliage,  but 
are  difficult  to  bring  through  the  winter  in  confinement.  They  are 
best  obtained  after  hybernation,  in  April,  although  their  numbers  are 
then  apparently  thinned. 

Macaria  liturata. — Fairly  common  in  Delamere  Forest,  on  Scotch 
fir,  in  September  and  October.  The  usual  colour  is  green,  with 
whitish  yellow  lines  and  stripes  and  reddish  head.  The  last  men- 
tioned feature  easily  separates  the  species  from  the  other  pine-feeders  ; 
but  there  is  a  variety  almost  as  common  as  the  type,  to  the  discovery 
of  which  I  am  indebted  to  my  friend  Mr.  J.  Thompson,  of  Chester. 
Some  three  or  four  years  ago,  to  prove  their  identity,  he  placed  twelve 
in  a  flower-pot  by  themselves.  The  results  were  nine  dark  imagines 
(var.  nigrofulvata,  Collins) ;  two  types  and  the  remaining  pupa  died. 
The  following  is  a  description  of  this  variety  of  the  larva  : —  Pale 
pinkish  grey  or  brownish,  green  entirely  absent.  Head  dark  purplish 
black-brown,  almost  black.  Lines  and  stripes  as  in  the  green  form, 
but  paler  grey  than  the  general  colour  of  the  caterpillar.  The  side 
stripes  are  interrupted  by  triangular  patches  of  dark  purplish  brown. 
The  dorsal  segment  divisions  are  the  same  dark  purplish  brown.  Legs 
and  clasuers  brown. 


SOCIETIES.  189 

Dragonflies : — There  was  no  appreciable  diminution  in  the  num- 
bers of  the  district  species,  except  in  the  case  of  sEsehna  grandis. 
Why  this  dragonfly  should  have  been  comparatively  scarce  it  is 
difficult  to  say. — J.  Arkle  ;  Chester,  Feb.  17th,  1905. 


SOCIETIES. 

Entomological  Society  of  London. — June  1th,  1905.  —  Mr.  F. 
Merrifield,  President,  in  the  chair.  —  Herr  Ludvig  von  Gangelbauer, 
of  the  Vienna  Museum,  was  elected  an  Honorary  Fellow;  aud  Mr. 
Charles  J.  Grist,  of  "  Apsley,"  Banstead,  Surrey;  Mr.  Vernon  Parry 
Kitchen,  of  the  Priory,  Watford,  Herts ;  and  the  Bev.  W.  Mansell 
Merry,  M.A.,  of  St.  Michael's,  Oxford,  were  elected  a  Fellows  of  the 
Society.  —  Mr.  M.  Burr  exhibited  an  earwig,  Apterygida  arachidis, 
Yers.,  found  by  Mr.  Annandale,  of  Calcutta,  in  a  box  of  specimens 
received  from  the  Andaman  Islands.  When  placed  in  a  small  box, 
it  was  alone,  but  next  morning  there  were  five  larvae  present ;  two 
disappeared,  apparently  being  consumed  by  the  parent ;  and  the 
remaining  three  were  those  exhibited.  —  Mr.  Burr  also  showed  a 
locustid  of  the  family  Pseudophyllidffi  from  Queensland,  taken  among 
twigs  and  plants  which  it  greatly  resembled,  together  with  a  photo- 
graph of  the  insect  in  its  natural  position. — Mr.  E.  C.  Bedwell  showed 
three  examples  of  Gnorimus  nobilis,  L.,  taken  at  Woolwich;  and  a 
malformed  specimen  of  Lochmaa  snturalis  which  had  the  left  posterior 
tibia  bifid  for  about  one-third  of  its  length,  and  two  tarsi,  one  of  which 
had  the  joints  considerably  enlarged. — Mr.  0.  E.  Janson  brought  for 
exhibition  a  living  specimen  of  Omophlus  betulcc,  Herbst,  a  beetle  not 
known  to  occur  in  Britain,  found  by  his  son  near  Covent  Garden,  and 
probably  imported. — Mr.  W.  J.  Lucas  exhibited  one  male  and  three 
females  of  Agrion  armatum  taken  this  year  by  Mr.  F.  Balfour  Browne, 
and  sent  to  him  alive. — Mr.  G.  C.  Champion  showed  four  specimens 
of  the  rare  Acrognathus  mandibularis,  Gyll.,  captured  on  the  wing 
towards  sunset  near  Woking  at  the  end  of  May. — Mr.  Selwyn  Image 
exhibited  two  aberrations  of  Biston  hirtaria,  CI.,  both  females,  taken 
at  rest  on  tree-trunks  at  Mortehoe,  North  Devon,  April  23rd,  1905. 
The  first  aberration  was  tolerably  normal  in  general  coloration,  but 
the  anterior  half  of  the  fore  wings  was  much  suffused  with  fuscous, 
and  at  the  costa  broadly  emphasized  with  rich  black.  The  second 
aberration  was  semi-transparent  black  all  over  both  fore  and  hind 
wings,  the  veins  strongly  delineated  with  black,  powdered  with 
ochreous.— Mr.  W.  J.  Kaye  showed  a  number  of  empty  pupa-cases  of 
Zonosonm  pendularia  to  demonstrate  the  wide  variation  of  methods  in 
the  placing  of  the  silken  girth  round  the  pupa. — Professor  E.  B.  Poul- 
ton,  F.R.S.,  exhibited  leaves  of  strawberry,  Berberis  japonica,  and 
cherry-laurel,  which  had  been  sent  to  him  by  Mr.  W.  B.  Grove,  of 
Handsworth,  Birmingham.  The  leaves  had  been  attacked  by  a  minute 
fungus,  which,  in  the  case  of  the  Berberis,  had  been  identified  by  Prof. 
S.  H.  Vines,  F.E.S.,  as  Phyllosticta  japonica,  Thnem.  The  attack 
was  local,  and  followed  by  the  death  and  disappearance  of  the  central 
portion  of  the  leaf-tissue  of  each  patch,  leaving  a  roundish  or  oval 


190  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

window  outlined  with  brown,  sometimes  in  the  form  of  a  narrow  line, 
sometimes  spreading  peripherally  into  the  leaf  for  a  greater  or  less 
distance.  In  the  strawberry  leaves  the  edges  of  the  windows  were 
somewhat  ragged,  but  those  of  the  other  two  leaves  had  smooth 
contours  and  strikingly  resembled  the  oval  transparent  areas  upon  the 
fore  wings  of  Kallima  inachis,  paralekta,  &c. — surrounded  most  con- 
spicuously with  a  marginal  zone  of  modified  colour  varying  greatly  in 
tint  and  in  extent  in  different  individuals.  Professor  Poulton  had 
believed  that  these  "windows"  of  Kallima  represented  holes  gnawed 
by  larvas,  and  that  the  altered  marginal  zone  reproduced  the  effect  of 
the  attacks  of  fungi  entering  along  the  freshly  exposed  tissues  of  the 
edge.  But  he  now  desired  to  withdraw  his  earlier  hypothesis  in  favour 
of  the  more  probable  and  convincing  suggestion  made  by  Mr.  Grove. — 
Professor  Poulton  also  showed  a  photograph  of  the  fungus-like  marks 
on  the  wings  of  the  Oriental  Kallimas  prepared  under  his  direction  by 
Mr.  Alfred  Robinson,  of  the  Oxford  University  Museum.  —  Dr.  Karl 
Jordan  communicated  a  note  upon  the  variability  of  the  genitalia  in 
Lepidoptera. — Dr.  G.  B.  LongstafY  detailed  his  observations  on  scents 
in  the  male  of  Gonepteryx,  and  mentioned  that  whereas  in  the  male 
G.  cleopatra,  the  odour  was  strong,  he  had  been  unable  to  detect 
any  appreciable  fragrance  in  G.  rhaimii.  Such  a  difference,  he  said, 
seemed  to  imply  a  physiological  difference  of  the  two  forms  point- 
ing to  specific  distinction. — Dr.  F.  A.  Dixey,  in  connection  with'Dr. 
Longstaff's  observations,  exhibited  the  several  forms  of  Gonepteryx 
occurring  in  the  palaearctic  region,  and  demonstrated  the  variation  of 
wing  coloration  in  the  respective  forms  ranked  as  species.  —  Mr. 
H.  J.  Elwes,  F.R.S.,  read  a  note  on  the  geographical  affinities  of 
Japanese  butterflies,  numerous  examples  of  which,  taken  by  himself, 
he  also  exhibited.  Summing  up  his  remarks,  he  said  that  during  the 
winter  and  spring  months  the  plants  and  insects  of  Japan  were,  like 
the  climate,  palaearctic  in  character,  yet  during  the  summer  and 
autumn  they  were  tropical.  — •  Professor  Christopher  Aurivilius  com- 
municated a  paper  on  "  New  African  Lasiocarupidae  in  the  British 
Museum." — Mr.  G.  W.  Kirkaldy  communicated  a  "  Memoir  on  the 
Rhynchota  taken  by  Dr.  Wyllie  chiefly  in  Beira  and  Lifu."  — 
H.  Rowland-Brown,  M.A.,  Hon.  Sec. 

South  London  Entomological  and  Natural  History  Society. — 
May  11th.  —  Mr.  Hugh  Main,  B.  Sc,  F.E.S.,  President,  in  the  chair.— 
Mr.  Bevins,  of  Ongar,  Essex,  was  elected  a  member.  —  Mr.  Sich  ex- 
hibited the  flowering  spike  of  an  asphodel  which  had  grown  in  a 
sheltered  position  in  his  garden  at  Chiswick.  It  originally  came  from 
the  West  of  Prance,  but  Dr.  Chapman  said  it  was  not  the  same  species 
which  formed  the  pabulum  of  Hastula  hyerana  in  the  Esterels.  —  Mr. 
R.  Adkin,  the  lantoscope  recently  brought  out  by  Dr.  Connold  to 
facilitate  the  examination  of  lantern-slides.  —  Mr.  P.  Noad  Clark,  an 
old  work  on  Microscopy,  dated  1771,  '  Micrographia  Illustrum,'  by 
Geo.  Adams,  and  called  attention  to  the  curious  illustrations.  —  Dr. 
Chapman,  a  short  series  of  a  moth,  Metoptria  monoyramma,  allied  to 
Euclidia  glyphica.  They  were  taken  in  Sicily  at  the  end  of  April. — 
Mr.  Main;  enormous  larvae  in  spirits  from  the  West  Coast  of  Africa, 
probably  of  some  large  species  of  Longicoru. —  Mr.  Lucas,  the  delicate 


SOCIETIES.  191 

and  beautiful  Entomostracon,  Branchipus  stagnalis,  taken  on  May  10th 
from  a  cart-rut  of  water  at  Claygate.  It  is  generally  rare  in  this 
country. — Mr.  Gilbert  J.  Arrow,  various  species  of  Coleoptera  to  illus- 
trate an  address  which  he  afterwards  gave,  entitled  "  Some  Social 
Beetles."  A  discussion  took  place  as  to  the  use  of  sound  apparatus 
in  larva?,  the  suggestion  being  that  they  were  more  or  less  directly 
protective. 

May  25th.  —  The  President  in  the  chair.  —  Messrs.  Harrison  and 
Main  exhibited  a  large  number  of  species  of  Lepidoptera  captured  or 
bred  this  season,  comparing  those  from  South  of  England  localities 
with  those  from  the  neighbourhood  of  Liverpool. — Mr.  Carr,  series  of 
spring  Lepidoptera  from  the  New  Forest. — Mr.  Joy,  a  short  bred  series 
of  Thecla  rubi  from  Folkestone,  the  larva?  of  which  fed  on  dogwood, 
which  had  led  him  to  think  they  were  Cyaniris  argiolus.  —  Mr.  Hy.  J. 
Turner,  a  short  series  of  Cucullia  lychnitis,  bred  from  larva?  taken  at 
Box  Hill  in  June,  1904.  The  larva?  were  fed  up  in  the  hottest  sun- 
shine in  a  conservatory,  and  grew  extremely  fast.  When  found  they 
were  studded  with  ova  of  ichneumons,  but  after  considerable  trouble 
these  were  successfully  removed.  He  also  showed  larva?  of  Leioptilus 
septodactylus  (lienigianus),  a  local  plume  moth,  feeding  on  Artemisia 
vulgaris.  They  were  found  at  Croydon  feeding  in  the  open.  —  Mr. 
Edwards,  specimens  of  the  Ampkio.ms,  and  read  notes  on  their  struc- 
ture, position  in  nature,  and  habitat.  —  Dr.  Chapman,  a  series  of 
Depressaria  thapsiella,  bred  by  him  from  larva?  obtained  in  Sicily, 
where  it  fed  in  countless  numbers  on  Thapsia  gargania.  —  Mr.  Sich, 
larva?  and  pupa?  of  Acvptilia  spilodactyla  from  the  Isle  of  Wight,  feeding 
on  Marrubium  vulgare.  —  Mr.  Wright,  a  larva  of  a  large  species  of 
Coleoptera  feeding  in  the  wood  of  a  sugar-box  from  the  West  Indies. — 
Hy.  J.  Turner,  lion.  Rep.  Sec. 

Lancashire  and  Cheshire  Entomological  Society.  —  The  fourth 
ordinary  meeting  of  the  Session  was  held  in  the  Royal  Institution, 
Liverpool,  on  April  17th,  Mr.  Ed.  Wilding,  Vice-President,  in  the 
chair.  —  Drs.  Win.  Bell,  J. P.,  of  Rutland  House,  New  Brighton,  and 
P.  F.  Tmne,  of  Mostyn,  Aigburth,  were  elected  members  of  the  Society. 
An  invitation  to  exhibit  at  the  meeting  of  the  Liverpool  Microscopical 
Society  to  be  held  on  May  5th  was  accepted  with  thanks,  the  following 
amongst  others  promising  to  represent  the  Society  : — Miss  Birch,  and 
Messrs.  F.  N.  Pierce,  F.E.S.,  H.  B.  Prince,  H.  B.  Score,  F.R.G.S., 
Rd.  Wilding,  and  E.  J.  B.  Sopp,  F.R.Met.S.  Donations  to  the  library 
were  received  from  Professor  T.  Hudson  Beare,  B.Sc,  F.E.S.,  and 
Messrs.  Score  and  Sopp ;  and  a  donation  to  the  micro-slide  cabinet  from 
Mr.  C.  M.  Adams,  F.I.C.  —  The  paper  of  the  evening  was  by  Dr.  Geo. 
E.  J.  Crallan,  M.A.,  F.S.A.,  of  Bournemouth,  "  On  the  Life-history  of 
Ophiodes  (Pseudophia)  lunaris,"  which  was  illustrated  with  beautiful 
coloured  figures  by  the  author,  including  the  egg  in  three  stages  (actual 
size  and  magnified  thirty- two  diameters),  the  larva  in  six  stages,  imago, 
upper  and  under  side  of  both  sexes,  &c.  In  opening,  Dr.  Crallan 
referred  to  the  fact  that  this  is  the  only  species  of  the  genus  that  has 
occurred  in  Britain,  the  first  specimen  having  been  taken  in  Hampshire 
in  1832,  and  several  having  occurred  since.  In  Spain  it  is  said  to  be 
common  in  the  cork  woods,  and  in  Austria  occurs  amongst  oaks.     In 


192  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

confinement  the  moth  appears  from  April  to  June  from  eggs  laid  on 
oak  or  poplar  ;  when  laid  the  egg  is  of  a  beautiful  green  colour,  but 
after  a  week  the  colour  changes  to  red  or  plum,  and  still  later  to  drab. 
The  changes  in  colour  and  appearance  of  the  larva  at  the  different 
ecdyses  were  graphically  described,  and  much  interesting  information 
given  on  habits  throughout  the  life  of  the  insect  in  all  its  stages.  On 
the  motion  of  the  chairman  a  very  cordial  vote  of  thanks  was  accorded 
Dr.  Crallan  for  his  valuable  contribution  to  our  knowledge  of  the  life- 
history  of  this  rare  British  moth. — Among  exhibits  shown  were  a  box 
of  insects  from  Trinidad,  exhibited  by  Miss  Birch  on  behalf  of  her 
brother ;  eggs  of  T.  opima  on  hawkweed  by  Mr.  H.  B.  Prince,  and  on 
yarrow  by  Mr.  Mollinson,  who  also  showed  larvre  of  L.  liiorolis ; 
Pluda  moneta  (bred)  and  Lycccna  avion  from  S.  Devon,  by  Mr.  Pierce  ; 
and  a  queen  wasp  in  a  state  of  hybernation,  by  Mr.  Score.  —  E.  J.  B. 
Sopp  and  W.  D.  Harrison,  Hon.  Secretaries. 

Birmingham  Entomological  Society.  —  April  10th.  —  Mr.  G.  T. 
Bethune-Baker,  President,  in  the  chair.  —  Mr.  E.  C.  Rossiter  was 
elected  a  member  of  the  Society.  —  Mr.  J.  T.  Fountain  gave  an 
account  of  some  work  he  had  been  doing,  which  showed  how  much 
collecting  might  be  done  in  the  winter.  On  December  2nd  he  saw 
at  Sutton  more  moths  than  he  had  ever  seen  before,  chiefly 
Cheimatobia  brumata,  L.,  but  including  also  Scopelosoma  satellitia,  L., 
and  Orrhodia  vaccinii,  L.  On  March  4th  he  sugared  at  Chelmsley 
Woods,  and  the  last  two  species  came  in  numbers. — Mr.  "W.  E. 
Collinge  showed  Collembola ;  Sminthnrus  malmgreni,  Tulbb.,  from 
Knowle,  a  species  new  to  England  ;  and  Lipura  ambulans,  L.,  from 
Solihull,  where  it  occurred  in  thousands  in  connection  with  some' 
cauliflowers  suffering  from  finger-and-toe  disease.— Mr.  Gilbert  Smith 
gave  an  account  of  the  coleopterous  genera  Efiocephalus  and  Asenum, 
illustrating  it  by  drawings  and  specimens  of  the  species  in  various 
stages. — Colbran  J.  Wainwright,    Hon.  Sec. 


RECENT     LITERATURE. 


Proceedings  of  the  South  London  Entomological  and  Natural  History 
Society.  1904-5.  Pp.  i-xvi,  1-104.  The  Society's  Room, 
Hibernia  Chambers,  S.E.     1905. 

Contains  several  interesting  contributions  on  entomological  subjects, 
the  most  important  perhaps  being  a  paper  on  the  genus  Coleophora  by 
Mr.  Alfred  Sich,  F.E.S.  In  his  address  the  President  (Mr.  Sich)  first 
reviews  the  principal  events  of  the  year,  so  far  as  these  concern  the 
British  Fauna ;  he  then  discourses  on  "  the  joy  of  animal  existence  " 
and  the  triumph  of  animal  life. 

Several  field-meetings  were  held  during  the  year,  and  reports  of 
these  are  given.  That  referring  to  the  Eynsford  meeting  is  accom- 
panied by  a  capital  map  of  the  district. 


VV  Ail  JLVllN  O  OC  UWINO/iOl  ILr\, 
Naturalists  and  Manufacturers  of  Entomological  Apparatus  and  Cabinets. 
Plain  Ring  Nets,  wire  or  oaue,  including  Stick,  Is.  3d.,  lis.,  2s.  6A,  Folding  Nett, 
3s.  6.1.,  4s.  Umbrella  Nets  (self-acting),  7s.  Pocket  Boxes,  (3d,,  yd.,  Is.,  Is.  6d. 
Zinc  Relaxing  Boxes,  9d.,  Is.,  Is.  b'd.,  2s.  Nested  Chip  Boxes,  7d.  per  four  dozen, 
Entomological  Pins,  assorted  or  mixed,  Is.,  Is.  6d.  per  oz.  Pocket  Lanterns,  2s.  6d. 
to  8s.  Sugaring  Tin,  with  brush,  Is.  6d.,  2s.  Sugaring  Mixture,  ready  for  use, 
Is.  9d.  per  tin.  Store  Boxes,  with  camphor  cells,  2s.  6d.,  4s.,  5s.,  (is.  Setting 
BoardH,  flat  or  oval,  1  in.,  (id. ;  1  £  in.,  8d. ;  2  in.,  lOd. ;  2£  in.,  Is. ;  3£  in.,  Is.  4d. ; 
4  in.,  Is.  6d.  ;  5  in.,  Is.  10d. ;  Complete  Set  of  fourteen  Boards,  10s.  (>d.  Setting 
Houses,  9s.  bd.,  lis.  bd.;  oorked  back,  14s.  Zinc  Larva  Boxes,  9d.,  Is.,  Is.  6d. 
Breeding  Cage,  2s.  6d.,  4s.,  5s.,  7s.  bd.  Coleopterist's  Collecting  Bottle,  with  tube, 
1b.  bd.,  Is.  8d.  Botanical  Cases,  japanned,  double  tin,  Is.  bd.,  2s.  9d.,  3s.  6d.,  4s.  6d. 
Botanical  Paper,  Is.  Id.,  Is.  4d.,  Is.  9d.,  2s.  2d.,  per  quire.  Insect  Glazed  Oases, 
2s.  bd.  to  lis.  Cement  for  replacing  Antennae,  4d.  per  bottle.  Steel  Forceps, 
Is.  6d.,  2s.,  2s.  6d.  per  pair.  Cabinet  Cork,  7by3£,  best  quality,  ls.4d.  per  dozen 
sheets.  Brass  Chloroform  Bottle,  2s.  6d.  Insect  Lens,  Is.  to  8s.  Glass-ton  and 
Glass-bottomed  Boxes  from  Is.  per  dozen.  Zinc  Killing  Box,  9d.,  Is.  Pupa 
Digger,  in  leather  sheath,  Is.  9d.  Taxidermist's  Compauiou,  containing  most 
neoessary  implements  for  skinning,  lUs.  6d.  Scalpels,  Is.  3d.  ;  Scissors,  2s.  per 
pair;  Egg-drills,  2d.,  3d.,  91 ;  Blowpipes,  4d.,  bd.;  Artificial  Eyes  for  Birds  and 
Animals;  Label-lists  of  Britisb  Butterflies,  2d. ;  ditto  of  Birds'  Eggs,  2d.,  3d.,  bd. ; 
ditto  of  Land  and  Fresh-water  Shells.  2d. ;   Useful  Books  on  Insects,  Eggs,  &c. 

The  WAND  TELESCOPIC  NET— An  innovation  in  Butterfly  Nets.— We  beg 
to  call  your  attention  to  our  new  Telescopic  Handle  for  Butterfly  Nets.  It  is 
made  entirely  in  brass,  and  is  light  and  strong;  and  moreover  it  can  be  shut  up  to 
carry  in  small  compass,  A  very  compact  pattern,  effecting  great  saving  of  weight 
and  bulk.  Prices. — With  two  joints,  8s.  6d.  ;  with  three  joints,  9s.  6d.  ;  with  four 
joints,  10s.  bd.  Complete  with  improved  Cane  Folding  Ring,  and  Bag.  We  shall 
-be  pleased  to  send  on  approval. 

SHOW       ROOM       FOR      CABINETS 

Of  every  description  for  Insects,  Birus'  Eggs,  Coins,  Microscopical  Objects, 
Fossils,  &c.     Catalogue  (96  pp.)  sent  on  application,  post  free. 

A    LARGE     STOCK    OF    INSECTS     AND     BIRDS'    EGGS 

(BRITISH,    KOROPKAN,    AND    EXOTIC). 

Birds,  Mammals,  dc.  Preserved  and  Mounted  by  First-olass  Workmen. 

Only  Address : — 
36  STKAND,  W.C.,  LONDON  (5  doors  from  Charing  Gross). 

HERBERT    W.    MARSDEN, 

NATURAL     HISTORY     AGENT     AND     BOOKSELLER, 

40,    TRIANGLE   West,  CLIFTON,   BRISTOL. 

Moderate  Prices. 

•Cabinets  and  Apparatus  for  Entomologists,  Oologists,  Ornithologists,  Botanists,  &c. 
Botanical  Cases,  Drying  Paper,  Ac— British  &  Exotic  Shells. 
The  most  reliable  Stock  of  BIRDS'  SKINS  and  BIRDS'  EGGS  in  Bkitain. 
New  and  Second-hand  Books.— Exchange  and  Label  Lists. 
Ornithological  Catalogue,  1905.  now  ready:  also  Shell  Catalogue. 
N.B. — Mr    Marsden's  large  Stock  of  Insects  has  now  been  made  up  into  numerous 
useful  lots;  also  many  lots  of  Birds'  Skins  and  Eggsi  all  of  which  are  offered  at  excep- 
tionally low  prices.     Lists  on  application. 


OVA,     LARV/E,     AND     PUP/E. 

A  Large  Assortment  always  on  hand.     Send  for  Price  List  bo 

H.    W.    HEAD,    Entomologist,    SCARBOROUGH, 

The  Largest  Breeder  of  LEPIDOPTERA  in  the  British  Islet. 
Full    Lint   of  LEPIEOPTERA,  Apparatus,  Cabinets,  Sea,  sent  on    application. 


CONTENTS. 

Description  of  a  New  Species  of  Lygseidse  from  South  Africa,  W.  L.  Distant,  169, 
Descriptions  of  Three  Undescribed  Genera  of  Ichneumonidre  from  Borneo, 
P.  Cumeron,  170.  A  Guide  to  the  Study  of  British  Waterbugs  (Aquatit 
Ivhynchotal  (continued),  G.  W.  Kirkaldy,  173.  Dragonfly  Season  of  1904, 
li".  J.  Lucas,  178.  A  List  of  the  "  Macro-Lepidoptera"  of  Lancaster  and 
District  (continued),  C.  H.  Forsythe,  180. 

Notes  and  Observations. — Exotic  Earwigs  Wanted.  Malcolm  Burr,  185.  Ova  o: 
Butterflies  Wanted.  Richard  South,  185.  Note  on  Zanclognatha  grisealis 
H.  V.  Plum,  185.  Larva  of  Thecla  ruhi  on  Dogwood,  E.  C.  Joy,  185.  Aber 
ration  of  Euchelia  jacobajse,  C.  H.  Forsythe,  185. 

Captures  and  Field  Beports.  —  Deiiephila  livornica  in  Gloucestershire,  1905 
A.  Lionel  Clarhc.  186.  Cerura  bicuspis  in  Lancashire,  C.  H.  Forsythe,  186. 
Selenia  lunaria  in  the  Lancashire  District,  C.  H.  Forsythe,  186.  Notes  from 
New  Zealand,  Hubert  W,  Simmo'iidd,  186.  Notes  from  the  Chester  District 
for  1904,  J.  ArMe,  187. 

Societies. — Entomological  Society  of  London,  189.  South  Loudon  Entomological 
and  Natural  History  Society,  190.  Lancashire  and  Cheshire  Entomological 
Society,  191.     Birmingham  Entomological  Society,  192. 

Recent  Literature,  192. 

CENTRAL     PARAGUAYAN     SPECIMENS. 

Mr.  WILIAM  FOSTER  will  arrive  in  London  about  end  of  June  with 
a  large  Collection  of  Central  Paraguayan  Mammals,  Birds,  Lepidoptera, 
Coleoptera,  Orthoptera,  Neuroptera,  and  a  number  of  Hemiptera  and) 
Hymenoptera. 

Students  of  South  American  forms  would  do  well  to  revise  their  collec- 
tions and  make  their  wants  known  to — 

CHARLES  A.  FOSTER,  9,  Austin  Friars,  London,  E.C. 

A.     LIONEL     CLARKE, 

NATURAL-HISTORY  AGENT,  STROUD  ROAD.  GLOUCESTER. 

(Opposite  Post  Office.) 
QUPPLIES  Collectors  with  every  kind  of  apparatus  for  the  various  branches  ol 
O     Natural  History:  Cabinets,  Store  Boxes,  Buttertlv  Nets,  &c. 

BIRDS'  EGGS,  SKINS,  LEPIDOPTERA  and  COLEOPTERA,  kc,  kepi 
in  stock  in  large  quantities. 

The  largest  stock  of  Eggs  in  England  to  select  from,  including  many  very  rare 

species.     List  of  clutches  sent  if  desired.     Large  buyers  liberally  dealt  with. 

Revised  List  of  British  Lepidoptera,  noiv  ready,  post  free. 

NEW    AND    SECOND-HAND    BOOKS. 

Taxidermy.  Birds  skinned  and  prepared  for  Cabinets  or  mounted  by  skilled  assistants. 

F«11  general  Catalogue  and  Special  List  of  Eggs  and  Skins,  post  free. 

N.B. — No  agents,  and  only  one  address  as  above. 

JAMES     GARDNER, 

MANOFACTORER  of  ALL  KINDS  of  ENTOMOLOGICAL  APPARATUS 

29  (late  426),  OXFORD    STREET 
(Nearly    opposite    Tottenham    Court    Road). 

PRICED   LISTS    ON   APPLICATION. 

All  Articles  Guaranteed;  exchanged  if  not  approved  of.     Friends  and  Customers 
are  requested  to  note  the  Address,  as  mistakes  occur  daily. 


ascription  6s. ,  post  free,  including  double  numbt,         ould  be  sent  to 
West,  Newman  &  Co, 


Vol.   XXXVIII]       AUGUST,    1905. 


No.   507. 


THE 


ENTOMOLOGIST 


Jlittstateb  Journal 


GENERAL    ENTOMOLOGY. 


EDITED     BY     RICHARD     SOUTH,     F.E.S. 

WITH    THE    ASSISTANCE     OF 

HUBERT    ADKIN,  F.E.S.  W.  F.  KIRBY,  F.L.S.,  F.E.S. 

W.  L.  DISTANT,  F.E.S.,  Ac,  G.  W.  KIHKALDY,  F.E.S. 

EDWARD  A.  FITCH,  F.L.S.,  F.E.S.  j    W.  J.  LUCAS,  B.A.,  F.E.S. 

F.  W.FROHAWK,  F.E.S.,  M.B.O.U.  I   Dk.  D.  SHARP,  F.R.S.,  F.E.S .,  Ac. 

MARTIN  JACOBY,  F.E.S.  |   G.  H.  VERRALL,  F.E.S. 

"  By  mutual  confidence  and  mutual  aid 
Great  deeds  are  done  and  great  discoveries  made." 


LONDON: 

WEST,    NEWMAN    &    CO.,    54,    HATTON 
SIMPK1N,   MARSHALL,   HAMILTON,    KENT   & 


Price  Sixpence. 


J.    &   W.    DAVIS  (r-DR-'Ms,TssTS4) 

MANUFACTURERS     OF     ENTOMOLOGICAL    APPARATUS    AND 
NATURALISTS'  REQUISITES,  &c, 

31  &  33,  Hythe  Street,  DARTFORD,  Kent. 

Telegrams:    "  DAVIS,  NATURALISTS,  DARTFORD."  National  Telephone  :     "  108  DARTFORD." 

H.OCAH.XTY      LABELS. 

2/6  per  1,000.     4  to  10  sorts,  equal  numbers,  anv  wording,  see  specimens  below: — 

Smith.  Smith.  Smith,  Smith. 

Dnrenth  Wood.  Now  Potest,  Kent.  Eannoch. 

190  190  190 

Neatly  printed  similar  to  the  above.     We  have  supplied  these  Labels  to  Entomologists  in  all  parts  of  Great 

Britain. 

'Data"    Blanks  for   Plants,   Birds'  Eggs,  Nests,  and  Skins,   from  8d.  per  100 
'Data"  Labels,  with  Collector's  Name  and   Locality  printed  in,  from  1/6  per  100 

*'  Data  "   Books  for  Entomological  Collection,  printed  headings,  Is. ;  post  3d. 

Ditto,  for  Ornithological  Collection,  Is. ;  post  3d. 

50  British  Butterflies,  all  different,  named,  5s.  Setting-house,  good  condition,  6s.  6d. 
Larvae  Collector's  Guide  and  Calendar,  Illustrated,  Is.  Birdstuffing  and  Mounting. 
Illustrated,  Is.     Animal,  Fish,  and  Reptile  Stuffing,  Illustrated.  Is.  6d.    Label  List, 

British  Macro-Lepidoptera,  6d. 
Naturalists'  Diary  and  Year  Book,  Is.    Our  Country's  Butterflies  and  Moths,  1000 

Coloured  Specimens,  6s. 
12-DRAWER    INSECT   CABINET.— Glass  Panel  Door,   Frames  to   Glasses, 
Camphor  Cells,  &e.,  in  good  order,  X'4  7s.  Gd.     8= Drawer  Insect  Cabinet,  New,  24s. 
6= Drawer    Insect    Cabinet,    Mahogany  Rolled    Pillars,    Frames    to    Glasses,    22s. 
6=Drawer  Plain  ditto,  15s. 

Full  List  of  Ova,  Larvce  mid  Puptc,  on  Application. 
BRITISH  LEPIDOPTERA.-One  hundred  named  Specimens,  all  different,  5s. 
post  free.     See  our  New  List  and  discounts. 

EXOTIC   BUTTERFLIES.— We  have  some  thousands  of   these  as  received  in 
papers,  assorted  dozens,  (id.,  Is.,  and  Is.  6d. 

12-DRAWER  INSECT  CABINET— SECONDHAND.  —  Frames  to  Glasses 
and  Camphor-cells  with  Mahogany  Glass  Panel  Door,  £4  7s.  6d. 

GENUINE     BRITISH     "WILD"    STOCK. 

CHEAPEST  HOUSE  IN  THE  TRADE. 

Every  Reader  of  the  '  Entomologist  '  is  requested  to  send  for 
our  Summer  List  of  Ova,  Larvae,  Pupae,  and  fresh  killed  Insects. 
The  List   is  too   long   to   include  in  our   usual  Advertisement. 

Apartments  for  Entomological  Visitors  to  the  New  Forest.   Expeditions  arranged 
and  accompanied.      Terms  on  Application. 

MORRIS    &    WEIR,    ENTOMOLOGISTS, 

BROCKENHURST,    NEW    FOREST. 

/COLLECTOR  is  prepared  to  purchase  good  examples  of 
the  following  African  Butterflies  : — 

PSEUDACRMA  GOTTBERGI,  PSEUD ACRMA  POGGEI,  ACRMA 
POGGEI,  PSEUDACRMA  KUXOWII,  MIMACRMA  MARSHALLI, 
pANAIS  MERCEDON1A,  PSEUDACRMA  CLARKI,  MIMACRMA 
CHARMIAN,  PSEUDACRMA  IMITATOR,  CRENIDOMIMAS  CON- 
rORDlA,  ACRMA  AURIVILLI1,  MIMACRMA  KRAUSL 

Apply,  HARRY  ELTRINGHAM   South  Shields,  England. 


THE    ENTOMOLOGIST 


Vol.  XXXVIII. ]  AUGUST,     190  5.  [No.  507. 

DESCRIPTION    OF    LYCMNA    ARION    PUPA,     3. 
By  F.  W.  Frohawk,  M.B.O.U.,  F.E.S. 


While  collecting  on  July  12th,  in  company  with  Mr.  A.  L. 
Ray  ward,  in  Cornwall,  we  determined  on  a  systematic  search  for 
the  pupa  of  Lyccena  avion,  and  were  rewarded  by  the  discovery 
of  a  living  pupa,  of  which  I  have  the  pleasure  of  giving  the 
following  description  and  above  figures. 

It  bears  a  general  affinity  to  the  pupa  of  L.  cegon,  excepting 
its  much  larger  size,  measuring  half  an  inch  long. 

Fig.  1. — Dorsal  View.  Across  the  middle  its  greatest  diameter  is 
T3T  in.  The  head  is  obtuse,  base  of  wings  slightly  angular  and  swollen, 
wing  slightly  concaved,  abdomen  swollen  at  third  and  fourth  segments, 
then  attenuating  and  rounded  posteriorly.  Fig.  2. — Side  View.  It 
measures  y\  in.  across  the  middle,  the  head  rounded,  thorax  convex 
rising  into  a  slight  dorsal  ridge,  meta-thorax  and  first  abdominal 
segment  sunken,  abdomen  swollen  at  the  middle  and  curving  to  pos- 
terior segments  which  are  rounded ;  anal  segment  is  compressed  to 
ventral  surface,  cremastral  hooks  absent ;  wing  ample,  swollen,  and 
rounded  across  the  middle  and  extending  to  the  fifth  abdominal 
segment. 

The  entire  surface  is  minutely  granulated  and  covered  with  very 
fine  reticulations  of  a  deep  amber  colour ;  spiracles  are  prominent  and 

ENTOM. — AUGUST,  1905.  Ii 


194  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

blackish,  the  surface  posteriorly  adjoining  them  is  beset  with  a  number 
of  shining  raised  bead-like  processes,  some  bearing  minute  amber- 
coloured  spines,  which  have  the  apical  half  branched  with  extremely 
small  bristles. 

The  colour  when  first  found  was  uniformly  ochreous,  with 
the  eyes  dark  leaden  grey ;  it  gradually  turned  darker  on  the 
head,  thorax,  and  abdomen ;  the  wings  remained  ochreous,  but 
showed  leaden-grey  hind  margins ;  then  the  median  wing-spots 
appeared,  and  soon  the  whole  pupa  began  to  deepen  more 
uniformly,  until  it  assumed  a  deep  leaden-grey  all  over,  and 
remained  unchanged  for  over  thirty  hours  ;  finally  a  perfect 
male  emerged  at  8.30  a.m.  July  16th. 

With  the  interesting  discovery  of  this  hitherto  unknown 
pupa  Mr.  A.  L.  Rayward's  name  must  be  coupled,  for  we  had  the 
joint  pleasure  of  not  only  finding  the  living  pupa,  but  also,  in 
close  proximity,  a  pupa-case  of  a  freshly  emerged  female,  which 
my  friend  detected  at  rest,  and  which  paved  the  way  to  our 
success. 


DESCRIPTION     OF    A    NEW     SPECIES     OF     ARADIDiE 
FROM     CEYLON. 

By   W.    L.    Distant. 

The  following  description  refers  to  a  species  which  I  received 
from  my  ever-helpful  friend  Mr.  E.  E.  Green,  subsequent  to  my 
dealing  with  the  Aradida?  in  the  Rhynchota  of  British  India, 
and  which,  for  that  wide  area,  constitutes  the  second  known 
species  of  Aneurus. 

Aneurus  greeni,  sp.  n. 

Head,  pronotum,  scutellum,  and  sternum,  black ;  abdomen,  apex 
of  head,  coxa?,  and  apices  of  tibia?  piceous-brown ;  tarsi  ochraceous  ; 
corium  stramineous,  its  base  black,  its  apex  and  longitudinal  veins 
very  dark  fuscous ;  membrane  pale  hyaline  and  reflecting  the  pale 
brown  disk  of  the  abdomen  above  ;  head  finely  punctate,  most  strongly 
so  behind  eyes,  distinctly  longitudinally  sulcate  on  each  side  of  the 
median  lobe ;  antenna?  with  the  basal  joint  very  strongly  incrassate, 
second  joint  longer  than  third,  fourth  longest;  pronotum  with  a  broad 
central  transverse  depression,  the  anterior  angles  prominently  rounded, 
the  lateral  margins  moderately  concavely  sinuate,  the  posterior  angles 
broadly  rounded,  a  little  prominent,  centrally  very  finely  transversely 
striate,  obscurely  punctate,  most  distinctly  so  on  lateral  areas  and  at 
anterior  and  posterior  angles ;  scutellum  very  finely  and  thickly 
granulate,  about  as  broad  as  long,  its  margins  very  obscurely  piceous- 
brown. 

Hah.     Ceylon;  Pundaluoya  (Green). 

Differing  from  the  Burmese  A.  indicus,  Bergr.,  the  only 
other  known  species  in  the  fauna  of  British  India,  by  the 
absence  of  the  central  carination  to  the  scutellum,  the   more 


CURKBNT    NOTES.  195 

rounded  and  less  prominent  posterior  pronotal  angles,  the  more 
strongly  incrassated  basal  joint  of  the  antennas,  the  stramineous 
corium,  &c. 


CURRENT    NOTES. 
By  G.  W.  Kirkaldy. 

(Continued  from  p.  132.) 


1.  C.  P.  Lounsbury:  "Report  of  Govt.  Entom.  for  1903" 

(Cape  of  Good  Hope  Dep.   Agr.    pp.    1-46  ;    pis.   i-vii 
(1904)). 

2.  Ditto  :  "  Transmission  of  African  Coast  Fever  "  (Agr. 
Journ.  Cape  of  Good  Hope  [sep.  pp.  1-7]  3  plates 
(1  coloured)  (Apl.  1904)    [Arachnida]  ). 

3.  C.  J.  S.  Bethune  [Ed.]  :  "  Thirty-fourth  Ann.  Rep.  Ent. 

Soc.  Ontario,  for  1903"  (Ontario  Dep.  Agr.  pp.  1-11G  ; 
portrait,  pis.  i-iii  and  text-figs.  1-60  (1904)  ). 

4.  A.  L.  Herrera  [Ed.]  :  "Las  Plagas  de  la  Agricultura  " 

(Com.  Paras,  agric.  Mexico ;    pp.  1-705,  pis.  i-xvi,  and 
many  text-figs  (1904) ). 

5.  A.  Zimmermann  :  "  Untersuchungeii  fiber  tropische  Pflan- 

zenkrankheiten  "  i.  (Ber.  Land-  Forstwirtschaft  Deutsch- 
ostafrika  ii.  pp.  11-36,  pis.  i-iv  (1904) ). 

6.  E.  P.  Felt  &  L.  H.  Joutel  :    "  Monograph  of  the  genus 

Saperda  "  (Bull.  N.  York  State  Mus.  74,  pp.  1-86  ;  pis. 
1-7  coloured  and  8-14  plain;  text-figs.  1-7  [Col.]  ). 

7.  L.  de  la  Barreda  :  "  El  picudo  del  Algodon  "  (Circ.  Com. 
paras,  agric.  Mexico,  6,  pp.  1-35  (Apl.  7   1904)   [Col.]). 

8.  C.  Dawydoff  :  "  Note  sur  les  organes  phagocytaires  de 
quelques  Gryllons  tropicales  "  (Zool.  Anzeiger  xxvii.  pp. 
589-93,  text-figs  1-3  (June  3,  1901)  [Dermapt.]  ). 

9.  C.  P.  Lounsbury  :  "A  new  Oak-tree  Pest  "  (Agric.  Journ. 
Cape  Good  Hope  [sep.  pp.  1-4]  1  plate  (Dec,  1903) 
[Hem.]  ). 

10.  A.  W.  Morrill  :  "  Notes  on  the  immature  stages  of  some 

Tingitids  of  the  genus  Corijthuca  "  (Psyche,  x.  pp.  127-34, 
pi.  3  (1903)  [Hem.]). 

11.  S.   Mokrzecki  :    Thryptocera    (Gymnopareia)    pomonellre 

Schnabl  &  Mokrz.,  sp.  nov.,  male  and  female  (Diptera, 
MuscidaO   [sep.  pp.  1-4]   (1903)  [Lep.  &  Dipt.]  ). 

12.  R.  E.  Snodgrass  :  "  The  Hypopygium  of  the  Tipulidae  " 

(Trans.  American  Ent.  Soc.  xxx.  pp.  179-236,  pis.  viii-xviii 
(Aug.,  1904)   [Diptera]  ). 

13.  T.  W.  Kirk:  "Report  of  .  .  .  Biologist"  (Ann.  Rep.  New 
Zealand  Dep.  of  Agriculture,  xii.  pp.  247-309  [Diptera] 
(1904)). 

r  2 


196  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

14.  M.  E.  Fountaine  :  "  The  Butterfly  hunter  in  search  of  a 
long-lost  local  rarity"  (Pall  Mall  Mag.  xxxiii.  pp.  253-8; 
2  text-figs.  (June,  1904)). 

15.  E.   Zander:    "  Zuni  Genitalapparat   der   Lepidopteren  " 

(Zool.  Anzeiger  xxviii.  pp.  182-6,  text-figs  (Oct.  21, 1904)). 
.  16.  0.  Schultz  :  "  Uebersicht  ueber  die  bisher  bekannt  ge- 
wordenen  Falle  von  Gynandrornorphismus  bei  pala- 
arktischen  Macrolepidopteren  nach  Farnilien,  Gattungen 
und  Species  "  (Allg.  Zeitschr.  fiir  Entom.  ix.  pp.  304-10 
(Aug.  15,  1904)). 

17.  C.  Schroder:  "  Kritische  Beitrage  zur  Mutations,  Selek- 
tions-  und  zur  Theorie  der  Zeichnungs-phylogenie  bei  den 
Lepidopteren  iii  "  (op.  tit.  pp.  281-97  ;  text-figs.  19-28 
(Aug.  15,  1904)). 

18.  L.  C.  H.  Young  :  "  The  distribution  of  Butterflies  in 
India  "  (Journ.  Bombay  Nat.  History,  xv.  pp.  594-601 
(June  27,  1904)). 

19.  B.  S.  Hole:  "Two  notorious  Insect  Pests"  (op.  tit.  pp. 
679-97,  pis.  A  to  E  (June  27,  1904)   [Lepidoptera] ). 

20.  K.    Malkoff  :    "  Die    Cicade    Tettigonia    viridis    L.    als 

Schadiger  der  Obstbaume  in  Bulgarien  "  (Zeitschr.  fur 
Pflanzenkrankheiten,  xiv.  pp.  40-3  ;  1  text-fig.  (March  7, 
1904)   [HernipteraJ  ). 

21.  A.  L.  Embleton  :  "  Cerataphis  latanice,  a  peculiar  Aphid  " 

(Journ.  Linnean  Soc,  Zool.  xxix.  pp.  90-107,  pi.  12  (Oct. 
31,  1903)   [HernipteraJ  ). 

22.  E.Bohler:  "Die  Antennalen  Sinnesorgane  von  Tryxalis  " 

(Zool.  Anzeiger,  xxviii.  pp.  188-92  ;  text-figs.  1-4  (Oct. 
21,  1904)  [Dermaptera] ). 

23.  G.  Enderlein  :  "Die  Copeognathen  des  Indo-Austra- 
lischen  Faunengebietes "  (Ann.  Mus.  Nat.  Hungar.  I. 
pp.  179-344,  pis.  iii-xiv  [1  of  these  coloured)  and  text-figs. 
1-12  (1903)   [Neuroptera] ). 

24.  Ditto  :  "  Zur  Kenntniss  Amerikanischer  Psociden  (Zool. 
Jahrb.  Abth.  fiir  Syst."  xviii.  pp.  351-64,  pis.  17  (coloured) 
and  18  (1903)   [Neuroptera]  ). 

25.  Ditto  :  "  Zur  Kenntniss  Europaischer  Psociden  "  (op.  tit. 
pp.    365-82,    pi.    19    (col.)    and   text-figs.    A  — J    (1903) 

[Neuroptera]  ). 

26.  N.  Ya.  Kusnenov  :  "  0  rasvitii  glastshatikh  pyaten  gusenits 
Dilephila  nerii,  Linn.,  i.  Pergesa  porcellus,  Linn."  (Iiuss- 
koe  entom.  obosr.  iv.  pp.  154-62;  text-figs.  1-6  (Aug. 
1904)   [Leipdoptera]  ). 

27.  D.  Pomerantsev  :  "  Biologisheskiya  samyitki  o  zhukakh 
polesnikh  b'  lyisovolstv,  zhivoshtchikh  pod  koroi  derevev 
VII."  (op.  tit.  pp.  85-9  (May,  1904)  [Coleoptera] ). 

28.  S.  Alferaki  :  "  Byigliya  krititcheskiya  samyitki  k'  kata- 
logu  tchemuekrilikh  gg.  Staudinger'a  i  Bebel'ya  1901,  g." 
(op.  tit.  pp.  1-10  (Feb.,  1904)  [Lepidoptera]  ). 


CUKRENT      NOTES. 


197 


29.     A.  A.  Yakhontov  :    "  0    Pieris   napi  L.  var.    intermedia 
Krul."  (op.  cit.  pp.  15-8  [Lepidoptera]  ). 

The  title  of  the  finely  illustrated  paper  of  Felt  and  Joutel  (6) 
is  slightly  misleading,  as  it  is  really  a  monograph  of  the  Ameri- 
can species  only,  some  of  which,  however,  are  also  European. 
The  descriptions,  synonymy  and  bibliography,  habits,  &c,  are 
very  fully  worked  out,  and  the  numerous  plates  are  well  executed. 
Barreda  (7)  discusses  the  cotton  boll-weevil  (Anthonomus  grandis) 
in  a  practical  manner.  He  mentions  that  one  estate  in  Coahuila 
lost  one  thousand  seven  hundred  dollars  in  four  years,  while 
another  in  San  Luis  Potosi  lost  one  hundred  thousand  dollars 
last  year.  Morrill  (10)  has  given  us  valuable  information  on  a 
subject  very  little  studied,  the  metamorphoses  of  heteropterous 
Hemiptera. 

It  is  well  known  that  in  certain  forms  there  exist,  as  well 
as  free  leucocytes,  very  curious  special  structures  named  by 
Dawydoff  (8)  "  phagocytary  organs"  (lymphatic  glands).  Ap- 
parently these  glands  are  not  circumscribed  and  defined  in  the 
cockroaches  and  mantids  (at  least  in  some  of  them),  the  same 
being  the  case  in  the  nymphs  of  Gryllodea.  In  certain  adults  of 
the  latter  suborder  these  organs  are  well  defined  and  limited;  in 
others,  however,  this  is  not  the  case  {Gymnogryllus). 

Lounsbury's  latest  publications  deal  principally  with  ticks, 
the  Annual  Report  (1)  treating  specially  of  malignant  jaundice  in 
dogs.  The  transmission  of  African  Coast  fever  (2)  is  attributed 
to  the  tick  Rhipicephalus  appendiculatus,  which  is  considered 
"  the  principal,  and,  perhaps,  the  only  natural  transmitter  of 
a  highly  fatal  cattle  disease." 

Phylloxera  corticalis  is  noted  as  a  new  oak-tree  pest  in  South 
Africa,  where  it  has  been  causing  considerable  damage  (9). 
Owing  to  the  fact  that  the  South  African  oak  {Quercus  peduncu- 
lata)  has  been  propagated  in  that  country  only  from  seed,  it 
has  remained  singularly  free  from  pests,  only  one  other  insect, 
and  that  also  an  aphid  (Callipterus  quercus),  being  confined 
to  it. 

Zimmermann's  paper  (5)  deals  mostly  with  fungous  diseases, 
but  also  with  noxious  insects,  viz. :  Sphinx  nerii  on  Cinchona 
(pi.  iv.  figs.  6-8),  Displunctus  on  Piper  capeuse  (figs.  3-5),  Helo- 
peltis  sp.  on  Bixa  orellana  (figs.  9-12),  and  Thrips  spp.  on 
coffee. 

The  Commission  of  Agricultural  Parasitology  in  Mexico  has 
issued  a  substantial  volume  (4)  of  over  seven  hundred  pages  on 
the  pests  to  Agriculture  in  that  country.  These  are  assembled 
under  plant  headings,  the  latter  being  arranged  alphabetically. 
Sixteen  crowded  plates  and  a  number  of  text-figures  illustrate 
the  written  matter.  The  introduction  is  dated  Nov.  1901,  the 
cover  1903,  but  the  title-page  1904  !     Mokrzecki  (11)  describes 


198  •  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

in  Latin  and   Russian  a  new  dipterous  parasite   from  Taurian 
Belbek,  bred  from  pupae  of  Carpocapsa  pomonella,  L. 

Snodgrass  (12)  restricts  the  term  "  hypopygium  "  to  the  ninth 
abdominal  segment  only— that  is,  the  segment  that  carries  the 
intromittent  and  clasping  organs  of  the  male.  The  general 
shape  in  the  Tipulidae  is  that  of  a  cup  opening  posteriorly,  the 
cavity  being  the  genital  chamber,  which  is  produced  simply  by 
the  invagination  of  the  posterior  face  of  the  segment,  which 
carries  into  the  depression  the  tenth  segment,  which  morpho- 
logically terminates  the  abdomen.  After  a  general  description 
of  the  parts,  seventeen  genera  are  discussed  at  length  and 
illustrated  by  one  hundred  and  sixty- one  figures. 

T.  W.  Kirk's  report  (13)  is  specially  mentioned  here,  since 
it  contains  (pp.  306-9)  descriptions  of  three  new  Diptera  by 
T.  Brown,  viz.  :  Tepli  rites  xanthodes,  introduced  from  Rarotoga 
and  Viti;  Lonchcea  splendida,  introduced  from  New  South  Wales  ; 
and  Drosophila  ampelophila,  from  Australia. 

Miss  Fountaine  (14)  describes  a  brief  tour  in  Crete,  and  the 
chase  of  Lyccena  psylorita.  Zander  (15)  discusses  the  genital 
apparatus  of  Gastropacha  quercifolia.  Schultz  (16)  catalogues 
the  known  cases  of  gynandromorphism  in  palrearctic  Macro- 
Lepidoptera  ;  while  Schroder  (17)  continues  his  papers  on 
pattern-phylogeny  in  the  same  order.  Young  (18)  considers  the 
distribution  of  Indian  butterflies. 

Hole  (19)  discusses  very  fully  two  dangerous  enemies  of  the 
teak-tree,  viz.,  the  moths  Pyrausta  machceralis  and  Tlyblcea  puera 
There  are  five  excellent  plates,  of  which  one  is  coloured. 

Malkoff  (20)  describes  the  damage  done  to  fruit-trees  by 
Tetigonia  viridis  ;  while  Miss  Embleton  (21)  discusses  at  length 
the  remarkable  Aleyrodid-like  aphid,  Ceratapihis  latanite.  This 
has  also  recently  occurred  on  Latania  near  Honolulu. 

Rohler  (22)  describes  and  figures  some  sensory  organs  on  the 
antennas  of  Ac rida  {Tryxalis). 

Enderlein  (23-25)  has  published  three  interesting  articles  on 
Psocidaa,  illustrated  by  excellent  plates.  No.  23  is  prefaced  by  a 
general  introduction  to  the  family.  Kusnezov  (26)  discusses  in 
Russian  the  development  of  ocellated  spots  in  the  larvas  of  the 
sphingids  Deilephila  nerii,  Linn.,  and  Pergesa  porcellus,  Linn. 
Pomerantsev  (27)  furnishes  biological  notes,  also  in  Russian,  on 
Cantharidas  and  Tenebrionidae  living  under  bark,  and  useful  in 
sylviculture.  Two  further  papers  in  Russian  (28  and  29)  may 
be  commended  to  the  Lepidopterist :  Alferaki's  contains  critical 
observations  on  Staudinger  and  Rebel's  1901  Catalogue,  while 
Yakhontov  discusses  at  some  length  the  variety  intermedia  of 
Pieris  napi. 


199 


A     LIST     OF     THE     "  MACKO-LEPIDOPTERA "     OF 
LANCASTER    AND     DISTRICT. 

By  C.  H.  Foksythe. 

(Concluded  from  p.  160.) 

C.  immanata. — Common  and  generally  distributed  in  July. 

C.  suffumata. — Fairly  common  in  the  County  Asylum  grounds, 
Blea  Tarn,  Quernmore,  &c.,  in  April  and  May.  This  species  comes 
to  light. 

C.  silacmta. — Fairly  common  at  Arnside  and  Witherslack  in  May. 

C.  fulvata. — Common  everywhere  about  hedgerows  in  July  and 
August. 

C.  dotata  (pyraliata), —  Not  common;  Halton,  County  Asylum 
grounds,  Blea  Tarn,  &c,  in  July. 

Lygris  (Cidaria)  prunata. — Not  common;  Arnside,  near  Quernmore 
and  County  Asylum  grounds  in  June. 

L.  (C.)  testata. — Abundant  on  the  moors  at  Clougha  and  Quern- 
more in  August. 

L.  (C.)  populata. — Local ;  it  is  abundant  near  Clougha  in  July  and 
August. 

L.  (C.)  associata  (dotata). — Fairly  common  and  generally  distributed 
in  June.     This  species  comes  freely  to  light. 

Pelurga  comitata. — Plentiful  in  some  years  in  the  County  Asylum 
grounds,  Grimshaw  Lane  and  Blea  Tarn,  July  and  August. 

Eubolia  cervinata. — This  species  comes  to  light,  but  is  not  common ; 
Halton  and  County  Asylum  grounds  in  late  August  and  September. 

E.  Umitata  (mensuraria).  —  Generally  distributed;  abundant  in 
Grimshaw  Lane,  near  Halton,  in  August. 

E.  plumbaria  (palumbaria). — Common  at  Heysham,  Torrisholme, 
Blea  Tarn,  &c,  in  June. 

Carsia  paludata  (imbutata). — Locally  plentiful  at  Heysham  and 
Witherslack  on  the  mosses  in  July. 

Sterrha  sacraria. — Extremely  rare,  "  I  took  a  specimen  at  Wither- 
slack some  years  ago.  It  went  into  Mr.  J.  B.  Hodgkinson's  collec- 
tion "  (G.  L.) 

Anaitis  plagiata. — Common  at  Arnside,  Witherslack,  &c,  in  July. 

Tanagra  atrata  (charophyllata).  —  Common  near  Carnforth  and 
Witherslack  about  chervil  (ChcBrophyUwn  ternulum)  at  the  end  of  June. 

Hyria  muricata  (auroraria) . — Local  but  abundant  at  Witherslack; 
less  common  at  Heysham  in  July. 

Asthena  luteata. — Uncommon  ;  near  Clougha  and  at  Witherslack  in 
June. 

A.  candidata. — Fairly  plentiful  and  generally  distributed  in  June. 

Acidulia  dimidiata  (scutulata).  —  Common  in  Grimshaw  Lane, 
Quernmore,  Halton,  &c,  in  June. 

A.  bisetata.  —  Plentiful  in  Grimshaw  Lane,  Halton,  Heysham, 
Clougha,  &c,  June  and  July. 

A.  subsericeata. — Uncommon;  odd  examples  at  Witherslack  in  June. 

A.  inmnttaia.  —  Uncommon ;  occasionally  at  Witherslack  and 
Methop  in  June. 


200  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

A.  remutaria. — I  have  only  taken  this  species  near  Clougha  and  at 
Heysham,  and  bred  it  from  Methop  larvre.  The  imago  appears  in 
May. 

A.  fumata. — Common;  at  Heysham,  Clougha,  and  Witherslack  in 
July. 

A.  aversata. — Common  everywhere  in  July  and  August;  also  var. 
spoliata. 

Pseudvterpna  pruinata  (cytisaria). — Fairly  common  in  Grimshaw 
Lane,  County  Asylum  grounds,  Halton,  Quernmore,  (fee,  in  July. 

Geontetra  papilionaria, — Not  common  ;  I  have  only  taken  examples 
at  light  near  the  County  Asylum  in  July. 

Nemoria  viridata. — Local,  but  common  at  Methop  and  Witherslack 
in  June. 

Tholera  (lodis)  lactearia. — Common  in  Grimshaw  Lane,  Eidge 
Lane,  Halton,  Arnside,  &c,,  in  July. 

Ilemithea  strigata  (thymiaria).  —  Fairly  common  in  Freeman's 
Wood,  and  at  Heysham,  in  June  and  July. 


THE     LEPIDOPTEEA     OF     BERLIN. 
By  E.  M.  Dadd,  F.E.S. 

One  constantly  reads  in  the  magazines  of  the  experiences  and 
captures  made  by  entomologists  in  Switzerland,  the  South  of 
France,  Italy,  Spain,  the  Balkan  Peninsula,  Asia  Minor,  and 
other  distant  places,  which  are  mostly  quite  beyond  the  reach  of 
the  ordinary  entomologist  with  probably  only  a  short  holiday  at 
his  disposal. 

Having  read  with  avidity  the  brilliant  successes  achieved  by 
his  more  fortunate  brethren  in  the  Eldorados  above  mentioned, 
it  may  occur  to  him  that  perhaps  if  he  did  not  go  quite  so  far 
afield  he  might  yet  enjoy  a  good  deal  of  sport,  and  at  the  same 
time  not  waste  a  large  portion  of  his  holiday  in  travelling. 

It  has  always  been  somewhat  of  a  surprise  to  me  that  none  of 
the  gentlemen  who  make  annual  trips  to  the  Continent  have 
thought  Germany  worthy  of  their  attention.  Although  its 
butterfly  fauna  is  certainly  not  so  rich  as  that  of  Switzerland, 
still  it  is  very  rich,  and  on  any  sunny  day  during  the  summer 
insects  swarm  in  such  countless  numbers  that  one  is  at  a  loss 
what  to  catch  next. 

It  has  been  my  good  fortune  to  be  removed  from  London  to 
Berlin,  a  district  which  is  remarkably  rich  in  Lepidoptera,  as 
will  be  seen  from  the  fact  that  the  latest  list  of  the  Macro- 
Lepidoptera  (Bartel  and  Herz)  records  eight  hundred  and  thirty- 
two  species  as  occurring  in  the  district,  to  which  have  since  been 
added  several  more ;  and  in  the  present  paper  I  should  like  to 
give  entomologists  an  idea  of  what  can  be  had  here  all  the  year 


THE    LBPIDOPTERA    OF    BERLIN.  201 

round.  As  I  have  collected  here  fairly  regularly  from  June  1st, 
1902,  till  the  end  of  the  1904  season,  I  think  I  may  fairly  claim 
to  have  a  good  idea  of  what  can  be  done  in  this  district. 

What  is  understood  as  the  Berlin  district  is  the  tract  of 
country  contained  within  about  a  twenty-mile  radius  of  the 
centre  of  the  city.  This  includes  a  very  varied  country  both  as 
to  soil  and  vegetation,  which  accounts  for  the  richness  of  the 
fauna.  The  greater  portion  is  of  course  the  usual  sandy  soil  of 
the  Great  Plain  of  Prussia,  but  by  Riidersdorf  in  the  east  there 
is  an  outbreak  of  chalky  limestone,  forming  downs  fairly  similar 
to  our  Kentish  or  Surrey  ones,  and  it  is  here,  of  course,  that 
such  species  as  Lyccena  corydon,  L.  minima,  the  three  rare 
Zygoeme,  &c,  appear.  The  whole  district  is  fairly  well  wooded, 
the  greater  portion  being  pine  or  fir  woods,  but  there  are  also 
magnificent  oak  and  beech  woods,  and  in  the  swampy  portions, 
which  are  fairly  frequent,  alder  and  birch  predominate.  Here 
and  there  over  the  whole  district,  and  especially  by  Bernau  in 
the  north,  there  are  extensive  heaths,  and  these  are  sometimes 
covered  with  juniper  bushes.  In  the  larger  pine  woods  there  is 
frequently  a  thick  undergrowth  of  bilberry  ;  in  the  deciduous 
woods,  of  raspberry  and  buckthorn.  Whitethorn,  blackthorn, 
and  the  wild  briar  are  conspicuous  by  their  absence  ;  only  on 
the  downs  at  Piiidersdorf  do  they  appear  to  grow  wild.  Bramble 
and  sallow  much  rarer  than  in  England  ;  willow  is  also  extremely 
rare.  Aspen,  lime,  and  black  poplar  are  all  common  all  over 
the  district.  The  commonest  tree  after  pines  and  firs  is  un- 
doubtedly the  birch.  Notable  absentees  amongst  low  plants  are 
the  primrose,  foxglove,  bracken,  and  gorse.  By  far  the  com- 
monest plant  on  open  uncultivated  land  is  Artemisia  vulgaris, 
the  food-plant  of  Cucullia  argcntea  and  C.  artemisice,  Eupitliecia 
innotata,  &c. 

Fenland  and  water-side  vegetation  is  frequent,  seeing  that 
two  rivers,  the  Spree  and  the  Havel,  and  about  ten  large  lakes 
are  in  the  district. 

During  the  winter  months  very  little  collecting  could  be  done, 
but  searching  the  trunks  of  oaks  and  alders  produced  cocoons  of 
Iloplitis  milhauseri  and  Cerura  bicuspis,  and,  when  the  lakes  are 
frozen  over,  and  one  can  get  at  the  reeds,  the  larvae  of  Senta 
maritima  and  Leucania  obsoleta  may  be  secured  in  numbers.  The 
former  is  obtained  by  searching  the  old  burrows  of  Nonagria 
gcminipuncta,  in  which  they  conceal  themselves  ;  the  larvae  are 
easily  reared  on  shredded  steak,  apple,  and  other  unlikely  sub- 
stances, but  must  be  provided  with  reeds  to  hide  in,  as  they 
otherwise  die.  L.  obsoleta  is  far  easier  detected ;  the  reeds 
inhabited  by  the  larva?,  probably  owing  to  its  having  eaten 
through  the  skin  to  form  its  exit,  are  generally  bent  over, 
probably  by  wind,  and  all  one  has  to  do  is  to  cut  the  reed  low 
down.     This  larva  hybernates  full-fed,  and  is  easily  reared  ;  it 


202  THR    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

is,  however,  advisable  to  split  the  reed,  or  keep  it  standing  in 
water,  as  otherwise  it  contracts  and  kills  the  pupa. 

On  February  28th  I  made  my  first  outing  after  moths ;  for 
some  days  the  temperature  had  been  fairly  mild,  and  the  early 
Geometers,  such  as  Phigalia  pedaria,  Hybernia  Icucophcearia,  and 
H.  marginata,  were  not  uncommon.  I  was  away  during  nearly 
the  whole  of  March,  and  it  was  not  until  the  22nd  of  that  month 
that  I  again  had  an  opportunity  of  collecting.  Besides  the  species 
above  mentioned,  which  were  now  getting  over,  Brephos  par- 
thenias,  Asphaliaflavicornis,  'Tephrosia  crepuscularia,  and  Astero- 
scopus  nubecidosus  were  obtained.  Of  the  latter  rare  species 
eleven  specimens  were  found  sitting  on  alder- trunks.  On  the 
29th  the  first  male  Endromis  versicolor  and  one  B.  notha  were 
the  only  new  species,  sallowing  in  the  evening  being  an  absolute 
failure.  On  April  12th  an  outing  to  Buch  was  very  unremunera- 
tive,  the  weather  being  too  cold  ;  one  male  Endromis  versicolor, 
four  Tephrosia  crepuscularia,  and  two  Larentia  carpinata  being 
the  total  bag,  except  a  few  larvae  of  Sesia  scolicej'ormis  from 
birch-boles.  The  next  day  was  even  worse,  only  two  Tephrosia 
punctularia  and  one  Boarmia  cinctaria  being  seen  ;  sallows  still 
being  quite  useless.  On  the  19th,  at  Spandau,  T.  punctularia 
was  fairly  common,  and  two  E.  versicolor  and  a  very  fine  variety 
of  Strenia  clathrata  were  also  obtained  ;  this  appears  to  me  a  very 
early  date  for  the  latter  species. 

On  April  22nd,  28rd,  and  24th  sallows  at  Spandau  were  well 
visited,  T(Cniocamp.i  opinia,  T.  gracilis,  T.  incerta,  T.  gothica, 
T.  pulverulenta,  T.  stabilis,  Pachnobia  rubricosa,  Dasycampa  rubi- 
ginea,  Orrhoclia  erytlirocepliala  and  0.  vaccinii,  Xylina  furcifera, 
Calocampa  vetusta,  and  C.  cxoleta  all  being  plentiful.  I  saved  the 
two  D.  rubiginea  for  ova,  but  was  unsuccessful.  The  P.  rubri- 
cosa were  remarkable,  all  being  of  a  deep  bluish  black  colour, 
with  just  a  tinge  of  red  in  them.  They  are  also  much  smaller 
than  our  English  rubricosa,  which  is  here  classified  as  var. 
rufa,  and  I  should  not  be  surprised  if  they  proved  to  be  a 
distinct  species. 

On  May  3rd,  a  delightfully  warm  day,  a  visit  was  paid  to 
Finkenkrug,  the  locality  for  Aglia  tan,  in  the  hope  of  obtaining 
this  species,  and  it  was  soon  observed  flying  wildly  about  in  the 
beech  woods,  and  several  males,  all  more  or  less  worn,  were 
captured.  Other  insects  were  scarce;  Pieris  napi  and  Antho- 
charis  cardamines  were  flying  in  the  meadows,  one  Araschnia 
levana  was  netted  over  nettle,  and  Larentia  tristata,  Minoa  muri- 
nata,  and  Ematurga  atomaria  were  observed. 

May  10th  was  very  rainy,  so  that  nothing  could  be  done 
during  the  morning,  but  it  cleared  up  during  the  afternoon,  and 
we  paid  a  visit  to  the  bilberry-scrub  growing  amongst  the  pine- 
woods.  Sweeping  produced  the  larvae  of  Ilalia  brunneata  in 
numbers,  but  the  desired  Eupithccia  coronata  was  not  found. 


THE    LEPIDOPTERA    OF    BERLIN.  203 

Larvse  of  Anchocelis  helvola  were  also  obtained,  as  well  as  one 
solitary  Lasiocampa  quercus.  The  only  imagines  seen  were 
Larentia  {Coremia)  ferrugata  and  Thalera  putata,  both  common. 
The  latter  was  still  emerging,  and  a  nice  series  of  fresh  speci- 
mens were  boxed  ;  unfortunately,  it  seems  quite  impossible  to 
preserve  the  exquisite  green  tint  of  this  species.  It  is  perhaps 
worth  noting  that  this  species  leaves  the  pupa  between  four 
o'clock  and  dusk,  and  are  easily  observed  drying  their  wings 
under  bilberry-leaves  ;  they  quickly  lose  their  colour,  and  during 
the  forenoon  only  faded  specimens  will  be  seen.  The  eleven 
specimens  I  set,  in  spite  of  the  greatest  care,  have  all  somewhat 
faded.     Is  there  no  way  of  preserving  their  colour? 

On  May  24th  I  went  for  a  walk  round  one  of  the  lakes  in  the 
neighbourhood  of  Potsdam  with  my  friend  Mr.  Wadzeck,  and  we 
found  that  the  spring  Geometrae  were  commencing  to  get  com- 
mon, Acidalia  remutata,  Asthena  candidata,  A.  luteata,  Eupisteria 
heparata,  Larentia  Jiuctuata,  L.  designata,  L.  ocellata,  and  Bapta 
taminata  all  being  more  or  less  common.  Sugaring  in  the 
evening  was  fairly  unproductive,  Iladena  genistce  and  II.  oleracca, 
Dipterygia  scabriuscula,  Cymatophora  or,  and  Hypena  prubosci- 
dalis  being  the  only  visitors. 

May  31st  is  a  day  I  shall  never  forget.  My  friend  Herr 
Zobel,  my  brother,  and  myself  started,  about  11  a.m.,  from 
Spandau  through  the  oak  and  pine  woods  to  Niederneundorf.  I 
have  never  seen  Geometme  so  common,  or  in  such  variety.  One 
really  did  not  know  what  to  take  and  what  to  leave,  and  my 
"glass  tops  "  had  to  be  emptied  several  times  to  make  further 
collecting  possible.  Amongst  the  bilberry,  Acidalia  fumata,  A. 
remutata,  Thalera  putata,  Ematurga  atomaria,  Epione  advenaria, 
and  Larentia  hastata  were  everywhere,  and  I  devoted  myself 
especially  to  the  two  latter,  and  soon  had  a  fine  series.  A  small 
Noctua  was  seen  dashing  about,  but  was  very  difficult  to  capture  ; 
at  length  one  was  boxed,  and  it  proved  to  be  Erastria  deceptaria. 
We  had  originally  started  with  the  intention  of  visiting  a  locality 
for  the  Hesperid  Carterocephalus  sylvius,  which  had  been  added 
to  the  Berlin  fauna  the  previous  year  by  Herr  Zobel,  and  which 
he  had  succeeded  in  turning  up  in  considerable  numbers  during 
the  present  spring.  Arrived  on  the  scene,  we  were  disappointed 
in  only  rinding  one  worn  female,  it  evidently  being  over.  Other 
butterflies  were,  however,  well  in  evidence,  and,  besides  the  three 
common  whites  and  A.  cardamines,  Chrysophanus  dorilis  and  C. 
phloeas,  Cyaniris  argiolus,  LyccBna  semiargus  and  L.  icarus,  Hes- 
peria  malvcs,  Augiades  comma,  Argynnis  sclene,  and  hybernated 
Vanessa  io  were  abundant. 

We  then  turned  our  attention  to  a  wood  composed  mostly  of 
oak,  alder,  and  birch,  but  with  a  sprinkling  of  other  trees,  and 
notably  a  fairly  thick  undergrowth  of  bramble,  raspberry,  and 
nettles.     To  say  that  Geometry  swarmed  will  give  really  no  idea 


204  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

of  their  abundance.  At  the  edge  of  the  wood  Acidalia  immutata, 
A.  immorata,  and  Strenia  clathrata  had  been  netted  ;  iu  the  wood 
itself  we  were  kept  constantly  busy  with  Ephyra  punctaria, 
Timandra  amata,  Larentia  ocellata,  L.  variata,  L.  Jiuctuata,  L. 
montanata,  L.ferrugata,  L.  sociata,  L.  unangulata,  L.  albicillata, 
L.  tristata,  E.  obliterata,  A.  luteata,  Hypsipetes  trifasciata,  Cidaria 
corylata,  Tephroclystia  satyrata,  Collix  sparsata,  Abraxas  margi- 
nata,  Deiliwa  pusaria  and  D.  exanthemata,  Semiotliisia  notata 
and  S.  alternata,  Boarmia  luridata,  T.  punctulata,  and  Pechipogon 
barbalis ;  while  one  male  specimen  of  Macrothylacia  rubi  was 
found  drying  its  wings,  and  another  was  netted,  and  a  pair  of 
Phalera  bucephala  were  found  in  cop. 

On  the  way  home  a  few  additions  were  made,  notably  one 
specimen  of  Triphosa  dubitata,  M.  murinata,  Panagra  petraria ; 
and  also,  flying  in  the  dusk,  one  each  of  Drepana  falcataria  and 
D.  binaria  were  netted. 

Monday,  June  1st,  being  the  Whitsun  Monday,  I  had  arranged 
with  several  friends  to  visit  the  beech  woods  of  Brenau,  our 
principal  quarry  being  Tephrosia  consonaria.  Although  sunshine 
was  scarce,  it  was  a  very  close  hot  day,  and  not  at  all  agreeable 
for  collecting.  To  reach  the  beech  woods  in  question  we  first 
had  to  traverse  a  fairly  long  stretch  of  tall  pine  woods,  which 
had  a  thick  undergrowth  of  bilberry.  Here  and  there  were  also 
open  patches  of  heather.  Butterflies  were  not  much  in  evidence, 
the  principal  ones  noted  being  Ccdlophrys  rubi  (very  worn),  and 
Chrysophanus  dorilis  and  C.  phlceas. 

Geornetras  by  no  means  swarmed  as  they  had  done  on  the  day 
previous,  and,  with  the  exception  of  T.putata  and  A.  remutata, 
very  little  was  seen  at  first ;  however,  in  the  first  patch  of 
bilberry  a  fine  Larentia  hastata  was  netted,  and  almost  immedi- 
ately afterwards  something  started  up  out  of  the  bilberry,  which 
was  not  recognized.  After  a  long  stern  chase  this  was  netted, 
and  proved  to  be  apparently  Ortholitha  plumbaria,  a  very  large 
bluish-grey  form,  and  quite  different  to  our  English  ones.  As 
the  time  of  appearance — beginning  of  June — and  getting  worn 
are  so  entirely  different  to  the  habits  of  what  we  know  as  this 
species  in  England,  where  I  have  always  found  it  at  the  end  of 
July  and  during  August,  and  besides  which  the  insect  seems 
quite  different  to  our  English  plumbaria,  being  larger,  more 
bluish  in  colour,  and  not  so  variegated,  I  consider  that  this  may 
possibly  be  a  distinct  species.  My  friend  Herr  Herz,  to  whom  I 
mentioned  my  doubts,  is  also  of  opinion  that  there  is  something 
queer  here,  as  he  had  captured  our  English  form  at  the  end  of 
July  on  the  sea-coast.  I  would  be  much  obliged  if  some  English 
entomologist  would  obtain  eggs  of  0. plumbaria  during  the  coming 
season,  and  I  will  try  and  elucidate  the  matter. 

Several  specimens  of  this  interesting  form  were  obtained  ; 
meanwhile  L.  hastata,  Epione  advenaria,  and  Eucosmia  undulata 


THE    LEPIDOPTERA    OF    BERLIN.  205 

were  fairly  common,  the  latter  being  by  no  means  easy  to  capture, 
as,  although  a  conspicuous  insect,  its  colour  harmonizes  well 
against  a  background  of  bilberry  and  pine-trunks,  and  it  is  more 
often  lost  sight  of  than  captured.  Another  conspicuous  species 
easily  lost  sight  of  is  L.  hastata  ;  its  habit  is  to  fly  about  twelve 
feet  from  the  ground,  and  it  has  a  very  undulating  flight  ;  con- 
sequently, when  flying  amongst  trees  with  the  light  shining 
through  them,  it  easily  eludes  capture.  Nothing  further  of 
interest  was  observed  until  we  reached  the  restaurant  where  we 
were  to  dine,  when  my  brother,  who  had  been  for  a  stroll  round 
the  lake,  brought  me  a  fine  fresh  specimen  of  Lithostege  farinata, 
Hum. 

After  dinner  we  made  tracks  for  the  beech  woods,  and  while 
crossing  a  small  meadow  I  observed  Ino  statices  in  some  numbers 
on  flower-heads.  The  beech  woods  unfortunately  proved  a 
failure  as  far  as  T.  consonaria  was  concerned,  not  a  single  speci- 
men being  found  by  four  diligent  searchers  ;  but  Demas  coryli, 
Dasychira  pudibunda,  Lithosia  aureola,  and  Ephyra  trilineata 
were  found  in  odd  specimens,  and  an  occasional  Tephrosia  luri- 
data  raised  our  hopes  in  vain.  Larentia  variata  was  found  in  a 
small  pine  wood,  but  nothing  further  of  note.  On  the  way  home 
E.  undulata  was  more  easily  captured,  as  it  adopted  the  habit  of 
flying  lazily  along  the  road.  Amongst  the  bilberry,  T.  putata 
was,  as  usual,  freshly  emerging,  and  I  started  up,  but  lost  a  fine 
specimen  of  Bomolocha  fontis. 

On  June  6th,  8th,  and  11th  I  sugared,  with  my  friend  Zobel, 
in  the  neighbourhood  of  Bernau  ;  the  locality  chosen,  at  first 
sight,  did  not  look  at  all  promising,  the  sugared  trees  being  on 
the  border  of  an  extensive  pine  wood  ;  adjoining  was  a  barren 
waste  of  land,  overgrown  with  rank  grass  and,  what  appealed 
especially  to  us,  patches  of  heather ;  the  insect  we  had  hope  of 
getting  beiug  Agrotis  molothina,  an  ally  of  A.  strigula,  and  up  to 
then  only  known  in  four  or  five  specimens  by  Berlin.  We  had 
already  sugared  this  spot  about  five  times  without  any  result 
worth  speaking  about.  However,  patience  was  at  length  rewarded, 
as  on  the  three  nights  in  question  not  only  did  we  get  our  A. 
molothina  in  thirty  to  forty  specimens,  but  also  discovered  four 
other  insects,  which  are  reckoned  amongst  Berlin's  rarities  ; 
they  were  Mamestra  aliena,  Hadena  adusta  var.  baltica  (probably 
a  good  species,  as  it  is  quite  different  to  English  adusta),  Cara- 
drina  selini  var.  milleri,  and  Agrotis  candalarum.  All  these 
species  were  abundant ;  in  one  evening  alone  my  take  was  forty- 
four  C.  var.  milleri,  twelve  M.  aliena,  and  fifteen  var.  baltica. 
But  this  by  no  means  ends  the  list ;  other  lesser  stars  were  also 
in  abundance  : — Acronycta  abscondita,  A.  rumicis,  Agrotis  strigula, 
A.  linogrisea,  A.  orbona  (subsequa),  A.  cinerea,  A.  exclamationis, 
A.ypsilon,  A.  segetum,  A.  prasina,  A.  occulta,  Mamestra  leuco- 
phcea,  M.  advena,  M.    nebulosa,  M.  brassicce,  M.  albicolon,  M. 


206  THK    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

oleracea,  M.  dissimilis,  M.  thalassina,  M.  contigua,  M.  pisi,  M. 
trifolii,  M.  dentina  and  var.  latenai,  Neurid  reticulata,  Miana 
strigilis,  Hadena  sordida,  H.  rurea  and  var.  alopecurus,  H.  basi- 
linea,  H.  gemina  and  var.  remissa,  Dipterygia  scabriuscula,  Trachea 
atriplicis,  Leucania  pollens,  L.  comma,  L.  conigera,  Grammesia 
trigrammica.  Eusina  tenebrosa,  and  Cymatophora  or. 

During  the  latter  part  of  June  and  the  first  fortnight  in  July 
the  butterfly  season  is  at  its  height,  and  we  made  many  excur- 
sions to  the  localities  above  mentioned.  The  13th  was  a  lovely 
sunny  day,  which  we  again  spent  at  Finkenkrug.  One  of  the 
first  butterflies  captured  was  a  fine  specimen  of  Papilio  machaon  ; 
a  specimen  of  Mamestra  glauca  was  found  at  rest  on  a  tree-trunk, 
and  almost  immediately  afterwards -we  were  in  the  thick  of  the 
Melitaeas — at  present  only  M.  aurinia  and  M.  cinxia  ;  while 
Lyccena  amanda,  L.  iearns,  Chrysophanus  hippothoe,  and  C.  alci- 
phron  are  abundant.  The  tree-trunks  are  now  frequently  tenanted 
by  Psychid  cases — Sterrhopteryx  Jiirsutella,  Acanthopsyche  opa- 
cella,  Canephora  unicolor,  Bacotia  sepium,  Ejriclinopteryx  pulla, 
and  E.  nitidella.  A  peculiarity  about  C.  unicolor  is  that  only 
the  males  select  tree-trunks  to  spin  up  on ;  the  female  cases  are 
always  found  spun  up  amongst  herbage.  Geometry  seem  to 
have  tailed  off,  the  only  Larentias  observed  being  tristata,  ocellata, 
and  sociata.  In  the  meadows,  however,  Acidalia  immorata  was 
fairly  common,  with  occasional  A.  omata  and  A.  immutata,  S. 
clatkrata  and  M.  murinata.  On  tree-trunks,  A  crony  eta  p  si,  A. 
leporina,  A.  abscondita,  Momaorion,  Sphinx pinastri,  and  Boarmia 
consortaria  were  frequent :  one  specimen  of  Drymonia  chaonia 
and  two  of  Lophopteryx  camelina  beaten  out  of  oak,  and  D. 
lacertinaria  netted.  Larva-beating  was  almost  too  trying  owing 
to  the  heat,  and  very  little  worth  mentioning  obtained.  Oak 
produced  Catocala  sponsa  (full-fed),  and  Zephyrus  quercus,  while 
Herr  Wadzeck  was  fortunate  enough  to  beat  a  larva  of  Arctornis 
(Laria)  l-nigrum  from  lime.  In  the  afternoon  a  case  of  Psyche 
viciella  was  found  among  herbage,  several  worn  specimens  of 
Hemaris  bombyliformis  netted,  while  a  grove  of  old  aspens  pro- 
duced the  larva?  of  Trochilium  melanocephalum  in  plenty.  The 
method  of  obtaining  these  latter  is  fairly  simple ;  the  lower 
twigs  and  branches  die  off  in  the  same  manner  as  do  those  of  firs, 
and  all  one  has  to  do  is  to  break  off  these  twigs,  and  examine 
the  fracture  for  the  fresh  galleries  of  T.  melanocephalum.  In 
this  manner  we  obtained  about  a  dozen  larvae  in  a  very  short 
time.  The  smaller  aspens  were  beat  for  larvae  of  Apatura  ilia 
and  Limenitis  populi,  and  a  few  of  each  were  obtained. 

Sugaring  one  night  at  Wusterhausen  was  very  successful, 
and  the  following  were  obtained  in  numbers  -.—Acronycta  psi,  A. 
menyanthidis,  A.  auricoma,  A.  abscondita,  A.  rumicis,  Agrotis 
obscura,  A.  simidans,  A.  cinerea,  A.  exclamationis,  A.  segctum,  A. 
primula,  Mamestra  leucophtea,  M.  nebidosa,  M.  brassicce,  M.  albi- 


THE    LEPIDOPTERA    OF    BERLIN.  207 

colon,  M.  oleracea,  M.  genista,  M.  dissimilis,  M.  thalassina,  M. 
dentiua,  Neuria  reticulata,  Iladena  sordida,  II.  basilinea,  H. 
gemina,  D.  scabriuscida,  Hyppa  rectilinea,  Trachea  atriplicis, 
Euplexia  lucipara,  Leucania pattens,  L.  albipuncta,  G.  trigrammica, 
Rusina  tenebrosa,  Tceniocampa  incerta  (very  worn),  Erastria 
fasciana,  Plusia  gamma,  Pseudophia  lunaris,  and  Metopsilus  por- 
cellus.  The  sugaring  was  so  good  that  we  kept  at  it  all  night, 
and  were  rewarded  by  a  good  series  of  P.  lunaris  each,  though 
they  were  getting  over. 

As  soon  as  it  was  daylight  we  commenced  bumping  trees  for 
"  prominents,"  and  the  following  were  brought  down  : — Hoplitis 
milhauseri  (worn),  Drymonia  chaonia,  Notodonta  dromedarius,  N. 
trepida,  Spatalia  argentina,  Lophoj)teryx  camelina,  Hylophila 
prasinana,  H.  bicolorana,  DasycJura  pudibunda,  Boarmia  consor- 
taria,  B.  extersaria,  &c. 

Towards  the  end  of  June  the  butterfly  season  commenced  in 
earnest,  and  a  long  day  spent  in  the  woods  near  Spandau  pro- 
duced the  following  in  abundance  : — Pieris  brassicce,  P.  napi,  P. 
rapce,  Leucophasia  sinapis,  Gonepteryx  rhamni  (worn),  Apatura 
iris,  A.  ilia  and  var.  clyte,  L.  popidi  (the  four  latter  attracted  by 
Limburger  cheese),  Araschnia  levana,  Melitaa  aurinia  (worn), 
M.  cinxia,  M.  didyma,  M.  athalia,  M.  aarelia,  M.  dictynna, 
Argynnis  selene,  A.  ino,  A.  lathonia,  A.  dia,  A.  aglaia,  A.  niobe, 
Pararge  egeria,  Ccenonympha  iphis,  C.  arcania,  C.  pamphilus,  C. 
tiphon,  Chrysophanus  hippothoe,  C.  alciphron,  C.  dorilis,  C.p>ldceas, 
Lyc(cna  astrarche,  L.  eumedon,  L.  icarus,  L.  amandus,  L.  scmi- 
argus,  L.  alcon,  Heteropterus  morphcus,  Adopcea  lineola,  A.  tliau- 
mas,  Augiades  comma,  A.  sylvanus,  Hesperia  alveus,  H.  malvce. 
The  burnets  were  also  commencing  to  get  about,  though  only 
Zygcena  meliloti  and  Z.  trifolii;  LitJiosia  muscerda  and  L.  griseola 
were  common.  Acidalia  emarginata  and  A.  aversata  were  perfect 
scourges,  single  examples  each  of  Ephyra  pendularia,  Hemithea 
strigata,  and  Geometra  papilionaria  were  netted.  While  beating 
a  small  birch  tree  I  had  the  good  fortune  to  beat  out  a  freshly 
emerged  Sesia  scoliteformis. 

In  the  marshy  spots  favoured  by  C.  tiphon  and  M.  dictynna, 
Bankia  argcnhda,  Hydrelia  uncula,  and  Erastria  venushda  were 
not  infrequent,  as  also  a  large  "  fanfoot,"  which  turned  out  to  be 
Herminia  tentacularia.  Tree-trunk  searching  results  in  a  few 
odds  and  ends,  Moma  orion,  Boarmia  consortaria,  B.  roboraria 
and  var.  infuscata,  and  Larentia  trifasciata  being  turned  up ;  but 
Geometry,  for  some  unknown  reason,  appeared  to  be  very  rare 
at  this  season,  only  L.  sociata  being  at  all  commou.  On  the 
homeward  journey  two  L.  quadrifasciaria  were  found  at  rest. 

Another  outing  at  the  beginning  of  July  found  most  of  the 
above-mentioned  butterflies  getting  over,  but  C.  disparv&Y.  rut  ibis 
was  in  fine  condition  ;  one  specimen  of  L.  sibylla  was  netted,  and 
Dryas  paphia  was  fairly  frequent. 


208  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

During  the  latter  half  of  June  and  the  beginning  of  July  we 
sugared  pretty  regularly  in  oak  and  alder  woods  by  Spandau ; 
most  of  the  insects  above  mentioned  continued  to  come,  but  the 
weather  was  unfavourable,  and  we  did  not  have  more  than  two 
or  three  favourable  nights.  The  new  arrivals  were  as  follows  : — 
Acronycta  tridens,  A.  leporina,  Agrotis  signum,  A.  ianthina,  A. 
linogrisca,  A.  fimbria,  A.  augur,  A.  pronuba,  A.  brunnea,  A.  tri- 
angulum,  A.  prasina,  A.  occulta,  Mamestra  advena,  M.  tincta,  M. 
nebulosa,  M.  persicar'ue,  M.  splendens,  M.  contigua,  Dianthcecia 
cucubali,  Hadena  monoglyplia,  II.  lateritia,  H.  lithoxylea,  H.  sub- 
lustris,  H.  scolopacina,  H.  unanimis  and  H.  pabulatricula,  Cloantha 
polyodon,  Ncenia  typica,  Leucania  impudens,  L.  impura,  L.  stra- 
minea,  L.  l-album,  L.  lithargyrea,  L.  turca,  Toxocampa  pastinum, 
Lithosia  complana,  L.  muscerda,  Cymatophora  or,  and  Asphalia 
duplaris.  A  somewhat  unexpected  visitor  was  a  large  female 
Cossus  ligniperda  (cossus)  ;  is  this  species  frequently  attracted  to 
sugar  ? 

About  the  middle  of  July  we  deserted  our  sugaring  ground  at 
Spandau,  and  selected  a  new  one  at  Buch.  The  ground  in 
question  was  the  border  of  an  extensive  pine  wood  which  ran  for 
about  half  a  mile  along  a  rye  field.  About  the  middle  of  this 
field  was  a  small  pond  overgrown  with  rushes,  reeds,  and  marsh- 
grass,  and  the  extreme  border  of  the  field  was  bounded  by.  a 
small  stream  overgrown  with  alder,  oak,  and  other  deciduous 
trees.  Be}^ond  one  end  of  the  wood  was  an  extensive  clearing 
which  had  been  recently  deforested,  and  was  now  covered  with 
rank  growth.  At  the  further  end  the  ground  was  again  crossed 
by  another  brook,  about  which  were  several  reed-grown  meadows. 
"We  sugared  this  spot  fairly  regularly  from  the  middle  of  July  to 
the  end  of  August,  and,  taken  all  round,  the  results  were  very 
good.  Quite  a  different  lot  of  insects  were  obtained  here.  II. 
lateritia  and  H.  furva  were  in  countless  numbers  ;  II.  mono- 
glyplia and  //.  lithoxylea  were  also  abundant,  but  H.  sublustris, 
which  had  been  so  common  at  Spandau,  was  never  seen.  Other 
absentees  were  A.  prasina,  L.  turca,  L.  pudorina,  and  L.  impura. 
A  fine  variety  of  C.  or  was  taken  here,  the  figure  of  80  being 
bright  yellow. 

Among  others,  we  captured  during  this  period  Acronycta 
leporina,  A.  megacephala,  A.  auricoma,  A.  abscondita,  A.  rumicis 
(all  second  brood),  Agrotis  obscura,  A.  orbona,  A.  baia,  A.  c- 
nigrum,  A.  xanthographa,  A.  plecta,  A.  tritici,  A.  obelisca,  A. 
segetum,  A.  occulta,  Mamestra  advena,  M.  oleracea,  M.  aliena 
(one  female,  second  brood),  M.  dissimilis,  M.  trifolii,  M.  dentina, 
Miana  ophiogramma,  M.  strigilis,  M.  bicoloria,  Bryophila  alga,  II. 
furva,  H.  monoglyplia,  H.  lateritia,  II.  lithoxylea,  H.  gemina,  H. 
secalis,  T.  atriplicis,  B.  meticulosa,  II.  leucostigma,  II.  nictitans, 
Tapinostola  hellmanni,  T.fulva,  L.  pollens,  L.  comma,  L.  coni- 
gera,  L.  albipuncta,  L.  lithargyrea,  Garadrina  quadripunctata,  C. 


THE    LEPIDOPTERA    OF    BERLIN.  209 

milled,  C.  morpheus,  C.  alsines,  C.  taraxaci,  C.  ambigua,  Amphi- 
pijra  tragopogonis,  A.  pyramided,  Calymnia  trapezina,  Cosmia 
paleacea,  Dyschorista  suspecta,  D.  fissipuncta,  Pyrrhia  umbra, 
Catocala  nupta,  Aventia  flexula,  Zanclognatha  tarsipennalis,  and 
Z.  emortualis.  A  fine  specimen  of  Cerura  furcula  was  found  at 
rest  on  a  pine-trunk.  Neuroma  cespitis,  N.  popularis,  Plusia 
chrysitis,  P.  festucce,  a,nd  G.  papilionaria  came  to  light.  Rhodo- 
strophia  vibicaria,  Scotosia  vetulata,  Cidaria  prunata,  C.  populata, 
C.  associata,  C.  dotata,  C.  truncata,  Larentia  fumata,  L.  didymata, 
L.  vittata,  L.  bilineata  and  L.  comitata,  Phibalapteryx  polygram- 
mata,  Ellopia  prosapiaria,  Semiothisa  liturata,  Boarmia  roboraria, 
B.  lichenaria,  Gnophos  obscuraria,  Bupalus  piniarius,  Perconia 
strigillaria,  Acidalia  bisetata,  A.  deversaria,  A.  emarginata,  and 
A.  marginepunctata  were  netted  while  putting  on  the  sugar. 

On  July  27th  a  visit  was  paid,  with  a  couple  of  friends,  to  the 
limestone  hills  of  Eiidersdorf.      The  day   was   delightful,    and 
butterflies  were  in  profusion.     Dryas  paphia,  Argynnis  aglaia, 
and   A.  niobe  were  in   fine  condition;    Epinephele  jurtina,  C. 
arcania,  C.  ijihis,  and  C.  pamphilus  were  in  countless  numbers. 
Chrysophanus  virgaurece  was  in  fine  condition.     The  blues  were 
somewhat  scarce,  only  two  Lycana  cyllarus,  two  L.  arion,  and 
about  a  dozen  L.  argus  being  boxed .     Up  a  stony  path  a  fine 
A.  lathonia  was  netted  as  it  was  sunning  itself  on  a  stone,  and 
then  I  saw  for  the  first  time  that  fine  butterfly,  Satyrus  alcyone, 
sailing  majestically  through  the  air.     It  is  fairly  difficult  to  cap- 
ture ;  one  must  wait  till  it  settles,  and  then  approach  carefully. 
In  about  half  an  hour  four  fine  specimens  were  netted.     Its  near 
relative,  S.  semele,  was  also  about.     Both  these  species  have  the 
habit  of  settling  on  pine-trunks,  and  are  then  quite  invisible. 
Later  in  the  season  we  frequently  found  S.  alcyone  sitting  on  the 
old  sugar  patches  when  putting  on  the  sugar,  and  a  good  series 
were  thus  secured.     A  few  worn  M.  athalia  and  M.  didyma  were 
also  obtained.     All  this  time  a  small  Hesperid  had  been  dashing 
about :  this  we  at  first  left  severely  alone,  believing  it  to  be  the 
common  A.  thaumas,  but  a  chance  capture  apprise  us  of  the 
fact  that  it  was  A.  actceon,  and  a  fine  series  was  soon  obtained. 
Butterflies  are  common  enough,  but  they  cannot  compete  with 
the  burnets,  which   are  now  out  in  full  force.     Zygcena  meliloti, 
Z.  purpuralis,  Z.  lonicerce,  Z.  trifolii,  and  Z.  filipendidce  are  all 
about  equally  common,  the  latter  being  perhaps  the  commonest ; 
Z.  meliloti  and  Z.  trifolii  were  getting  worn. 

Our  objective  being  the  limestone  hills,  we  had  to  leave  this 
Eldorado,  and  for  about  an  hour  our  way  led  through  a  fairly 
gloomy  pine  wood.  Much  to  my  astonishment,  a  species  of 
Melitaa  was  fairly  common,  together  with  C.  arcania,  all  through 
these  woods.  I  captured  a  good  many,  and  they  proved  very 
variable,  some  striking  varieties  being  amongst  them  ;  but  the 
question  is  what  are  they — M.  athalia  or  M.  aurelia?     I  confess 

ENTOM. — AUGUST,    1905.  S 


210  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

I  cannot  say,  and  my  Berlin  friends  all  differ.  We  at  length 
came  to  the  edge  of  the  lake,  and  a  few  each  of  S.  alcyone, 
S.  semele,  and  a  freshly  emerged  Vanessa  polychloros  were 
netted. 

A  steamer  carries  us  across  the  lake,  and  in  ten  minutes  we 
are  on  the  limestone  hills,  which  remind  one  very  much  of  our 
Kentish  or  Sussex  downs.  Here  the  entire  fauna  is  changed  as 
if  by  magic.  Lyccena  corydon,  L.  minima,  Melanargia  galatea, 
Vanessa  articce,  and  Epinephele  jurtina  seemed  to  be  the  only 
butterflies  about ;  an  occasional  worn  L.  icarus  was  observed. 
To  make  us  appear  more  at  home,  Ortholitha  (Eubolia)  bipunc- 
taria,  0.  (E.)  limitata,  and  L.  (M.)  galiata  are  frequent.  Burnets 
are  still  common,  and  as  three  special  species  occur  here,  and 
constitute  our  quarry,  these  are  all  netted  for  examination. 
Z.  purpuralis  seems  to  be  the  favourite  here,  and  many  are 
netted  and  let  go,  until  finally  we  are  rewarded  by  the  first 
Z.  achillcB.  It  seems  to  be  too  early  for  this  species,  and  there 
are  no  signs  of  Z.  carniolica  and  Z.  ephialtes  var.  berolinensis  ; 
so  we  decide  to  shift  our  quarters.  A  fairly  thick  spinney 
attracts  our  attention  next,  and  we  beat  patiently  through  it  in 
the  hope  of  Geometrte,  but  nothing  but  Larentia  bifaieata  rewards 
our  efforts.  Sweeping  the  herbage  at  this  point  produces  Sesia 
ichneumoniformis  in  some  numbers  ;  also  a  male  of  Malaco- 
soma  castrensis.  Prothymnia  viridaria  is  fairly  common  ;  one 
Emmelia  trabealis  and  one  Acontia  luctuosa  are  netted,  and 
one  Endrosa  irrorella  and  Cybosia  mesomella  found  at  rest  on 
herbage. 

While  my  two  companions  are  still  engaged  with  S.  ichneu- 
moniformis, I  discovered  a  deep  dell  in  the  hillside  which  had 
escaped  the  scythe.  A  large  "  skipper  "  is  flying  about,  which 
proves  to  be  Hesperia  cartJiami,  and  another  is  captured  a  few 
minutes  later ;  and,  the  other  two  coming  up,  a  systematic 
search  is  made  for  it  without  further  result.  Shortly  after  this 
the  first  Z.  carniolica  is  secured,  and  other  specimens  are  obtained 
sparingly.  Z.  var.  berolinensis  is  also  found  in  a  few  odd  speci- 
mens, but  it  is  evidently  too  early  for  these  two  species.  It  now 
being  nearly  five  o'clock,  all  our  boxes  being  full  to  overflowing, 
and  we  very  tired  and  hungry,  we  decide  to  give  up  collecting  for 
the  day,  which  for  the  writer  of  these  notes,  at  least,  had  been  a 
very  prolific  one. 

As  my  bag  of  Lyccena  arion  had  been  confined  to  one  speci- 
men, and  as  I  was  very  desirous  of  getting  a  long  series  of  this 
beautiful  "blue,"  I  decided  to  devote  the  following  Sunday 
(August  3rd)  to  a  visit  to  Bernau,  where  I  was  told  the  insect 
abounded.  This  is  rather  an  awkward  locality  to  reach,  as  after 
leaving  the  train  one  has  a  good  hour's  walk  through  open  corn- 
fields before  reaching  the  woods,  and  this  is  no  fun  when  the  sun 
is  doing  his  best.      On  the  roadside  few  butterflies  were  in  evi- 


THE    LEPIDOPTERA    OF    BERLIN.  211 

dence — chiefly  E.jurtina  and  C.  phloeas — the  only  thing  I  netted 
being  a  worn  specimen  of  Emmelia  (Agrophila)  trabealis. 

Arrived  at  length  at  the  woods,  things  soon  commenced  to 
improve  ;  Dry  as  paphia  was  everywhere,  though  somewhat  worn, 
and  the  patches  of  thyme  were  covered  with  E.  jurtina,  C. 
arcania,  C.  phloeas,  C.  virgaurece,  and  L.  argus;  as  yet,  however, 
no  signs  of  L.  arion. 

At  length  a  worn  specimen  was  netted ;  a  fine  Grapta  c-album 
is  next  added  to  the  bag,  and  then  my  attention  was  caught  by  a 
very  small  E.  jurtina,  which  on  being  netted  turned  out,  to 
my  delight,  to  be  the  local  E.  lycaon.  A  good  series  of  this 
insect  was  soon  collected,  and  of  L.  arion  some  dozen  specimens 
were  captured,  all,  however,  considerably  worn.  A  very  worn 
specimen  of  C.  rubi  showed  the  second  brood  of  this  insect  was 
getting  over,  and  then,  to  my  utter  surprise,  I  netted  a  fine 
female  Zephyrus  quercus  on  the  thyme.  I  had  never  seen  this 
species  so  low  before,  and,  to  make  matters  still  more  extra- 
ordinary, there  were  no  signs  of  oak  for  miles,  so  to  speak.  A 
specimen  of  Pararge  megcera  was  netted  ;  this  species,  as  far  as 
my  experience  goes,  seems  to  occur  everywhere  in  isolated 
specimens. 

Whilst  searching  the  heather  a  specimen  of  Agrotis  strigula 
was  started  up  and  netted  ;  two  more  were  secured  in  the  same 
manner,  as  also  a  specimen  of  A.  vestigialis.  On  a  piece  of 
waste  ground  a  few  specimens  of  Coscinia  striata  and  C.  cribrum 
were  netted,  and  here  Argynnis  niobe,  A.  aglaia,  Satyrus  alcyone, 
and  S.  semele  were  abundant.  Geometry  were  conspicuous  by 
their  absence,  only  an  odd  E.  atomaria  of  the  second  brood  being 
observed. 

During  this  month  the  lamps  in  the  Thiergarten  proved  very 
attractive,  and  were  regularly  besieged  by  Euproctis  chrysorrhoea, 
whose  larvaB  had  defoliated  the  Thiergarten  earlier  in  the  year. 
The  visitors  were  principally  Lymanfcrids--i£.  chrysorrhoea,  E. 
aurifiua,  Stilpnotia  salicis,  Lymantria  dispar,  and  L.  monacha  : 
but  I  also  saw  a  specimen  of  Rhyparia  purpurata,  and  obtained  a 
few  specimens  each  of  (Enistis  quadra,  Malacosoma  neustria,  Odo- 
nestis  pruni,  Dendrolimus  pini.  Luperina  testacea,  Epineuronia 
popularis,  Hydrcecia  micacea,  and  Caradrina  morpheas  seemed  to 
be  the  only  Nocture  attracted,  Boarmia  repandata  (worn),  and 
Ennomos  quercinaria  the  only  Geometry. 

About  this  time  I  went  for  a  short  holiday  to  the  Glatzer 
Gebirge,  a  portion  of  the  Eiesengebirge.  Everything  in  the 
butterfly  line  seemed  worn  to  rags.  Z>.  paphia,  Argynnis 
lathonia,  A.  niobe.  A.  aglaia,  Melitcea  athalia,  Chrysophanus 
virgaurece,  C.  hippothoe,  Lyccena  hylas,  L.  semiargus,  L.  icarus, 
L.  amanda,  and  Melanargia  galatea  were  all  practically  over,  and 
scarcely  a  good  specimen  could  be  obtained.  Pararge  mar  a  was, 
however,  just  nicely  out,  and  I  was  very  pleased  to  meet  with 


21'2  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Erebia  Ugea  for  the  first  time.  This  insect  was  fairly  common 
everywhere  on  the  lower  slopes,  but  unfortunately  getting  worn, 
and  a  good  many  had  to  be  netted  and  examined  before  a  nice 
series  of  both  sexes  was  obtained.  Geometrse  were  fairly  plentiful, 
however,  and  especially  on  the  hillsides  amongst  the  bilberry  a 
good  many  could  be  beaten  out.  By  diligent  working  I  obtained 
a  fair  series  of  the  following: — Acidalia  perochraria,  A.  strami- 
nata  and  A.  degeneraria,  A.  immutata,  Ortholitha  limitata  and  0. 
bipunctaria,  Anaitis  prceformata,  Lygris  populata,  L.  reticulata 
and  L.  associata,  Larentia  didymata,  L.  ccssiata,  L.  unidentaria, 
L.  verberata,  L.  unifasciata,  L.  adcequata,  L.  minorata,  Gnophos 
obscuraria,  Thamnonoma  wavaria,  and  Odezia  atrata. 

I  did  not  sugar  once,  but  tried  light,  with  very  indifferent 
results — two  Arctia  caia,  one  Amorpha  popidi,  several  Plusia 
chrysitis,  CE.  quadra,  B.  lichenaria,  and  some  common  Nocture. 

Once  we  made  an  excursion  to  the  top  of  the  Schneeberg, 
5600  ft.,  but  the  day  was  unfavourable,,  and  very  little  was 
about.  As  one  commenced  to  get  higher  up  Erebia  Ugea  was 
replaced  by  E.  euryale,  and  I  obtained  a  line  series  of  this 
species  in  grand  condition.  Pyrameis  cardui  was  everywhere, 
but  difficult  to  capture ;  Pararge  mcera  was  also  in  fine  con- 
dition, and  several  pupae  of  this  species  were  found  attached  to 
boulders. 

A  sight  I  will  never  forget  was  a  single  isolated  boulder  with 
an  overhanging  surface  about  two  yards  square.  Settled  on  this 
surface  I  counted  no  less  than  forty-seven  specimens  of  Larentia 
ccesiata  in  all  sorts  of  conditions.  I  secured  about  a  dozen  whilst 
the  rest  were  decamping. 

Arrived  at  the  top  of  the  Schneeberg,  the  sun  disappeared  for 
good,  and  only  a  few  isolated  specimens  of  Erebia  euryale  were 
observed.  The  flora  was  quite  alpine  here — yellow  violets,  a 
very  hairy  Campanula,  a  large  hairy  hawkweed,  and,  above  all, 
a  fine  large  pinky- white  spike  (a  species  of  knotgrass),  which  was 
growing  everywhere.  This  latter  proved  exceedingly  attractive 
to  a  species  of  Agrotis,  which  was  here  flying  about  in  broad 
daylight,  and  settling  on  these  flowers.  I  secured  a  fair  series, 
but  have  not  yet  determined  the  species,  but  it  is  probably 
A.  collina. 

The  last  entomological  experience  was  the  discovery  of  an 
immense  colony  of  Vanessa  antiopa,  which  produced  in  good 
time  seventy-four  imagines,  all  perfectly  typical.  They  were 
feeding  on  birch  and  sallow,  and,  as  far  as  I  could  see,  were 
perfectly  free  from  ichneumons. 

(To  be  concluded.) 


213 

NOTES    AND    OBSERVATIONS. 

The  University  of  Oxford  has  already  conferred  academic  honours 
on  more  than  one  entomologist.  To  the  ranks  of  the  Masters  of  Arts 
must  now  be  added  Commander  J.  J.  Walker,  E.N.,  F.L.S.,  and  one 
of  the  Secretaries  of  the  Entomological  Society  of  London,  upon 
whom  was  conferred  the  degree  "  honoris  causa,"  at  a  Convocation 
held  in  the  Sheldonian  Theatre  on  Thursday,  June  29th.  Introduced 
in  a  Latin  speech  which  did  justice  to  the  recipient's  world-wide  work 
in  the  service  of  entomology,  Commander  Walker,  as  he  emerged  in 
his  crimson  hood  aud  Master's  gown,  received  the  congratulations  of 
several  members  of  the  Council  of  the  Society  who  were  present  for 
the  occasion,  including  Professor  E.  Poulton,  D.Sc,  F.R.S, ;  Dr.  F.  A. 
Dixey,  M.D.  ;  Mr.  H.  Rowland-Brown,  M.A.  ;  and  Mr.  G.  C. 
Champion,  F.Z.S.  Meanwhile  it  is  pleasant  to  note  the  encourage- 
ment given  to  entomologists  in  Oxford  just  now  ;  and  it  is  only  to  be 
hoped  that  the  sister  university  will  presently  develop  a  similar  enthu- 
siasm. The  Entomological  Society  of  Londou,  indeed,  has  found  a 
number  of  valuable  recruits  of  late  years  at  Oxford,  in  rather  striking 
contrast  to  the  small  number  of  resident  graduates  enlisted  at  Cam- 
bridge.—H.  R.  B. 

Phalonia  (Argyrolepia)  badiana,  Hb. — Stainton  (1859)  says  in 
Manual,  "Larva  in  the  stems  and  roots  of  burdock."  Wilkinson 
(1859)  says,  "The  larva  feeds  in  the  stems  and  roots  of  Arctium 
lappa."  Meyrick  (1895)  says,  "  Larva  in  stems  aud  roots  of  Arctium 
lappa.1'  Last  autumn  I  brought  home  a  few  seed-heads  of  burdock 
which  had  some  Tortrix  larva?  feeding  in  them.  From  these  I  have  just 
bred  this  species.— T.  A.  Chapman;  "  Betula,"  Reigate,  June  26th. 

Ova  of  British  Butterflies  Wanted. — Among  other  ova  that  I 
am  anxious  to  obtain  figures  of  are  those  of  Anjijnnis  aijlaia,  A. 
adippe,  Limenitis  sibijUa,  Apatura  iris,  Erebia  cithiops,  Satyrus  semele, 
Epinephele  tithonus,  Cyaniris  argiolus,  Augiades  comma,  Adopaa  thaumas, 
A.  actceon,  and  Pamphila  palmnon.  If  any  one  has  an  egg  or  two  of 
either  of  these  to  spare,  and  would  kindly  send  them  to  me,  I  should  be 
greatly  obliged. — R.  South;  96.  Drakefield  Road,  Upper  Tooting,  S.W. 

The  National  Collection  of  British  Lepidoptera. — Among  some 
useful  insects  presented  by  Mr.  Eustace  Bankes  is  the  type  of  Noctua 
subfusca,  Haw.,  which  the  donor  recognizes  as  a  dark  form  of  Agrotis 
corticea.  Mr.  Prout  has  also  added  some  specimens  from  ancient  collec- 
tions, and  of  them  one  is  Phytometra  lutescens,  Haw.  (arcuosa,  Haw.,  var.). 

The  Entomological  Club. — A  meeting  was  held  at  the  '  Hand  and 
Spear  '  Hotel,  Weybridge,  on  July  11th,  1905.  Mr.  G.  T.  Porritt,  of 
Huddersfield,  was  the  chairman  and  host  of  the  evening.  Of  the  seven 
guests  Messrs.  Adkin  and  Donisthorpe  Were  the  only  other  members 
of  the  Club  present. 

Migration  of  Lepidoptera. — Living,  as  I  do,  on  the  south-east 
coast  of  England,  I  take  an  interest  in  this  question  and  lose  no  oppor- 
tunity of  watching  any  fresh  species  that  comes  in  my  way.  The 
wind  here  is  a  great  drawback  to  the  collector  of  Lepidoptera,  but  pos- 
sibly it  is  a  benefactor  as  well.     For  some  years  past  I  have  watched 


214  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

the  gas-lamps  close  to  my  house,  one  of  which  is  conveniently  situ- 
ated under  the  trees  at  my  front  door,  and  early  this  month  I  was 
suprised  to  notice,  inside  a  lamp,  three  or  four  specimens  of  Euchrtia 
jacob(B(B,  an  insect  I  have  never  seen  in  Margate  daring  the  twenty-five 
summers  that  I  have  been  resident  here ;  nor  have  I  heard  of  one 
being  seen  by  any  other  collector — novice  or  otherwise.  I  examined 
ten  or  twelve  gas-lamps,  and  E.  jacoba®  had  found  its  way  into  several 
of  them,  and  in  all  I  saw  about  a  dozen  specimens.  I  may  say  that 
our  gas-lamps  are  fitted  with  incandescent  burners,  so  that  insects 
cannot  well  reach  the  flame,  but  I  should  say  suffer  from  the  heat ; 
and  the  posts  are  not  suitable  for  "swarming."  One  specimen  only 
was  outside  a  lamp,  and  this  I  captured.  Considering  that  there  is 
not  much  ragwort  on  the  outskirts  of  Margate,  I  am  wondering 
whence  these  specimens  came.  The  following  day  we  had  a  drench- 
ing rain  (two  inches  in  a  little  over  the  twenty-four  hours),  and  I  have 
not  seen  another  specimen  since.  I  am  inclined  to  think  the  trains 
may  bring  the  parents  of  visitors  of  this  kind,  as  the  specimens  were 
all  seen  within  a  hundred  yards  of  the  railway,  and  most  of  them 
within  fifty  yards — at  lamps  on  each  side  of  the  railway.  The  wind 
and  rain  have  hindered  entomological  work  very  much  this  June,  but 
on  Thursday  (the  15th  inst.)  we  had  an  ideal  "lamp"  night.  One 
lamp — on  the  railway-bridge — occasionally  attracts  Neuria  saponaria 
(reticulata)  early  in  June ;  on  this  evening  it  produced  six  examples, 
and  the  ironwork  was  well  carpeted  with  Acidalia  promutata  {inargine- 
punctata).  First  broods  were  also  in  evidence  at  other  lamps  :  for 
example,  Aspilates  citraria  (ochrearia),  Agrotis  puta,  and  Acontia  lac- 
tuosa,  besides  a  goodly  number  of  common  species ;  but  I  was  most 
interested  in  the  novelties  which  appeared.  The  first  was  a  shark, 
inside  the  lamp,  so  I  fetched  my  ladder,  and  to  my  satisfaction  it 
proved  a  good  specimen  of  Cucullia  cha  mom  ilia,  and  this  was  followed 
by  Hadena  genista,  also  good,  both  fresh  to  my  local  list.  But  what 
surprised  me  most  of  all,  just  as  I  decided  to  go  to  bed,  was  a  Sphinx, 
in  a  very  wild  state — I  almost  took  it  for  a  bat  at  first.  I  had  the  good 
fortune  to  get  it  in  my  net,  and  it  proved  to  be  a  male  S.  convolvuli.  I 
have  taken  this  insect  once  before  in  June,  at  rest  on  a  post  near  Worth 
Mill,  Sandwich,  but  in  that  year  I  had  no  autumnal  specimens 
brought  to  me.  The  question  arises,  Is  this  specimen  a  migrant,  or 
has  the  pupa  lain  over  for  the  winter  in  this  country  ?  Vanessa  cardui 
has  been  commoner  in  Margate  lately  than  in  ordinary  seasons ;  the 
specimens  are  very  thinly  scaled,  which  also  points  to  migration. — 
J.  P.  Barrett;  St.  John's  Villas,  Margate,  June  18th,  1905. 


CAPTUKES  AND  FIELD  EEPORTS. 

Phtheochroa  (Commophila)  rugosana  in  Surkey. — On  June  2nd, 
1904,  when  walking  over  the  Kenley  downs,  a  small  moth  took  wing 
from  among  the  long  grass,  and  settled  again  a  few  yards  away.  It 
was  ultimately  secured,  and  proved  to  be  a  fine  fresh  example  of 
P.  rugosana.  So  far  as  I  could  ascertain,  there  was  no  bryony,  the 
larval  food-plant,  in  the  immediate  vicinity.  The  only  previous  Surrey 
record  that   I  am   aware   of  is  that  in  the  '  Victoria  History  of  the 


CAPTURES    AND    FIELD    REPORTS.  215 

Counties  of  England,'  vol.  i.  Insecta,  p.  138,  where  it  is  stated  that 
this  species  was  once  taken  by  Mr.  Sydney  Webb  near  Dorking. — 
Richard  South;  96,  Drakefield  Eoad,  Upper  Tooting,  S.W. 

Limacodes  testudo  in  Gloucestershire. — As  I  find  that  Mr.  Barrett 
does  not  mention  this  county  as  a  locality  for  this  species,  it  may  be  of 
interest  to  record  that  a  very  fine  female  example  was  beaten  out  of  an 
oak-tree  on  June  5th  last  near  here  by  the  Rev.  E.  M.  Smith.— C. 
Granville  Clutterbuck  ;  Gloucester. 

Cymatophora  octogesima  (ocularis)  in  Epping  Forest. — It  may  be 
of  interest  to  record  the  capture  of  two  specimens  of  C.  octogesima,  one 
on  the  evening  of  June  30th,  and  the  other  on  the  following  evening 
(July  1st).  I  believe  that  this  species  is  found,  as  far  as  Epping 
Forest  is  concerned,  only  at  the  south  end  of  the  wood,  and  my  two 
were  taken  on  sugar  in  the  garden  at  "  Normanhurst,"  Chingford, 
where  I  am  residing.  I  might  mention  that  I  took  the  female  on 
June  30th,  and,  thinking  that  a  male  might  be  in  the  neighbourhood, 
I  sugared  again  on  the  following  night,  and  was  successful  in  taking  a 
very  good  example  of  that  sex.  I  believe  there  are  few  records  of 
0.  octogesima  having  been  taken  in  Epping  Forest. — R.  T.  Baumann. 

Leucania  favicolor,  Barrett. — A  fine  example  of  this  species  flew 
into  my  room,  attracted  by  the  light,  on  July  4th,  at  10.50  p.m.  An 
example  of  the  red  form,  ab.  rufa,  Tutt,  flew  into  the  same  room,  and 
at  about  the  same  time,  last  September.  Of  the  six  or  seven  individuals 
which  I  have  previously  captured  at  different  times  here,  all  have  been 
ab.  rufa.  I  am  indebted  to  Mr.  Eustace  Bankes  for  having  last  autumn 
first  called  my  attention  to  the  fact  that  I  had  taken  favicolor,  always 
having  supposed  these  red  forms  to  be  a  variety  of  L.  pallens,  and  I 
think  it  quite  probable  that  I  have  hitherto  overlooked  the  type. — 
(Rev.)  A.  P.  Waller  ;  Henley  Rectory,  Woodbridge,  July  19th,  1905. 

Aporia  crat5lgi. — Lovers  of  the  Diurni  will  be  pleased  to  learn 
that  the  present  season  has  been  the  best  I  have  known  for  the  "  black- 
veined  white"  since  I  first  took  it  in  this  corner  of  Kent  in  1901.  On 
June  28th  I  went  prospecting.  This  means  discovering  an  orchard, 
with  a  clover  field  adjoining,  preferably  white  Dutch  clover,  for  the 
combination  of  these  two  things  appears  a  requisite  in  order  to  get 
more  than  a  stray  specimen.  I  was  lucky  enough  to  capture  a  single 
male  specimen  which  had  just  emerged  from  the  chrysalis,  and  was 
quite  limp,  and  which  fell  an  easy  prey  outside  an  orchard  of  big 
plum-trees.  On  July  3rd  (the  first  sunny  day  afterwards)  I  got  to  the 
clover  field  nearest  the  spot,  and  bagged  sixteen.  Rain  and  cloud  kept 
me  at  home  for  several  days,  and  at  my  next  visit  the  clover  had  been 
cut,  and  this  necessitated  a  long  walk  in  the  broiling  sun,  for  the 
"combination"  is  not  common.  However,  I  discovered  another  field, 
where  I  beat  record,  and  secured  twenty-one  specimens.  Again  the 
horse-mower  dogged  my  heels,  and  sport  was  gone.  A  third  spot  was 
discovered,  and  that  field  produced  a  dozen.  I  had  to  make  haste,  for 
the  driver  was  having  his  dinner  preparatory  to  cutting,  in  this  case,  a 
crop  of  mixed  red  clover  and  lucerne.  Last  Monday  I  got  a  few  stray 
specimens,  but  when  I  reached  my  fifty  I  decided  to  leave  the  rest  in 
peace. — J.  P.  Barrett  ;  St.  John's  Villas,  Margate,  July  12th,  1905. 


216  THE    ENTOMOLOGIST. 

SOCIETIES. 

South  London  Entomological  and  Natural  History  Society. — 
June  8th,  1905.  —  Mr.  Hugh  Main,  B.Sc,  President,  in  the  chair. — 
Mr.  Kaye  exhibited  a  bred  series  of  Zonosoma  pendularia,  shewing  con- 
siderable variation,  with  pupa- cases  in  sitti  on  the  leaves,  and  referred 
to  the  variable  position  of  the  girth. — Mr.  West  (Greenwich),  examples 
of  the  rarely  met  with  Coccinella  distincta,  which  he  had  taken  at 
Darenth  Wood,  together  with  Mordeliestina  abdominalis,  a  coleopteron 
parasitic  in  bees'  nests.  —  Mr.  Sich,  the  exceedingly  small  ovum  of 
Lithocolletis  quercifoliella.  —  Mr.  Main,  the  tracheal  tubes  of  the  silk- 
worm, which  had  been  dissected  out  by  means  of  a  solution  of  potash. 
He  also  shewed  a  case  of  insects  from  West  Africa.  —  Mr.  Step,  a 
photograph  of  the  party  who  attended  the  Field  Meeting  at  Seal  Chart 
on  May  27th. 

June  22nd. — Mr.  Alfred  Sich,  F.E.S.,  Vice-President,  in  the  chair. — 
Mr.  Piayward  exhibited  a  larva  of  Thecla  w-album  spun  up  for  pupation, 
and  also  a  pupa,  and  shewed  the  remarkable  mimetic  resemblance  to  a 
crumpled,  shrivelled  leaf.  — ■  Mr.  Turner,  a  long  series  of  Colius  eury- 
tkeme  vars.,  including  var.  eriphyle  and  var.  heewaydin?  sent  to  him  by 
Mr.  A.  J.  Croker,  from  Assiniboia,  and  read  a  short  paper  on  the  spe- 
cies and  its  allies.  He  also  shewed  C.  philodice,  C.  palamo,  C.  erate, 
('.  hyale,  0.  edusa,  C.  electra,  C.  phicomene,  and  Meganostoma  casonia. — 
Mr.  Edwards,  a  number  of  species  of  Colias.  —  Mr.  Stonell,  (1)  a 
specimen  of  Euchelia  jacobcetc  from  Oxshott,  with  the  apical,  hind 
marginal,  and  costal  streaks  united  ;  (2)  a  very  pale  Amorpha  populi ; 
(3)  Angerona  prunaria,  females  with  male  coloration;  (4)  Boarmia 
abietaria  var.  sericearia  ;  (5)  Acidalia  humiliata  from  the  Isle  of  Wight; 
(6)  larvas  of  Nyssia  lapponaria  from  Kannoch  ;  and  (7)  larvae  of  Apatura 
iris  from  North  Hants. — Dr.  Chapman,  larvae  of  Arctia  villica  from  ova 
laid  by  a  female  captured  in  April  at  Taorina,  in  Sicily ;  and  also 
imagines  of  Graellsia  isabellm  bred  from  larvas  taken  at  Bronchales, 
together  with  ova  laid  by  them.  —  Mr.  Adkin  gave  a  short  account  of 
the  Annual  Congress  of  the  S.E.  Union  of  Scientific  Societies  held  at 
Keigate,  June  6th  to  10th. — Hy.  J.  Turner,  Hon.  Bep.  Sec. 

Birmingham  Entomological  Society. — May  15th,  1905. — Mr.  G.  T. 
Bethune-Baker,  President,  in  the  chair. — Mr.  A.  H.  Martineau  exhibited 
a  rare  sawfiy  (Schizocera  furcata,  female),  taken  by  Mr.  C.  J.  Wain- 
wright  in  Wyre  Forest  on  May  26th,  1890.  It  had  been  named  for 
him  by  Bev.  F.  D.  Morice,  who  told  him  that  only  two  specimens  had 
previously  been  known  from  the  British  Isles.  He  also  shewed  a 
specimen  of  Tenthredo  livida,  male,  which  had  only  one  antenna  with 
the  normal  white  tip  to  it,  the  other  being  quite  black.  He  also 
shewed  various  exotic  Aculeates,  &c.  —  Mr.  J.  T.  Fountain  shewed  a 
series  of  Biston  hirtaria,  CI.,  bred  from  ova  received  from  Yorkshire. 
He  said  that  the  females  were  decidedly  later  than  the  males  in 
emerging  (about  ten  days  on  the  average).  He  also  shewed  a  beautiful 
series  of  Dianthcecia  cdbimacula,  Bkh.,  from  a  locality  he  could  not 
mention.  —  Mr.  G.  T.  Bethune-Baker  exhibited  a  collection  of  butter- 
flies of  the  genus  Ogyris  from  the  Australian  region,  and  gave  an 
interesting  account  of  their  peculiar  life-history,  their  association  with 
ants,  &c. — Colbkan  J.  Wainweight,  Hon.  Sec. 


WATKINS     &     DONCASl'jiR, 

Naturalists  and  Manufacturers  of  Entomological  Apparatus  and  Cabinets. 

Plain  Uiug  Nets,  wire  or  ciiue,  including  Stick,  Is.  3d.,  2s.,  2b.  Gd.  Folding  Nets, 
3s.6-l.,  4s.  Umbrella  Nets  (Kelf-acting),  7s.  Pocket  Boxes,  (>d.,  9d.,  Is.,  Is.  6d. 
Ziuo  llelaxiug  Boxes,  9d.,  16.,  Is.  6d.,  2s.  Nested  Chip  Boxes,  7d.  per  four  dozen. 
^Entomological  Pins,  assorted  or  mixed,  Is.,  Is.  6d.  per  oz.  Pocket  Lanterns,  2s.  6d. 
to  8s.  Sugaring  Tin,  with  brush,  Is.  6d.,  2s.  Sugaring  Mixture,  ready  for  use, 
Is.  9^1.  per  tin.  Store  Boxes,  with  camphor  cells,  2s.  6d.,  4s.,  5s.,  6s.  Setting 
Boards,  fiat  or  oval,  1  in.,  6d. ;  1  i  in.,  8d. ;  2  in.,  10d. ;  2£  in.,  Is. ;  3$  in.,  Is.  4d. ; 
4  in.,  Is.  6d. ;  5  in.,  Is.  lOd. ;  Complete  Set  of  fourteen  Boards,  10s.  6d.  Setting 
Houses,  9s.  6d.,  lis.  6d. ;  corked  back,  14s.  Zinc  Larva  Boxes,  9d.,  Is.,  Is.  6d. 
Breeding  Cage,  2s.  6d.,  4s.,  5s.,  7s.  6d.  Ooleopterist's  Collecting  Bottle,  with  tube, 
is.  6d.,  Is.  8d.  Botanical  Cases,  japanned,  double  tin,  ls.6d.,  2s.  9d.,  3s.  6d.,  4s.  6d. 
Botanical  Paper,  Is.  Id.,  Is.  4d.,  Is.  9d.,  2s.  2d.,  per  (juire.  Insect  Glazed  Cases, 
2s.  6d.  to  lis.  Cement  for  replacing  Antennae,  4d.  per  bottle.  Steel  Forceps, 
Is.  6d.,  2s.,  2s.  6d.  per  pair.  Cabinet  Cork,  7by3i,  best  quality,  ls.4d.  per  dozen 
sheets.  Brass  Chloroform  Bottle,  2s.  6d.  Insect  Lens,  Is.  to  8s.  Glass-top  and 
Glass-bottomed  Boxes  from  Is.  per  dozeu.  Zinc  Killing  Box,  9d.,  Is.  Pupa 
Digger,  in  leather  sheath,  Is.  9d.  Taxidermist's  Compauiou,  containing  most 
neoessary  implements  for  skinning,  10s.  6d.  Scalpels,  Is.  3d.  ;  Scissors,  2s.  per 
pair;  Egg-drills,  2d.,  3d.,  9d;  Blowpipes,  4d.,  6d. ;  Artificial  Eyes  for  Birds  and 
Animals  ;  Label-lists  of  British  Butterflies,  2d. ;  ditto  of  Birds'  Eggs,  2d.,  3d.,  6d. ; 
ditto  of  Land  and  Fresh-water  Shells,  2d. ;   Useful  Books  on  Insects,  Eggs,  &c. 

The  WAND  TELESCOPIC  NET— An  innovation  in  Butterfly  Nets.— We  beg 
to  call  your  attention  to  our  new  Telescopic  Handle  for  Butterfly  Nets.  It  is 
inade  entirely  in  brass,  and  is  light  and  strong;  and  moreover  it  can  be  shut  up  to 
carry  in  small  compass,  A  very  compact  pattern,  effecting  great  saving  of  weight 
and  bulk.  Prices. — With  two  joints,  8s.  6d. ;  with  thre°  joints,  9s.  6d. ;  with  four 
joints,  10s.  0d.  Complete  with  improved  Cane  Folding  Ring,  and  Bag.  We  shall 
be  pleased  to  send  on  approval. 

SHOW       ROOM       FOR      CABINETS 

Of  every  description  for  Insects,  Birds'  Eggs,  Coins,  Microscopioai.  Objects, 
Fossils,  <&c.     Catalogue  (96  pp.)  sent  on  application,  post  free. 

A    LARGE     STOCK    OF    INSECTS    AND    BIRDS'    EGGS 

(BRITISH,    EUROPEAN,     AND     KXOTIC). 

Birds,  Mammals,  J;c.,  Preserved  and  Mounted  by  First-class  Workmen. 

Only  Address  : — 

86  STRAND,  W.C.,  LONDON  (5  doors  from  Charing  Ouobh). 


HERBERT    W.    MARSDEN, 

NATURAL     HISTORY     AGENT     AND     BOOKSELLER, 
40,    TRIANGLE   West,  CLIFTON,  BRISTOL. 

Moderate  Prices. 

Cabinets  and  Apparatus  for  Entomologists,  Oologists,  Ornithologists.  Botanists,  Ac. 
Botanical  Cases,  Drying  Paper,  Ac— British  &  Exotic  Shells. 
The  most  reliable  Stock  of  BIRDS'  SKINS  and  BIRDS'  EGGS  in  Britain. 
New  and  Second-hand  Books. — Exchange  and  Label  Lists. 
Ornithological  Catalogue,  1905,  now  ready;  also  Shell  Catalogue. 
M.B. — Mr    Marsden's  large  Stock  of  Insects  has  now  been  made  up  into  numerous 
iuseful  lots;  also  many  lots  of  Birds'  Skins  and  Eggs,  all  of  which  are  offered  at  excep- 
tionally low  prices.    Lists  on  application. 

OVA,     LARV/E,     AND     PUP/E. 

A  Large  Assortment  always  on  hand.     Send  for  Price  List  to 

H.   W.    HEAD,    Entomologist,    SCARBOROUGH, 

The  Largest  Breeder  of  LEPIDOPTERA  in  the  British  Isles. 
Full   List   of  LEPIDOPTERA,  Apparatus,  Cabinets,  &c,  sent  on   application. 


CONTENTS. 

Description  of  Lycaena  avion  Pupa,  male  (with  illustration),  F.  W.  Ffohawk,  193. 
Description  of  a  New  Species  of  Aradidae  from  Ceylon,  W.  L.  Distant,  194. 
Current  Notes  (continued),  G.  W.  Kirkaldy,  195.  A  List  of  the  "  Macro- 
Lepidoptera"  of  Lancaster  and  District  (concluded),  C.  H.  Forsythe,  199.  The 
Lepidoptera  of  Berlin,  E.  M.  Dadd,  200. 

Notes  and  Observations. — University  of  Oxford  and  Entomology,  H.  R.  B.,  213. 
Phalonia  (Argyrolepia)  badiana,  Hb.,  T.  A.  Chapman,  213.  Ova  of  British 
Butterflies  Wanted,  Richard  South,  213.  The  National  Collection  of  British 
Lepidoptera,  213.  The  Entomological  Club,  213.  Migration  of  Lepidoptera. 
J.  P.  Barrett,  213. 

Captures  and  Field  Reports. — Phtheochroa  (Commophila)  rugosana  in  Surrey, 
Richard  South,  214.  Limacodes  testudo  in  Gloucestershire,  215.  Cymato- 
phora  octogesima  (ocularis)  in  Epping  Forest,  R.  T.  Baumann,  215.  Leucania 
favicolor,  Barrett,  Rev.  A.  P.  Waller,  215.     Aporia  crataegi,  J.  P.  Barrett,  215. 

Societies,  216. 


DR.  STAUDINGER  &  BANQ  =  HAA5,  Blasewitz- Dresden,  in  their 
new  Price  List,  No.  XLVIII.  for  1905,  offer  more  than  16,000  Species  of 
well-named  LEPIDOPTERA,  set  or  in  papers,  from  all  parts  of  the  world,  in 
finest  condition;  1400  kinds  of  PREPARED  LARViE ;  numerous  LIVING 
PUP/E,  &c.  Separate  Price  Lists  for  COLEOPTERA  (22,000  species),  for, 
HYMENOPTERA  (3200  species),  DIPTERA  (2400),  HEMIPTERA  ^2200), 
ORTHOPTERA  (1100),  NEUROPTERA  (600),  BIOLOGICAL  OBJECTS  (265). 
Discount  for  Cash-orders.     Prices  low. 

FOR  SALE — Extensive  Collections  of  Exotic  Lepidoptera, 
Coleoptera,  &c,  correctly  named.  Type  collections  at  very  moderate 
prices.  Many  lots  and  centuries  at  exceptionally  low  prices.  Lists  on 
application.     Particulars  from — 

A.  GRUBERT,  Turmstrasse  37,  Berlin  N.W.21,  Germany. 
First  class  and  showy  Tropical  Butterflies  and  Beetles  wanted  in  large 
quantities.     Quote  prices  per.  hundred  in  Marks. 

A.     LIONEL     CLARKE, 

NATURAL-HISTORY  AGENT,  STROUD  ROAD,  GLOUCESTER. 

(02)posite  Post  Office.) 

SUPPLIES  Collectors  with  every  kind  of  apparatus  for  the  various  branches  of 
Natural  History  :  Cabinets.  Store  Boxes,  Butterfly  Nets,  Ac. 
BIRDS'  EGGS,'   SKINS,    LEPIDOPTERA  and   COLEOPTERA,  &c,  kept 
in  stock  in  large  quantities. 

The  largest  stock  of  Eggs  in  England  to  select  from,  including  many  very  rartt 

species.     List  of  clutches  sent  if  desired.     Large  buyers  liberally  dealt  with. 

Revised  List  of  British  Lepidoptera,  noiu  ready,  post  free. 

NEW    AND    SECOND-HAND    BOOKS. 

Taxidermy.  Birds  skinned  and  prepared  for  Cabinets  or  mounted  by  skil  led  assistants 

Full  general  Catalogue  aud  Special  List  of  Eggs  and  Skins,  post  free. 

N.B. — No  agents,  and  only  one  address  as  above. 

JAMES     GARDNER,  i 

MANUFACTURER  of  ALL  KINDS  of  ENTOMOLOGICAL  APPARATUS 

29  (late  426),  OXFOKD    STREET 
(Nearly    opposite    Tottenham    Court    Road). 

PRICED   LISTS    ON    APPLICATION. 

All  Articles  Guaranteed ;  exchanged  if  not  approved  of.     Friends  and  Customers 
■are  requested  to  note  the  Address,  as  mistakes  occur  daily. 


Subscription  6s.,  post  free,  including  double  numbers,  should  be  sent  to 

West,  Newman  &  Co. 


Vol.    XXXVIII.]    SEPTEMBER,   1905.  [No.  508. 


THE 


ENTOMOLOGIST 


Illustrate  |  ounutl 


GENERAL    ENTOMOLOGY. 


EDITED     BY     RICHARD     SOUTH,     F.E.S. 

WITH    THE    ASSISTANCE    OF 

ROBERT   ADKIN,  F.E.S.  W.  F.  KIRBY,  F.L.S.,  F.E.S. 

W.  L.  DISTANT,  F.E.S.,  Ac.  G.  W.  KIRKALDY,  F.E.S. 

EDWARD  A.  FITCH,  F.L.S.,  F.E.S.    [    W.  J.  LUCAS,  B.A.,  F.E.S. 
F.  W.FROHAWK,  F.E.S.,  M.B.O.U.   i   Dr.  D.  SHARP,  F.R.S.,  F.E.S.,  &c. 
MARTIN  JACOBY,  F.E.S.  !   G.  H.  VERRALL,  F.E.S. 

"By  mutual  confidence  and  mutual  aid 
Great  deeds  are  done  and  great  discoveries  made." 


/ 


LONDON: 

WEST,    NEWMAN    &    CO.,    54,    HATTON    GAEDEN ; 
SIMPK1N,   MARSHALL,    HAMILTON,   KENT   &   CO.,    Limited. 

Price  Sixpence. 


J.   &   W.    DAVIS.(-™0"-'MV.V) 

MANUFACTURERS     OF     ENTOMOLOGICAL    APPARATUS    AND 
NATURALISTS'   REQUISITES,  &c, 

31  &  33,  Hythe  Street,  DARTFORD,  Kent. 

Telegrams:    "  DAVIS,  NATURALISTS,  DARTFORD."  National  Telephone  :    "108  DARTFORD." 

LOCALITY      LABELS. 

2/6  per  1,000.     4  to  10  sorts,  equal  numbers,  any  wording,  see  specimens  below: — 

Smith,  Smith,  Smith,  Smith, 

Darenth  Wood.  New  Forest.  Kent.  Bunnoch. 

wo    "  mo  190   .  190 

Neatly  printed  similar  to  the  above.      Wc  have  supplied  these  Labels  to  Entomologists  in  all  parts  of  Great 

Britain. 

•Data"   Blanks  for  Plants,   Birds'  Eggs,  Nests,  and  Skins,   from  Sd.  per  100 
♦Data"  Labels,  with  Collector's  Name  and   Locality  printed  in,  from  1/6  per  100 

"  Data"  Books  for  Entomological  Collection,  printed  headings,  Is.;  post  3d. 

Ditto,  for  Ornithological  Collection,  Is. ;  post  3d. 

50  British  Butterflies,  all  different,  named.  5s.  Setting-house,  good  condition,  6s.  6d. 
Larvae  Collector's  Guide  and  Calendar,  Illustrated,  Is.  Birdstuffing  and  Mounting. 
Illustrated,  Is.    Animal,  Fish,  and  Reptile  Stuffing,  Illustrated,  Is.  6d.    Label  List, 

British  Macro-Lepidoptera,  6d. 
Naturalists'  Diary  and  Year  Book,  Is.    Our  Country's  Butterflies  and  Moths,  1000 

Coloured  Specimens,  6s. 

BRITISH  LEP1DOPTERA.— New  Price  List,  with  discounts,  free. 

ENTOMOLOGICAL  APPARATUS.  —  Net  and  Stick,  Is.  3d.  3-joint  Net, 
3s.  Od. ;  4-joint,  4s.  Pocket  Boxes,  (id.  and  Is.  Green  Leno,  4d.  per  yard.  Chip  Boxes, 
4  doz.  7d.,  Is.  <id.  per  gross.  Setting  Boards,  Oval,  1  in.  Gd.,  1J  in.  8d.,  2  in.  10d.,  24  in. 
Is.,  3  in.  Is.  2d.;  3  J  in.  Is.  4d.  Entomological  Pins,  mixed,  6d.  and  Is.  per  box.  "Sure- 
death"  Killing  Fluid,  Gd.  per  bottle.  Sugaring  Mixture,  $  lb.  tin,  8d.  (mixed  with  Pear 
Essence).  Forceps,  Is.  Gd.  Cork  Lining  for  Cabinet  Drawers  or  Store  Boxes,  5d.  per 
square  toot.  Larvae  Preserving  Apparatus,  5s.  Store  Boxes  with  Camphor  Cells, 
10  x  8  in.,  2s.  Gd. ;  14  x  10  in.,  4s. ;  16  x  11  in.,  us. ;  17 £  x  12  in.,  Gs.  Our  New  and 
Comprehensive  Illustrated  Catalogue,  2d.,  post  free,  Entomological  "Data"  Books, 
strongly  bound,  Is.     12-drawer  Insect  Cabinet.  XI  7s.  Gd. 

GENUINE     BRITISH     "WILD"    STOCK. 

CHEAPEST  HOUSE  IN  THE  TRADE. 

Ev